Doctor Stephen Vincent Strange is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist Steve Ditko and writer Stan Lee, the character first appeared in Strange Tales #110. Doctor Strange serves as the Sorcerer Supreme, the primary protector of Earth against magical and mystical threats. Inspired by stories of black magic and Chandu the Magician, Strange was created during the Silver Age of Comic Books to bring a different kind of character and themes of mysticism to Marvel Comics; the character's origin story indicates. After a car accident damages his hands and hinders his ability to perform surgery, he searches the globe for a way to repair them and encounters the Ancient One. After becoming one of the old Sorcerer Supreme's students, he becomes a practitioner of both the mystical arts and the martial arts, he has a suit consisting of two main relics, the Cloak of Levitation and the Eye of Agamotto, which give him added powers. Strange is aided along the way by his friend and valet, a large assortment of mystical objects.
He takes up residence in a mansion called the Sanctum Sanctorum, located in New York City. Strange takes the title of Sorcerer Supreme to help to defend the world against future threats. In 2008, Doctor Strange was ranked 83rd in Wizard's "200 Greatest Comic Book Characters of All Time" list, in 2012 was ranked 33rd in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers", he was ranked 38th on IGN's list of "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". The character was first portrayed in live-action by Peter Hooten in the 1978 television film Dr. Strange. Benedict Cumberbatch stars as the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, first appearing in the role in the 2016 film Doctor Strange, he reprised the role in the 2017 film Thor: Ragnarok, the 2018 film Avengers: Infinity War, will return in Avengers: Endgame in 2019. Artist Steve Ditko and writer Stan Lee have described the character as having been the idea of Ditko, who wrote in 2008, "On my own, I brought in to Lee a five-page, penciled story with a page/panel script of my idea of a new, different kind of character for variety in Marvel Comics.
My character wound up being named Dr. Strange because he would appear in Strange Tales." In a 1963 letter to Jerry Bails, Lee called the character Ditko's idea, saying: Well, we have a new character in the works for Strange Tales Steve Ditko is gonna draw him. It has sort of a black magic theme; the first story is nothing great, but we can make something of him--'twas Steve's idea and I figured we'd give it a chance, although again, we had to rush the first one too much. Little sidelight: Originally decided to call him Mr. Strange, but thought the "Mr." bit too similar to Mr. Fantastic -- now, however, I remember we had a villain called Dr. Strange just in one of our mags, hope it won't be too confusing! Doctor Strange debuted in Strange Tales #110, a split book shared with the feature "The Human Torch". Doctor Strange appeared in issues #110–111 and #114 before the character's eight-page origin story in #115. Scripter Lee's take on the character was inspired by the Chandu the Magician radio program that aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System in the 1930s.
He had Doctor Strange accompany spells with elaborate artifacts, such as the "Eye of Agamotto", the "Wand of Watoomb", "Hoary Hosts of Hoggoth". Ditko showcased surrealistic mystical landscapes and vivid visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of college students at the time. Comics historian Mike Benton wrote: The Dr. Strange stories of the 1960s constructed a cohesive cosmology that would have thrilled any self-respecting theosophist. College students, minds freshly opened by psychedelic experiences and Eastern mysticism, read Ditko and Lee's Dr. Strange stories with the belief of a recent Hare Krishna convert. Meaning was everywhere, readers analyzed the Dr. Strange stories for their relationship to Egyptian myths, Sumerian gods, Jungian archetypes. "People who read Doctor Strange thought people at Marvel must be heads," recalled then-associate editor and former Doctor Strange writer Roy Thomas in 1971, "because they had had similar experiences high on mushrooms. But I don't use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do."Originating in the early 1960s, the character was a predictor of counter-cultural trends in art prior to them becoming more established in the 1960s.
As historian Bradford W. Wright described: Steve Ditko contributed some of his most surrealistic work to the comic book and gave it a disorienting, hallucinogenic quality. Dr. Strange's adventures take place in bizarre worlds and twisting dimensions that resembled Salvador Dalí paintings. Inspired by the pulp-fiction magicians of Stan Lee's childhood as well as by contemporary Beat culture, Dr. Strange remarkably predicted the youth counterculture's fascination with Eastern mysticism and psychedelia. Never among Marvel's more popular or accessible characters, Dr. Strange still found a niche among an audience seeking a challenging alternative to more conventional superhero fare; as co-plotter and sole plotter in the Marvel Method, Ditko took Strange into ever-more-abstract realms. In a 17-issue story arc in Strange Tales #130-146, Ditko introduced the cosmic character Eternity, who personified the universe and was depicted as a silhouette filled with the cosmos. Golden Age artist/writer Bill Everett succeeded Ditko as artist with issues #147-152
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
The Amazing Spider-Man 2
The Amazing Spider-Man 2 is a 2014 American superhero film featuring the Marvel Comics character Spider-Man. The film was produced by Avi Arad and Matt Tolmach, it is the fifth theatrical Spider-Man film produced by Columbia Pictures and Marvel Entertainment, is the sequel to 2012's The Amazing Spider-Man. It is the second and final film in The Amazing Spider-Man duology; the studio hired James Vanderbilt to write the screenplay and Alex Kurtzman and Roberto Orci to rewrite it. The film stars Andrew Garfield as Peter Parker / Spider-Man, alongside Emma Stone, Jamie Foxx, Dane DeHaan, Campbell Scott, Embeth Davidtz, Colm Feore, Paul Giamatti and Sally Field. Development of The Amazing Spider-Man 2 began after the success of The Amazing Spider-Man. DeHaan, Giamatti and Cooper were cast between December 2012 and February 2013. Filming took place in New York City from February to June 2013; the film was released in 2D, 3D, IMAX 3D on May 2, 2014, in the United States with two international premieres being held between March 31 and April 10 of that year.
It received mixed reviews from critics and audiences and grossed $709 million worldwide, making it the ninth-highest-grossing film of 2014 but the lowest-grossing Spider-Man film. The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was envisioned as the beginning of a shared fictional universe, which would have continued with two sequels and several spin-offs, most notably films centered on Venom and the Sinister Six. Due to its performing below expectations, all subsequent installments were cancelled and a new iteration of the character, portrayed by Tom Holland in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, began with the 2016 film Captain America: Civil War. OsCorp scientist Richard Parker records a video message to explain his disappearance, he and his wife, are aboard a private jet hijacked by an assassin sent to kill Richard and his wife. Richard and Mary fight off the man, but the ensuing struggle causes the plane to crash, killing them both, after he uploads the video. Years Richard's son, continues to fight crime as Spider-Man in the present day.
He saves Max Dillion before a taxi hits him. Peter meets with his girlfriend Gwen Stacy at their high school graduation ceremony and, insisting he keep his vow to her late father, ends their relationship. Peter's childhood friend, Harry Osborn, returns to Manhattan to see his terminally-ill father, Norman, CEO of OsCorp. Norman explains his illness is genetic, Harry is at the age where it first develops. Norman gives Harry a small device he claims contains his life's work; the next day, Norman dies, Harry is appointed the new OsCorp CEO. While working in an OsCorp laboratory, Max inadvertently shocks himself and falls into a tank of genetically-engineered electric eels, they attack him, he mutates into an organic electric generator. Meanwhile, Peter attempts to maintain a friendship with Gwen, but she reveals that she may move to England for schooling. Before they can discuss it, Dillon wanders into Times Square, accidentally causing a blackout, is apprehended by Spider-Man after a battle. Dillon is taken to the Ravencroft Institute.
Meanwhile, the first symptoms of Harry's illness are showing, he uses the device Norman gave him to deduce that Spider-Man's blood could help save him. He asks Peter, selling photos of Spider-Man to the Daily Bugle, to aid him in finding Spider-Man. Peter refuses. Although he comes to Harry as Spider-Man, he still refuses, Harry becomes resentful towards Spider-Man. OsCorp vice-president Donald Menken frames Harry for covering up Dillon's accident, removes him as CEO and takes control of Oscorp. Harry's assistant, Felicia Hardy, informs him of equipment that could help him, so he makes a deal with Dillon, who now calls himself "Electro," to get him back inside the OsCorp building. There he finds a suit of armor and other equipment made by Norman, as well as venom from the now-destroyed genetically-altered spiders; the venom accelerates Harry's illness, transforms him into a goblin-like creature, but the suit's built-in emergency protocol restores his health and keeps the transformation from killing him.
Peter uses information left by his father to locate the video message in an abandoned subway station's hidden lab. Richard explains that he had to leave because he refused to cooperate with Norman's plans to make biogenetic weapons. Peter hears a voicemail from Gwen, telling him that she was offered the British scholarship for studying medicine at Somerville College, University of Oxford, is heading to the airport earlier than expected, he catches her and professes his love for her, they agree to go to England together. Electro causes another blackout, Peter heads off to battle him as Spider-Man. Gwen follows, together, they restore power, overload Electro's body, causing it to explode and kill him; the transformed Harry, who has now gone insane, arrives equipped with Norman's weaponry. Upon seeing Gwen, he deduces Spider-Man's secret identity and, swearing revenge for being refused the blood transfusion, kidnaps her and takes her to the top of a clock tower. Spider-Man defeats Harry. Mourning her death, the depressed Peter ends his career as Spider-Man.
Five months Harry is coping with the aftereffects of his transformation while incarcerated at Ravencroft. His associate, Gustav Fiers, visits the pair discuss forming their own team. Harry orders Fiers to start with Sytsevich. An unknown team of men break Sytsevich out of p
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Aquaman is a 2018 American superhero film based on the DC Comics character Aquaman and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is the sixth installment in the DC Extended Universe. The film is directed by James Wan, with a screenplay by David Leslie Johnson-McGoldrick and Will Beall, is based on a story by Geoff Johns and Beall, it stars Jason Momoa as the title character, with Amber Heard, Willem Dafoe, Patrick Wilson, Dolph Lundgren, Yahya Abdul-Mateen II, Nicole Kidman in supporting roles. It is the third live-action theatrical film featuring Aquaman, following Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and Justice League, the first full-length feature film centered around the character. In Aquaman, the titular character learns he is the heir to the underwater kingdom of Atlantis and must step forward to lead his people against his half-brother, who seeks to unite the seven underwater kingdoms against the surface world. Development of an Aquaman film began with several plans falling through over the years.
In August 2014, Beall and Kurt Johnstad were hired to write two competing scripts and the film was announced in October 2014. Wan signed on as director in April 2015 and in July 2016 it was announced that the film would move forward with Beall's screenplay, although Wan, Johnstad and Johnson-McGoldrick all performed various rewrites; the main cast was confirmed through 2016 and early 2017. Principal photography began in Australia on May 2, 2017. Most of the film was shot at Village Roadshow Studios in Gold Coast, with production held in Canada and Morocco. Filming wrapped on October 21, 2017. Aquaman had its world premiere in London on November 26, 2018, was released in the United States in Real D 3D, Dolby Cinema, IMAX and IMAX 3D formats on December 21, 2018; the film grossed over $1.1 billion worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing DCEU film as well as the highest-grossing film based on a DC Comics character, surpassing The Dark Knight Rises. It received praise from critics for its adventurous tone, the performances and Wan's direction, but criticism for its dialogue, 143 minute runtime, convoluted plot.
An untitled sequel is set for release on December 16, 2022 and a spin-off, The Trench, is in development. In 1985 Maine, lighthouse keeper Thomas Curry rescues Atlanna, the queen of the underwater nation of Atlantis, during a storm, they fall in love and have a son named Arthur, born with the power to communicate with marine lifeforms. Atlanna is forced to abandon her family and return to Atlantis, entrusting to her advisor, Nuidis Vulko, with the mission of training Arthur. Under Vulko's guidance, Arthur becomes a skilled warrior but rejects Atlantis upon learning that Atlanna was executed for having a half-breed son. In the present, several months after Steppenwolf's invasion, Arthur confronts a group of pirates attempting to hijack a Russian Naval Akula-class submarine, their leader, Jesse Kane, dies during the confrontation while his son, vows revenge. Meanwhile Orm, King of Atlantis and Arthur's half-brother, attempts to convince King Nereus of Xebel to help him unite Atlantis and attack the surface world for harming the oceans.
Nereus points out that if Orm succeeds in uniting Atlantis he will receive the title of Ocean Master, commander of the most powerful force on the planet. Their meeting is interrupted when another Russian Akula submarine attacks the meeting place in retaliation for the previous submarine's sinking. Orm succeeds in destroying it and the attack convinces Nereus to join forces with Orm to defend the oceans, he swears allegiance to Orm's cause, but his daughter Mera, betrothed to Orm, refuses to aid them and journeys to the surface to ask Arthur for help, earning his trust by saving Thomas from a tsunami sent by Orm. Arthur reluctantly accompanies Mera to a rendezvous with Vulko, who urges Arthur to find the Trident of Atlan, a magic artifact that once belonged to Atlantis' first ruler, in order to reclaim his rightful place as king, they are ambushed by Orm's men and Mera and Vulko escape without having been seen, while Arthur is captured. Arthur is presented before Orm, who blames Arthur and the surface for Atlanna's death.
He offers Arthur an opportunity to leave forever, but Arthur instead challenges him to a duel in a ring of underwater lava. Orm nearly kills Arthur before Mera rescues him. Together and Mera journey to the Sahara desert where the trident was forged and unlock a holographic message that leads them to Sicily, where they retrieve the trident's coordinates. Meanwhile, Orm meets David, revealing that the submarine that had attacked them was in fact the same one David hijacked and that Orm had hired him to hijack the Russian nuclear submarine and so he could stage a false flag attack from surface, making it seem like Orm's cause for war is justified and causing King Nereus to side with him. Orm provides David with a prototype Atlantean battle suit to kill Arthur, imprisons Vulko after revealing knowledge of his betrayal, coerces the Atlantean Kingdom of the Fishermen to pledge their allegiance to him and his campaign against the surface. After modifying Orm's technology, a armored David rechristens himself as Black Manta and ambushes Arthur and Mera in Sicily, grievously injuring Arthur before being thrown off a cliff to his apparent death.
Mera nurses Arthur's wounds as they journey to the trident's whereabouts, encourages him to embrace his destiny as a hero. Arriving at their destination and Mera are attacked by the amphibious monsters called the Trench, but manage to fend them off and reach a wormhole that transports them
Pixar is an American computer animation film studio based in Emeryville, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company. Pixar began in 1979 as the Graphics Group, part of the Lucasfilm computer division, before its spin-out as a corporation in 1986, with funding by Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Jobs, who became the majority shareholder. Disney purchased Pixar in 2006 at a valuation of $7.4 billion by converting each share of Pixar stock to 2.3 shares of Disney stock, a transaction that resulted in Jobs becoming Disney's largest single shareholder at the time. Pixar is best known for CGI-animated feature films created with RenderMan, Pixar's own implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan image-rendering application programming interface, used to generate high-quality images. Pixar has produced 20 feature films, beginning with Toy Story, the first-ever computer-animated feature film. All of the studio's films have debuted with CinemaScore ratings of at least an "A−," indicating positive receptions with audiences.
The studio has produced dozens of short films. As of August 2018, its feature films have earned $13 billion at the worldwide box office, with an average worldwide gross of $659.7 million per film. Finding Nemo, along with its sequel Finding Dory, as well as Toy Story 3 and Incredibles 2 are among the 50 highest-grossing films of all time, with the latter being the second-highest-grossing animated film of all time with a gross of $1.2 billion. Fifteen of Pixar's films are among the 50 highest-grossing animated films of all time; the studio has earned 19 Academy Awards, 8 Golden Globe Awards, 11 Grammy Awards, among many other awards and acknowledgments. Many of Pixar's films have been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature since its inauguration in 2001, with nine winning. Monsters, Inc. Cars, Incredibles 2 are the only three films that were nominated for the award without winning it, while Cars 2, Monsters University, The Good Dinosaur, Finding Dory, Cars 3 were not nominated.
Up and Toy Story 3 were the respective second and third animated films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first being Walt Disney Animation Studios' Beauty and the Beast. Luxo Jr. a character from the studio's 1986 short film of the same name, is the studio's mascot. On September 6, 2009, Pixar executives John Lasseter, Brad Bird, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton, Lee Unkrich were presented with the Golden Lion award for Lifetime Achievement by the Venice Film Festival; the award was given to Lucasfilm's founder George Lucas. Pixar got its start in 1974 when New York Institute of Technology's founder Alexander Schure, the owner of a traditional animation studio, established the Computer Graphics Lab, recruited computer scientists who shared his ambitions about creating the world's first computer-animated film. Edwin Catmull and Malcolm Blanchard were the first to be hired and were soon joined by Alvy Ray Smith and David DiFrancesco some months which were the four original members of the Computer Graphics Lab.
Schure kept pouring money into the computer graphics lab, an estimated $15 million, giving the group everything they desired and driving NYIT into serious financial troubles. The group realized they needed to work in a real film studio in order to reach their goal. Francis Ford Coppola invited Smith to his house for a three-day media conference, where Coppola and George Lucas shared their visions for the future of digital moviemaking; when Lucas approached them and offered them a job at his studio, six employees decided to move over to Lucasfilm. During the following months, they resigned from CGL, found temporary jobs for about a year to avoid making Schure suspicious, before they joined The Graphics Group at Lucasfilm; the Graphics Group, one-third of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm, was launched in 1979 with the hiring of Catmull from NYIT, where he was in charge of the Computer Graphics Lab. He was reunited with Smith, who made the journey from NYIT to Lucasfilm, was made the director of The Graphics Group.
At NYIT, the researchers pioneered many of the CG foundation techniques—in particular the invention of the alpha channel. Years the CGL produced a few frames of an experimental film called The Works. After moving to Lucasfilm, the team worked on creating the precursor to RenderMan, called REYES and developed a number of critical technologies for CG—including "particle effects" and various animation tools. In 1982, the team began working on special effects film sequences with Industrial Magic. After years of research, key milestones such as the Genesis Effect in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and the Stained Glass Knight in Young Sherlock Holmes, the group, which numbered 40 individuals, was spun out as a corporation in February 1986 by Catmull and Smith. Among the 38 remaining employees, there were Malcolm Blanchard, David DiFrancesco, Ralph Guggenheim, Bill Reeves, part of the team since the days of NYIT. Tom Duff an NYIT member, would join Pixar after its formation. With Lucas' 1983 divorce, which coincided with the sudden dropoff in revenues from Star Wars licenses following the release of Return of the Jedi, they knew he would most sell the whole Graphics Group.
Worried that the
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam