Wolfville is a Canadian town in the Annapolis Valley, Kings County, Nova Scotia, located about 100 kilometres northwest of the provincial capital, Halifax. The town is home to Landmark East School; the town is a popular tourist destination because of the scenery of the nearby Bay of Fundy and Gaspereau Valley, as well as for the many cultural attractions which are offered by the university and town. Among these is the Acadia Cinema Cooperative, a non-profit organization that runs the local movie/performance house. In the past few years, several Victorian houses in Wolfville have been converted to bed and breakfast establishments. From ancient times the area of Wolfville was a hunting ground for many First Nations peoples, including the Clovis, Bear River, Shields Archaic groups, they were attracted by the salmon in the Gaspereau River and the agate stone at Cape Blomidon, with which they could make stone tools. Many centuries before European contact, Mi'kmaq people, related to the Algonquin and Ojibwe peoples, migrated into Nova Scotia.
The Mi ` kmaq were seasonal hunters, traveling on webbed snowshoes to hunt deer. They used the various semi-precious stones from the Blomidon area to make arrowheads. After an initial effort in 1604 by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons and his cartographer Samuel de Champlain to establish a colony at Saint Croix Island, the colony was relocated to the Habitation at Port-Royal; the French and the Mi'kmaq established a reciprocal trading relationship which continued to serve both peoples well until the mid eighteenth-century. The French found the area to be rich in fine fertile land. Reports sent to France by individuals such as Samuel de Champlain, Marc Lescarbot and Nicolas Denys proclaimed the rich bounty to be found in the Annapolis Valley area. French settlement efforts continued in starts. By 1636 under Charles de Menou d'Aulnay, Port Royal was reestablished after Acadia/Nova Scotia was transferred from England to the French under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye; the progeny of these settlers, as well as the second wave of settlers under Hector d'Andigné de Grandfontaine, would become known as the Acadians.
By the late 1690s their population numbered about 350. French settlement in the Wolfville area began in about 1680, when Pierre Melanson established his family at Grand-Pré; the Acadians prospered as farmers by enclosing the estuarine salt marshes with dykes, converting the reclaimed lands into fertile fields for crops and pasturage. In 1710, Acadia was lost by the French crown after the English laid siege to Port Royal/Annapolis Royal. Under the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, signed at the close of the War of the Spanish Succession, Acadia was ceded for the final time to the British. For the next thirty-six years, until the establishment of Halifax in 1749, the British remained at Annapolis Royal and Canso; the French-speaking Catholic population grew over the intervening years to well over 10,000 and the Minas region became the principal settlement. Acadia was a borderland region between two empires, this caused a complex socio-political environment to develop for the Acadians. Both the British and the French coaxed and threatened the Acadians in attempts to secure their loyalty as is evidenced by the various oaths of allegiance each side attempted to extract from them.
This complex situation led many Acadians to attempt to maintain a neutral path. During the War of the Austrian Succession, the Acadians in the Wolfville area were implicated in the Battle of Grand Pré, during which a French Canadian military force, reinforced by Mi'kmaq and Acadians, defeated a British force. With the onset of the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France, the Acadians in the Wolfville area, along with all Acadians in peninsular Nova Scotia, suffered under the deportations that took place during the British Expulsion of the Acadians. Beginning in September 1755 and continuing into the fall 2,000 Acadians were deported from the area around Wolfville; the villages lying beyond Grand-Pré were burned by the British forces, still more buildings were destroyed by both sides during the guerilla war that took place until 1758. Around 1760, the British government in Nova Scotia made several township plots of land available in the Annapolis Valley for colonization by English settlers.
Horton Township was created in the Grand-Pré/Wolfville Area. Because of pressure on agricultural lands in New England, Anglophone farmers moved north in search of fertile land at a reasonable price, it is thought that between 1760 and 1789, more than 8,000 people known as New England Planters emigrated to the land around the Annapolis Valley. In 1763, there were 154 families living in the area of Horton Township; the New England Planters set up a agricultural economy, exporting cattle and grain, apples, as well as developing lumbering and shipbuilding. They settled and re-used the same dyke-lands as the Acadians had used before them and expanding the agricultural dykes, they developed a major expansion in 1808, the three-mile-long Wickwire Dyke, which connected the Wolfville and Grand Pre dykes. This allowed the agricultural development of an additional 8,000 acres; the town site for Horton was surveyed in the Grand-Pré area at Horton Landing near the mouth of the Gaspereau River. However, the town developed around the sheltered harbour on the Cornwallis River at Wolfville, at first known as Mud Creek.
The first official record of a Baptist church in Canada was that of the Horton Baptist Church, e
Starr's Point, Nova Scotia
Starr's Point is a community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in Kings County two miles west of Port Williams. Starr's point faces the Minas Basin to the east and separates the mouths of the Cornwallis River and the Canard River, it is an agricultural area noted for apple orchards. Starr's point was called "Nesogwjtk" or "Nesoogwitk" by the Mi'kmaq People; the point was settled by Acadians in the late 1600 as part of the Rivière-aux-Canards settlement. It was called Boudreau's Point, after the Boudreau family; the Boudreaus operated a ferry and schooner landing from the north side of the point along the Cornwallis River called Boudreau's Bank, where a flat bank of sandstone allowed schooners to safely beach and unload on at low tide. Acadians from the Rivière-aux-Canards settlement were expelled from this point in the 1755 Bay of Fundy Campaign of the Expulsion of the Acadians marched to Boudreau's Bank by British troops to be loaded on deportation ships; the New England Planters arrived at Boudreau's Bank on June 4, 1760 to settle the vacated Acadian lands, discovering 60 abandoned ox carts and yokes at the landing used by the Acadians to take their belongings into exile.
The point was intended as the main town settlement of the Cornwallis Township settlement, facing the Horton Township on the other side of the Cornwallis River. A town grid for Cornwallis with a parade ground was surveyed around the landing; however settlers found that nearby Port Williams and Canning made better town sites, leaving the official town site at Starrs Point to develop instead as rich and productive farmland. The original grid of streets of the Cornwallis town site is today known as the Town Plot and is marked by a cairn commemorating the arrival of the Planters; the community became known as Starr's Point, after the Starr's family who emerged as major landowners led by Major Samuel Starr one of the first Planters settlers in the township. One of the members of the Starr family, John Starr, became an early Member of the Legislature for Kings County. In the American Revolution, raids by American privateers against the Planter settlements led the government to build Fort Hughes in 1778 beside the militia parade ground at Starr's Point, a building which survives today as one of the oldest in the area known as the "Planters Barracks".
In 1812, farmers in Starrs Point combined forces with farmers in Canard to build the Wellington Dyke across the Canard River to the north of Starr's Point. Completed in 1825, the dyke protects 3,000 acres along the north side of Starr's Point submerged by tides of the Minas Basin. Charles Ramage Prescott chose Starr's Point to establish a large farm and country estate in 1812 which played an important role in developing the area's apple industry. Today his home, Prescott House is now a provincial museum
Port Williams, Nova Scotia
Port Williams is a Canadian village in Kings County, Nova Scotia. It is located on the north bank of the Cornwallis River; the village is named in honour of Sir William Fenwick Williams. Williams became the first post Canadian Confederation Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia; as of 2016, the population was 1,120. The village is located on the Cornwallis River, named after Edward Cornwallis, first governor of Nova Scotia. On the sides of the Cornwallis River are the dykes that were created by the Acadians, beginning in the late 1600s; these dykes protect valuable farm land, used by the local agriculture industry every year, is considered productive farm land. During the American Revolution the threat of American privateer attacks had subsided and the local fortification Fort Hughes was decommissioned in 1780. In the spring of 1781, Samuel Bayard was ordered to take a detachment of King's Orange Rangers overland from Halifax to Cornwallis to overawe local Planters who were planning to erect a Liberty Pole and thereby break with the King.
There they fixed bayonets and "with bright weapons glittering, colours flying and drums beating, they marched up Church Street and back to Town Plot, where the barracks stood." This show of force brought the locals back in line. Bayard took an interest in the Annapolis Valley, after the war he took up a grant of 4,730 acres at Wilmot Mountain; the reputation of the Regiment grew in these years. A few months before disbandment, Brigadier-General Henry Edward Fox expressed:... the great satisfaction he has received in seeing the two provincial battalions of Royal N. S. Volunteers and the King's Orange Rangers, approves of their discipline and military appearance... The King's Orange Rangers were disbanded in the autumn of 1783. In the days of sailing the river was used extensively to bring ships into the port to transport apples and potatoes, to be shipped to the world market Great Britain. In 1972 the government gave $100,000 to renovate the wharf. Three years the widest ship to dock at Port Williams brought a load of soybean meal to the port from Chicago.
The Port Pub on Kars Street/Terrys Creek Road was founded by residents of the village for a place to gather and have a drink. The pub prides itself with some only 5 km away from the pub; the Fox Hill cheese house is located close to Port Williams. It was founded in 2004 by a local dairy farmer, has since grown to become a well known cheese producer, it uses fresh milk to make yogurt, gelato. The village is home to Port Williams Elementary School, located on Belcher Street; the school was built in 1966, includes a gymnasium, modern music room and many class rooms. Benjamin Belcher Samuel Bayard of the King's Orange Rangers Village of Port Williams
Centreville, Kings, Nova Scotia
Centreville is a rural farming community in Kings County, Nova Scotia, located 10 kilometres north of Kentville on Route 359. As of 2011, the population was 973. Route 309 and Route 221 cross at the settlement; the village was once a junction on the Cornwallis Valley Railway branchline of the Dominion Atlantic Railway. Centreville was home to Charles Macdonald, famous for his work in concrete, his innovative concrete home in Centreville is now the Charles Macdonald Concrete House Museum. Another important Centreville resident was Roscoe Fillmore, a well-known gardener, greenhouse operator and author. Macdonald and Fillmore were members of a group of moderate leftists who met in Centreville during the 1930s and 40s and became known as "the Centreville Socialists". Centreville is home to several businesses, including: Delft Haus B&B D. O. Sanford's Garage Ltd. Footes Farm Market Veldhoven Upholstery Eagle Crest Golf Course Centreville is home to a few religious institutions, including: Baptist Church Kingdom Hall Centreville Community Website Charles Macdonald House Museum
Hall's Harbour, Nova Scotia
Hall's Harbour is a fishing community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in Kings County on the North Mountain along the shore of the Bay of Fundy. Hall's Harbour is believed to be named after Samuel Hall, an American privateer in the American Revolution who used the cove to raid settlements in the Annapolis Valley but was forced to flee and abandon his ship in the harbour by pursuing militia in 1779. Various legends grew up about the privateer raid, attracting treasure hunters who are said to have left abandoned pits deep in the woods surrounding the harbour; the harbour was first settled in 1826 by the Bucknam and Parker families who crossed the Bay from New Brunswick. A lumber mill soon went into operation, followed by a store established in 1830 by the Whitney family. A school was started in 1831; the first wharf was built in 1836 and the community grew around the sheltered tidal harbour which served to export timber and agricultural products from the Annapolis Valley. Farms developed along the road the Valley which became an associated community of East Halls Harbour.
A shipyard produced many schooners and some square rigged vessels, the largest being the barque Jenny Bertaux, built in 1864. A notable early resident was Ransford Dodsworth Bucknam, a local mariner whose 19th century career took him all over the world including a post as an admiral in the Turkish Navy. Growth of the village slowed in the 1870s as the depletion of timber reserves ended the lumber trade and the arrival in 1869 of the Windsor and Annapolis Railway in the Annapolis Valley and drew away agricultural shipments. Shipbuilding declined with the lack of timber and introduction of steamships although there was a brief revival in World War I; the harbour continued as an inshore fishing port and small coastal shipping centre for coastal schooners and small steamers. The Canadian federal government took over operation of the wharves in the early 1900s and built a lighthouse on a small breakwater at the eastern harbour entrance in 1911; the larger western breakwater was extended in 1920 and damaged by a storm in 1962.
After World War II, coastal shipping ceased but the picturesque harbour drew many local cottagers and became a favoured place to view the dramatic change of the Bay of Fundy tides. Fishing remains the main year round industry with several commercial lobster and scallop boats operating from the wharves in addition to a large lobster pound; the Harbour Authority of Halls Harbour took control of the harbour from the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans in 1996. The West Breakwater damaged by a storm in 1997 was rebuilt in stages and completed in 2003; the other main industry is tourism. A seafood restaurant and souvenir shop was built with the lobster pound in the 1990s; the community has developed walking small museum. A seasonal store operates beside the wharf. In summer, floating wharves provide mooring for recreational vessels, many of which are owned by summer residents who seasonally swell the village population. Several bed and breakfast operations cater to tourists and the village is home to several artist studios including David Lacey and the noted marine artist and boatbuilder John Neville.
The postal Code is B0P 1J0. The Telephone exchange is 902 679. A CAP Site in East Halls Harbour provides computer training. Ransford D. Bucknam, namesake of Bucknam Park Hall's Harbour official website "Halls Harbour" Land Use Map, Kings County Municipality Live Webcam installed August 2009, located in Hall's Harbour
Grafton, Nova Scotia
Grafton is a small farming community in the Annapolis Valley area of Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada. Located just north of the village of Waterville, it stretches from the Cornwallis River to the slopes of the North Mountain and includes the crossroads of Buckleys Corner. Route 221 crosses the north part of Grafton while Highway 101 crosses the south part of the community, it is administratively part of the village of Cornwallis Square. It was first settled by New England Planters in the 1820s as they moved westward from the initial settlements around Canning, Nova Scotia. One of the first homes was the Kinsman-Salsman House, built in 1818, which still survives and is now a provincial historic home; the community was named after the Duke of Grafton, Massachusetts. An early centre of worship for various New England Planter congregations, it contains two historic graveyards and the 1842 Cornwallis Reformed Presbyterian Covenanter Church. A notable early resident was Margaret Florence Newcome, the first woman to graduate from Dalhousie University in 1885.
Grafton flourished in the late 19th and early 20th century during the peak years of the apple industry in Nova Scotia. It became a station on the North Mountain branchline of the Dominion Atlantic Railway in order to ship apples from a number of large apple warehouses. A preserved railway caboose commemorates the railway's role in the community. Grafton municipal services are administered by the village commission of Cornwallis Square along with nearby Waterville and Cambridge
Canning, Nova Scotia
Canning is a village in northeastern Kings County, Nova Scotia located at the crossroads of Route 221 and Route 358. The area was settled by Acadians who were expelled in 1755 during the Acadian Expulsion. After the Acadians, Canning - first called Apple Tree Landing and Habitant Corner - was settled in 1760 by New England Planters and by the Dutch following World War II; the present name was adopted in honour of British prime minister George Canning. Though much diminished in importance in recent years, Canning was once a major shipbuilding centre and shipping and rail hub for farmers in Kings County. Canning merchants and farmers founded the Cornwallis Valley Railway which ran from 1889 to 1961, connecting the village to the Dominion Atlantic Railway mainline in Kentville, Nova Scotia; the village suffered three major fires in its history. The Canadian parliamentarian Sir Frederick William Borden had a home in Canning. A cousin of Sir Robert Borden, Sir Frederick was Minister of Militia prior to the First World War.
Canning has a prominent statue to the most famous Canadian casualty of the Second Boer War, Harold Lothrop Borden, a son of Sir Frederick. He died in the Battle of Witpoort. Canning was the home of country singer Wilf Carter, he was made an honorary citizen of Canning, Nova Scotia in 1978. Carter was born in Port Hilford, Nova Scotia, but spend a great deal of his childhood working in and visiting the village and its surrounding farmland; the village is home to Glooscap Elementary School, with a student population of over 200, Northeast Kings Education Centre, a middle school/high school with a student population of around 920 students and 80 staff. NKEC is the first AP Capstone designated school in Nova Scotia and the first in the world to offer the virtual AP Capstone Program; the Canning Lighthouse was built in 1904 to serve the port at Borden's Wharf. It was restored in the 1990s, after more than 50 years of disuse and abandonment, was used by the village as a tourist information centre, it was moved in 2003 to a new waterfront site on the Habitant River behind the village's small museum, where its top section was rebuilt by NKEC students.
Bigelow Trail Blomidon Look-off Provincial Park Bruce Spicer Park Glooscap Arena – home to local hockey games Merritt Gibson Memorial Library Scots Bay Provincial Park Media related to Canning, Nova Scotia at Wikimedia Commons Canning Village Canning, Nova Scotia Fieldwood Heritage Society Harold Borden monument