Axe Edge Moor
Axe Edge Moor is the major moorland southwest of Buxton in the Peak District. It is gritstone, its highest point is at grid reference SK035706. This is lower than Shining Tor; the moor is the source of River Manifold, River Dane, River Wye and River Goyt. It boasts England's second-highest public house; the moor is shared between the counties of Derbyshire and Cheshire, which meet on its southwestern flank at Three Shire Heads on the Dane. The Axe Edge itself is on the southeastern edge, near the source of the Dove
Tegg's Nose is a hill east of Macclesfield in Cheshire, England. It has a short ridge with a high point of 380 metres at SJ947725, terminating in a promontory at the southern end, it lies on the western edge of the Peak District, although outside the boundary of the national park. Much of the hill's area falls within the Tegg's Nose Country Park, managed by Cheshire East Council Countryside Management Service. Quarried for millstone grit, Tegg's Nose now includes a range of environments including moorland, farmland, broadleaved woodland and is rich in wildlife. Recreational uses of the area include walking, horse riding, fell running, mountain biking, rock climbing and fishing. Called "Tegge's Naze", "Tegge" might have been the name of an early Norse settler or might refer to a sheep, while "nose" refers to the southern promontory; the area is believed to have been occupied during the Bronze Age, there is a Bronze Age barrow near High Low Farm south of Tegg's Nose. After the Norman Conquest it formed part of the Royal Forest of Macclesfield, a hunting reserve owned by the Earls of Chester.
The hill was quarried for millstone grit from the 16th century until 1955. There were two quarries, one by the northern viewpoint at Windyway producing a blue stone, the other near the Tegg's Nose summit producing Tegg's Nose Pink. Quarrying was by hand, giving a high-quality product used for buildings, kerbs and cobbles, used as far afield as the Isle of Man. Blasting was introduced in the 1930s, producing crushed stone for roads and airfields, during the Second World War, rock for runways was extracted using pneumatic drills. A collection of historical quarrying equipment is preserved within the Country Park, including a jaw crusher, crane and a stone saw, powered by a steam engine. There is evidence of a railway track around the disused summit quarry. There is evidence of a bomb crater at the bottom of Teggsnose caused by a German bomber during WW2 which can be seen from the summit The Bottoms and Teggsnose reservoirs were constructed in 1850 and 1871 to regulate the flow of the River Bollin feeding the textile mills of Macclesfield and Langley, which once had five water-powered silk mills.
The nearby Ridgegate Reservoir to the east was constructed at a similar time to provide drinking water for Macclesfield, with Trentabank Reservoir following in the 1920s. Much of the area is a mixture of moorland and meadows; the moorland is dominated by wood sage and bilberry, while the meadows support a range of wild flowers including mountain pansy and harebell. At lower elevations, gorse and hawthorn appear; the broadleaved Teggsnose Wood covers the southern part of the hill, with oak, hornbeam and mountain ash. Birds observed in the area include woodpeckers, flycatchers, tree creepers, tits, warblers and ravens, as well as various waterfowl on the reservoirs including grebes and tufted ducks; the area is grazed in summer by Angus Cross cattle from a farm in Langley. At the base of the hill to the south lie the small Bottoms Reservoir and Teggsnose Reservoir, with the Walker Barn stream feeding the latter; the Tegg's Nose ridge has three viewpoints. On clear days the views across the Cheshire Plain to the west take in the Welsh hills.
To the east can be seen Macclesfield Forest and the distinctive hill of Shutlingsloe. Several public footpaths, concessionary paths and bridleways cross the area; the Tegg's Nose Trail is a circular waymarked trail of 4 km around the area. The waymarkers for this trail take the form of circular plaques depicting the view towards Shutlingsloe; the "Walk to the Forest" is another waymarked circular trail of 11 km linking Tegg's Nose and the plantation of Macclesfield Forest. Saddlers Way, which forms part of both of these trails, was a former packhorse track. Tegg's Nose lies on the Gritstone Trail long-distance footpath, forming the end of the northern stage and the start of the central stage, it forms an access point for ascending Shutlingsloe via Macclesfield Forest. The area is used for orienteering, with several permanent courses available; the Tegg's Nose Fell Race is run annually in August. Three cycling routes start at Tegg's Nose. "Grit and Gears" is a 19 km off-road circular trail suitable for mountain bikes.
The Cheshire Cycleway passes just to the south and east of the Country Park. There are ten traditional climbing routes on the quarried gritstone, ranging in grade from Difficult to Mild Very Severe. Sledging is popular in winter, with fields set aside for the activity. Private coarse fishing is available at Teggsnose and Bottoms Reservoirs, with mirror and common carp and bream. At the northern viewpoint is a visitors' centre off the Buxton Old Road, which provides car and horse box parking, public toilets, picnic tables and a telescope; as off spring 2016 there is a tea room open 7 days a week. Several open-air sculptures stand near the visitors' centre. Car parking is available by Teggsnose Reservoir and at the Trentabank ranger station in Macclesfield Forest. Nearby public houses are the Leather's Smithy by Ridgegate Reservoir and the St Dunstan in the village of Langley; the area can be reached by bus f
Thorpe Cloud is an isolated limestone hill lying between the villages of Thorpe and Ilam on the Derbyshire/Staffordshire border at the southern end of Dovedale. It is a popular hill amongst the many day-trippers who visit the area, provides a fine viewpoint north up the dale and south across the Midland plain. Like much of the dale, including Bunster Hill on the opposite bank, it is in the ownership of the National Trust, is part of their South Peak Estate; these Dovedale properties were acquired by the Trust in 1934. In 1997, the writer Jeff Kent discovered that a double sunset could be seen against Thorpe Cloud from the top of nearby Lin Dale and, two years the phenomenon was first captured on film by the photographer Chris Doherty; the occurrence is visible in good weather on and around the summer solstice and beyond, when the sun sets on the summit of the hill reappears from its steep northern slope and sets for a second and final time shortly afterwards. The precise event and its location are described in Kent's book The Mysterious Double Sunset.
Thorpe Cloud and Dovedale were used as locations in the 2010 film of Robin Hood, starring Russell Crowe. Thorpe Cloud can be made out in several scenes towards the end of the film. Thorpe Cloud has a rifle range which local and national shooting clubs use
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Bleaklow is a high peat-covered, gritstone moorland, just north of Kinder Scout, across the Snake Pass, in the Derbyshire High Peak near the town of Glossop. Much of it is nearly 2,000 feet above sea level and the shallow bowl of Swains Greave on its eastern side is the source of the River Derwent. Bleaklow Head, marked by a huge cairn of stones, is the high point at the western side of the moor, is a Hewitt and is crossed by the Pennine Way, it is one of three summits on this plateau above 2,000 feet, the others being Bleaklow Stones, some 1.9 miles to the east along an indefinite ridge, Higher Shelf Stones, 0.9 miles south of Bleaklow Head. At 633 metres, Bleaklow is the second-highest point in Derbyshire and the area includes the most easterly point in the British Isles over 2,000 feet, near Bleaklow Stones. Much of the main plateau of Bleaklow is a boggy peat moorland, seamed by'groughs', lacking strong changes in elevation – in poor conditions its traverse is the most navigationally challenging in the Peak District.
Bleaklow is part of the National Trust's High Peak Estate. There has been considerable investment of resources in recent years to block many of the eroded peat gulleys as part of major schemes to re-wet and restore healthy Sphagnum moss communities which are essential for peat formation, carbon-capture, reduction in dissolved carbon which contaminates water supplies. Much of this work has been coordinated by the Moors for the Future Partnership, funded by EU LIFE+ programme between 2010-2015; this involved laying 52 kilometres of geotextiles to stabilise eroded peat, creating 4,000 mini dams to retain water, introducing 150,000 moorland plants and spreading 807 million Sphagnum fragments across the whole Bleaklow Project site. The summit affords views across Manchester and Cheshire to the west and towards the Hope Valley, Holme Moss, Emley Moor and Yorkshire to the east. In exceptional weather conditions it is possible to see Snowdonia in North Wales. On 3 November 1948, USAF Boeing RB-29A Superfortress 44-61999, of the 16th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 91st Reconnaissance Group, 311th Air Division, Strategic Air Command.
All 13 crew members were killed. A large amount of wreckage is still visible, as a memorial to the crash. A proper memorial was erected at the site in 1988. There is public access to the area. Peak District Information- Bleaklow Computer-generated summit panorama Bleaklow index Photographs and grid reference of RB-29 wreck site and other crash sites on Bleaklow aircrashsites.co.uk. PeakDistrictAirCrashes.co.uk. Resources about the B-29 wreck and other air accidents in this region