This is a list of hobbits that are mentioned by name in Tolkien's works, they are ordered alphabetically by first name. In cases where a hobbit’s family name was changed, usually through marriage, their original family name is given in parentheses. Nicknames are given in quotation marks.
Note that the years are given in years of the Third Age (unless otherwise noted), and not according to Shire Reckoning. Bilbo's farewell party, which is frequently referred to, occurred in T.A. 3001.
Adalgrim Took: (2880–2982) Only child of Hildigrim Took and Rosa Took (née Baggins). Father of Paladin II Took, Esmeralda Brandybuck, and three unnamed daughters, he was briefly heir presumptive to the Thainship, but never succeeded. Adalgrim was Bilbo's first cousin on his father's side (and Bilbo's mother's side) and Bilbo's second cousin on his mother's side (and Bilbo's father's side), making him an excellent example of the complicated kinship relationships among Hobbits.
Adelard Took: (2928–F.A. 2) Only child of Flambard Took, and father of Reginard Took, Everard Took, and three unnamed daughters. He and his five children were among the 144 special guests at the Farewell Party of their relation Bilbo Baggins. Bilbo gave him an umbrella as a gift after the party, noting that Adelard had taken many in the past.
Andwise "Andy" Roper: (b. 2923) The eldest brother of Hamfast Gamgee and uncle to Samwise Gamgee. Sam refers to him a few times in The Lord of the Rings, his profession, as befitted his name, was rope-making.
Angelica Baggins: (2981–?) Only child of Ponto Baggins. Noted for her vanity. Received a mirror from her relation Bilbo after his farewell party, where she was among his 144 special guests.
Balbo Baggins (2767–c. 2863): is the first recorded Baggins, and the ancestor of the Baggins family of Hobbiton. He married Berylla Boffin and had five children (born from 2807 to 2822): Mungo, Pansy, Ponto, Largo, and Lily.
Note on Balbo's dates: In the published Baggins genealogy only Balbo's birthdate is shown, but by looking at the lifespans of his children it is possible to estimate his deathdate.
Bandobras "Bullroarer" Took (2704–2806): The younger son of Isumbras III, Bandobras was known for his exceptionally large stature for a Hobbit (he stood 4' 5"(135 cm) and could ride a horse), although he was later surpassed by his descendant Pippin and Pippin's friend Merry Brandybuck. Bandobras led the defence against the orcs of Mt. Gram led by Golfimbul at the Battle of Greenfields (T.A. 2747). He is said to have knocked Golfimbul's head off with a blow from his club and sent it flying into a rabbit hole a hundred yards away, and is thus credited with both winning the battle and inventing the sport of golf. While his older brother Ferumbras succeeded to the Thainship, he fathered many descendants, including the North-tooks of Long Cleeve.
Belladonna (Took) Baggins (2852–2934): The ninth child and the eldest of the three "remarkable" daughters of the Old Took and his wife Adamanta. She married Bungo Baggins and was the mother of Bilbo Baggins (b. 2890), their only child. She was well known to the wizard Gandalf.
Berilac Brandybuck (born 2980) Only child of Merimac Brandybuck, and one of Merry's cousins. With his father he attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Bodo Proudfoot: (b. c.2860) Husband of Linda Baggins (Bilbo's youngest aunt), father of Odo Proudfoot (b. 2904).
Bowman "Nick" Cotton: (b. 2986) Brother of Rose Cotton. He fought in the Battle of Bywater.
Bruno Bracegirdle: (2913-3010) Older brother of Lobelia Sackille-Baggins. He had two children, Hugo and Hilda Bracegirdle.
Bucca of the Marish: An early inhabitant of what would become the Eastfarthing, Bucca founded the Oldbuck clan, ancestors of the Brandybuck clan. He was chosen to be the first Thain of the Shire in 1979. During his rule, momentous events occurred elsewhere in Middle-earth: the reawakening of the Balrog, and the ensuing collapse of Khazad-dûm, loss of Amroth and Nimrodel, and foundation of Erebor's Kingdom under the Mountain.
Bungo Baggins (2846–2926): Bungo was the "solid and comfortable" father (see The Hobbit, ch. 1) of Bilbo. He was also the builder of Bag End, he and his wife Belladonna (née Took) lived there until the end of their days. Bungo was the eldest child of Mungo Baggins and Laura Grubb; as eldest son he became head of the Baggins clan when his mother died in 2916.
Camellia Sackville: (b. c.2865) Heiress of the Sackvilles. She married Longo Baggins (one of Bilbo's uncles), and the couple adopted the surname Sackville-Baggins, they had an only child, Otho Sackville-Baggins (born 2910). In 2942 they nearly acquired Bag End, but were foiled by Bilbo's unexpected return.
Carl "Nibs" Cotton: (b. 2989) Youngest brother of Rose Cotton. He defended the Cottons' farm in the Battle of Bywater.
Daisy (Baggins) Boffin: (2950–?) was a cousin of Frodo Baggins (and his only cousin on his father's side). She was the only child of Dudo, who was the brother of Frodo's father Drogo, she married Griffo Boffin. She and her father and husband attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Daisy Gamgee: (2972–?) A sister of Samwise.
Daisy (Gardner): (b. S.R. 1433) 4th daughter of Samwise, and the 8th of his 13 children.
Diamond "of Long Cleeve" Took: (2995–?) became the wife of Peregrin Took in the 6th year of the Fourth Age; a few years later he became the Thain of the Shire. She is probably one of the North-Tooks, descended from Bandobras Took (aka Bullroarer), she had one son Faramir, named for a Steward of Gondor (see Faramir). Her date of death is not known, but some people assume Diamond probably died sometime before the year 63 of the Fourth Age when Pippin left the Shire to live in Gondor.
Dinodas Brandybuck: (b. c.2916) Frodo's youngest uncle, he was among the 144 special guests at Bilbo's farewell party. It appears he never married.
Doderic Brandybuck: (b. 2989) With his parents and siblings he attended the Farewell Party of their relation Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Dodinas Brandybuck: (b. c.2910, d. before 3001) One of Frodo's uncles, it appears he never married.
Donnamira (Took) Boffin: (2856–2948). One of the three remarkable daughters of Gerontius, the Old Took, and thus an aunt of Bilbo, she married Hugo Boffin.
Dora Baggins: (2902–3006) Sister of Drogo, and Frodo's eldest aunt. She was noted for dispensing advice in her letters, she attended the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins (her second cousin) as one of his 144 special guests, and at that time was his oldest living female relation. It appears she never married.
Drogo Baggins: (2908–2980) Married Primula Brandybuck; their son Frodo Baggins was their only child. Drowned with his wife in a legendary boating accident on the Brandywine river (boating being an unusual activity for hobbits).
Dudo Baggins: (2911–3009) One of Frodo's uncles. With his daughter Daisy and her husband attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Eglantine (Banks) Took: (b. c.2935) Wife of Paladin Took II (the Thain from S.R. 1415 to 1434), and mother of their four children (born 2975 to 2990): three daughters, and a son, Peregrin Took. The couple and their children attended the Farewell Party of Paladin's relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Elanor "the Fair" (Gardner) Fairbairn: (b. S.R. 1421) Also known as Elanor the Fair, she was the first of the thirteen children of Samwise Gamgee and his wife Rose Cotton. Elanor was the only one of Sam's children known to Frodo Baggins, it was Frodo who suggested her name, a reference to the sun-star, a little golden flower which he and Sam had seen blooming in the land of Lothlórien; Elanor had golden hair (unusual for a Hobbit). In 1436 Elanor became a maid of honour to Queen Arwen Evenstar, and in 1451 she married Fastred of Greenholm. Elanor and her husband then moved to Undertowers in the Tower Hills where their family (becoming known as the Fairbairns of the Towers) would live for many generations. After her father's passing to the Undying Lands in 1482, Elanor and her line became the keepers of the Red Book of Westmarch, her two children were Elfstan, born in 1454, and Fíriel.
Elfstan Fairbairn: (b. S.R. 1454) Son of Elanor Gardner and first grandson of Samwise Gamgee. Second Warden of Westmarch, his name measns "Elfstone" in Old English; presumably he was named after King Elessar.
Erling: (b. 2851) Holman Greenhand's third child.
Esmeralda (Took) Brandybuck: (b. 2936) The youngest child of Adalgrim Took (a grandson of Gerontius the Old Took), and the younger sister of ThainPaladin II. She married Saradoc Brandybuck; Meriadoc Brandybuck (b. 2982) was their only child. She and her husband and son attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins. There they were among his 144 special guests; Esmeralda was seated close to her father-in-law, old Rory Brandybuck. In 3008 her husband succeeded Rory as Master of Buckland, so she was Mistress of Brandy Hall at the time of the War of the Ring, she was one of Peregrin Took's aunts.
Estella (Bolger) Brandybuck (2985–?): The sister of Fredegar "Fatty" Bolger, the companion whom Frodo, Merry, Pippin, and Sam left behind in Crickhollow at the start of The Fellowship of the Ring. She was the daughter of Odovacar Bolger and Rosamunda Took; through her mother, she was a descendant of the Old Took, thus related to Bilbo, Frodo, Pippin and Merry, she married Merry after the War of the Ring, and they had at least one son. Estella probably died sometime before the year 63 of the Fourth Age, when Merry left the Shire to live in Gondor, she would have been among the 144 special guests at Bilbo's farewell party, with her parents and brother. Estella was added to the family tree by Tolkien for the Ballantine edition, and remained an anomaly until the consolidation of the text in the Houghton Mifflin edition of 1987.
Everard Took: (b. 2980) Danced the Springle-ring on a table with Melilot Brandybuck, interrupting Bilbo's farewell speech.
Ferdibrand Took: (b. 2983) Only son of Ferdinand Took. Ferdibrand and his father attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Ferdinand Took: (b. 1340) Only son of Sigismond Took (one of Bilbo's cousins). Ferdinand and his son Ferdibrand attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests, his sister was the mother of Fredegar Bolger.
Ferumbras II Took: (2701–2801) Elder son of Isumbras III Took. Became heir to the Thainship in 2722, and succeeded as 24th Thain in 2759.
Ferumbras III Took: (2916–3015), was the Thain of the Shire at the time of the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins, at the beginning of The Lord of the Rings. He was the only child of Fortinbras Took II (2878–2980, a cousin of Bilbo) and Lalia Clayhanger. According to a letter Tolkien drafted in 1958 or 1959, Ferumbras never married because no one wanted Lalia for a mother-in-law, he became heir to the Thainship in 2939, and succeeded as 30th Thain in 2980.
Filibert Bolger: (S.R. 1342–1443) Husband of Poppy Baggins. He and his wife attended the Farewell Party of her relation Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Fíriel Fairbairn: Daughter of Elanor Gardner and Fastred of Greenholm, and a granddaughter of Samwise Gamgee. One of the Fairbairns of Undertowers, the Wardens of Westmarch, she is mentioned only in the Preface to Tolkien's 1962 collection of poetry, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
Flambard Took: (2887–2989) Only child of Isembard Took (7th son of the Old Took) and one of Bilbo's older cousins. Flambard had an only son, Adelard.
Folco Boffin: (b. 2978) Friend of Frodo Baggins. Folco helped Frodo prepare to leave Bag End and was at his birthday feast before Frodo went on his quest in 3018, he and his family had been among the 144 special guests at Bilbo's farewell party. Folco was descended from Donnamira, one of the remarkable daughters of the Old Took, and was thus related to Bilbo, Frodo, Merry and Pippin.
Fortinbras I Took: (2745–2848) Son of Ferumbras II Took. Became heir to the Thainship in 2759, and succeeded as 25th Thain in 2801.
Fortinbras II Took: (2878-2980) Only child of Isumbras IV Took. Became heir to the Thainship in 2930, and succeeded as 29th Thain in 2939, he was Bilbo's oldest cousin, and he was the Thain during Bilbo's involvement in the Quest of Erebor. He married Lalia Clayhanger, and they had an only child, Ferumbras III.
Fosco Baggins: (2864-2960) Only child of Largo and Tanta Baggins. Married Ruby Bolger; they had three children: Dora, Drogo (Frodo's father), and Dudo.
Fredegar "Fatty" Bolger: (b. 2980) Child of Odovacar Bolger, and Rosamunda Took. One of the "conspiracy" of Hobbits who knew that Frodo Baggins had the One Ring, when Frodo set out to take the Ring to Rivendell, Fredegar stayed behind in Frodo's house at Crickhollow in an attempt to keep up appearances and delay news of their departure.
Frodo Baggins: (b. 2968) Nephew of Bilbo Baggins and son of Drogo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck. He adventured to Mordor to destroy the One Ring. See Frodo Baggins
Frodo Gardner: (F.A. 2–?) Second child and first son of Samwise and Rose Gardner. Frodo Gardner had at least one child, his son Holfast, he was named after Sam's dear friend Frodo Baggins. As eldest son he would have inherited Bag End.
Gerontius "The Old" Took: (2790–2920) was the longest-lived Hobbit in the Shire's history until his record was broken by his grandson Bilbo Baggins. The twenty-sixth Thain of the Shire, he ruled for 72 years, and died at the age of 130, he was particular friends with Gandalf, who was rumoured to have given him a pair of magic diamond cufflinks which opened and closed upon command. He was a direct ancestor to the majority of the famous Hobbits in The Lord of the Rings, he married Adamanta Chubb and had twelve children; nine sons: Isengrim III, Hildigard, Isumbras IV, Hildigrim (great-grandfather to Peregrin Took and Meriadoc Brandybuck), Isembold, Hildifons, Isembard, Hildibrand (great-grandfather to Fredegar Bolger and Estella Bolger), and Isengar; and three "remarkable" daughters: Belladonna (mother to Bilbo Baggins), Donnamira (great-grandmother to Folco Boffin, Fredegar Bolger and Estella Bolger), and Mirabella (grandmother to Frodo Baggins and great-grandmother to Meriadoc Brandybuck).
Gilly (Brownlock) Baggins: (b. c.2905) Wife of Posco Baggins. Gilly, her children and grandchildren attended the Farewell Party of Bilbo (her late husband's relative), where they were among his 144 special guests.
Goldilocks (Gardner) Took: (F.A. 10–?) was the third daughter of Master Samwise Gamgee and his wife Rose Cotton, and the sixth of their thirteen children. In F.A. 42, she married Faramir Took, son of Peregrin Took, Thain of the Shire. Faramir became Thain in F.A. 63, when his father left for Gondor.
Gorbadoc "Broadbelt" Brandybuck (2860–2963): Head of the Brandybuck family and Master of Buckland from 2910 until his death. The maternal grandfather of Frodo Baggins and the great-grandfather of Merry Brandybuck, "Master Gorbadoc" was famous for keeping a generous table.
Gorbulas Brandybuck: (b. 2908) Son of Orgulas Brandybuck, and the father of Marmadas.
Gorhendad (Oldbuck) Brandybuck: Eleventh Thain of the Shire, and the last Thain of the Oldbuck line. He led the colonization of Buckland in 2340, and changed his family's name to Brandybuck.
Gormadoc "Deepdelver" Brandybuck (2734–2836): Master of Buckland until his death, and an ancestor of both Frodo Baggins and Meriadoc Brandybuck.
Griffo Boffin: (b. 2944) Husband of Daisy Baggins. The couple and their son attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Halfred Gamgee: (b. 2969) One of Sam's brothers. Moved to Northfarthing.
Halfred Gamgee: (b. 2932) The Gaffer's youngest sibling. He moved to Overhill and had a son, Halfast.
Halfred Greenhand: (b. 2851) A gardener of Hobbiton. His father and his son were both named Holman.
Hamfast "Ham/Gaffer/Old" Gamgee: (S.R. 1326–1428) (From Anglo-Saxonhām, "house", and fæst, "fixed") Father of Samwise Gamgee. He married Bell Goodchild, with whom he had six children, including Samwise (his youngest son), and lived at number three Bagshot Row in Hobbiton-across-the-Water, he was a gardener on the Baggins property at Bag End for many years (as apprentice by 1342, solo from c.1361 to c.1401). He was frequently consulted for his knowledge of root vegetables, and held forth on this and other topics at the Ivy Bush inn, or further afield at the Green Dragon in Bywater. Early in The Fellowship of the Ring, he misinforms a Black Rider that Frodo had already left Bag End that morning; while this meant that the Black Rider did not continue on to Bag End, it did give away the general direction that Frodo was headed, he also plays a minor role in The Return of the King. Samwise, after adopting the name "Gardner", named one of his children after Hamfast. Sam often refers to his father as "Gaffer" or "the Gaffer". A character named Gaffer Gamgee makes a brief appearance in Mr. Bliss, a story written down by Tolkien by 1932.
Hamfast Gardner: (b. S.R. 1432) 4th son of Samwise Gamgee, and the 7th of his 13 children.
Hamfast of Gamwich: (b. 2760) The earliest known ancestor of the Gamgees.
Hamson Gamgee: (b. 2965) Sam's oldest brother. Moved to Tighfield and joined his uncle's rope business.
Hanna (Goldworthy) Brandybuck: (b. c.2780) The wife of Madoc Brandybuck, who was Master of Buckland from 2836 to 2877.
Harding Gardner: (b. S.R.1501) A great-grandson of Samwise Gamgee. Became master of Bag End.
Hending: (b. 2859) A son of Holman the Greenhanded.
Hilda (Bracegirdle) Brandybuck: (b. 2954) The daughter of Bruno Bracegirdle. Sister to Hugo Bracegirdle and niece of Lobelia Sackville-Baggins (née Bracegirdle), she married Seredic Brandybuck and had three children: Doderic, Ilberic and Celandine. Hilda, her husband and children attended the Farewell Party of her relation Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Hildibrand Took: (2849-2934) 8th son of Gerontius the Old Took. Father of Sigismond.
Hildifons Took: (b.2844) 6th son of Gerontius the Old Took. "(went off on a journey and never returned)"
Hildigard Took: (b. c.2835) 2nd son of the Old Took. Died young.
Hildigrim Took: (2840–2941) 4th son of the Old Took. Married Rosa Baggins and had an only son, Adalgrim, who was an ancestor of Merry and Pippin.
Holman "the greenhanded": (b. 2810) Lived in Hobbiton, had five children, including ancestors of Sam and his wife Rose.
Holman Greenhand: (b. 2892) He was Bilbo's gardener at Bag End, until succeeded by his apprentice Hamfast 'Gaffer' Gamgee, his cousin's son.
Hugo Boffin: (2854-2945) married to Donnamira Took. Their great-grandchildren included Folco Boffin and Fredegar Bolger.
Hugo Bracegirdle: (b. 2950) A borrower (but not returner) of books. He is noteworthy for having received a bookcase from Bilbo (a distant relation) as a mathom on the latter's eleventy-first birthday. Hugo's closer relations included his aunt Lobelia Sackville-Baggins (née Bracegirdle), and her son Lotho Sackville-Baggins, he was named after his grandmother's brother, Hugo Boffin.
Isengrim III Took: (2832–2930) Eldest son and heir of the Old Took. Became heir to the Thainship in 2848, and succeeded as 27th Thain of the Shire in 2930, he had no children, and was himself succeeded by his brother Isumbras IV.
Isumbras III Took: (2666–2759). Succeeded as 23rd Thain of the Shire in 2722, he died in the year of Middle-earth's Long Winter.
Isumbras IV Took: (2838–2939) 3rd son of the Old Took. Became heir presumptive to the Thainship in 2920; succeeded his eldest brother as 28th Thain in 2930.
Ivy Goodenough: (fl. 2772) She was the wife of Buffo Boffin, the original patriarch of the Boffin Family.
Lalia (Clayhanger) Took: (2883–3002) was the wife of Fortinbras Took II (Thain of the Shire from 2939 to his death in 2980). They married in 2914, and their only child Ferumbras was born two years later. Ferumbras never married, reportedly because nobody wanted Lalia as a mother-in-law. After her husband died and their son became Thain, Lalia remained the matriarch of the Took clan. Lalia was so fat she couldn't walk and used a wheelchair: she was widely known as Lalia the Great (or sometimes the Fat). In 3002 her attendant, Pearl Took, accidentally tipped Lalia out of her wheelchair into her garden, and she died.
Largo Baggins: (2820–2912) Youngest son of Balbo Baggins and Berylla Boffin. Married Tanta Hornblower, their only son Fosco was the paternal grandfather of Frodo Baggins. Largo died in the year of the Fell Winter.
Laura (Grubb) Baggins: (2814–2916) was a grandmother of Bilbo Baggins. She was the wife of Mungo Baggins. Besides Bungo, she had four other children; Belba, Longo, Linda, and Bingo. Upon the death of her husband she became head of the family; when she died she was succeeded by her eldest son, Bungo.
Lily (Baggins) Goodbody: (2822–2912) Married Togo Goodbody. Their various descendants were among the 144 special guests at Bilbo's farewell party, she died in the year of the Fell Winter.
Lily (Brown) Cotton: (b. c.2945) Married Tolman "Farmer" Cotton and had five children. Samwise Gamgee called in on Mrs. Cotton and her daughter Rose upon his return to the Shire; he later married Rose.
Linda (Baggins) Proudfoot: (2862–2963) was a daughter of Mungo Baggins, and Bilbo's youngest aunt. She married Bodo Proudfoot, and had a son named Odo.
Lobelia (Bracegirdle) Sackville-Baggins: (2918–3020) The daughter of Blanco Bracegirdle and Primrose Boffin (a distant relation of Bilbo Baggins). She married Otho Sackville-Baggins (Bilbo's cousin) and had an only child, Lotho (b. 2964). Portrayed as unpleasant and grasping, Lobelia was from an early age an active adherent of the Sackville-Bagginses' ambition to acquire the smial of Bag End and its contents, their first attempt had been made in 2942, when Bilbo was absent on the Quest of Erebor, and presumed dead. At that time Lobelia was not yet married into the Sackville-Bagginses (she was 24, too young for a Hobbit to wed). Nonetheless she seems to have been involved in the disappearance of Bilbo's silverware, discovered by Bilbo on his unexpected return. Many years later Bilbo invited Lobelia to his Farewell Party (indeed she and her family were among his 144 special guests), but he gave Lobelia a box of silver spoons labelled "For Lobelia, from Cousin Bilbo, as a present."
After a further 17 years, in which time her husband Otho died, Lobelia finally obtained Bag End when Frodo sold it to her (either for a great profit or below fair market value - accounts vary), as he was in a rush to leave the Shire with the One Ring. A shift in Lobelia's character occurs when Frodo is away on his quest. Lobelia opposed Saruman's ruffians, verbally and physically, and was imprisoned in the Lockholes of Michel Delving for her actions; this feat earned her popularity among the Shire-folk for the first time in her life. Freed after the Scouring of the Shire but greatly weakened, Lobelia deeded Bag End back to Frodo, ending the generation-long feud between Bilbo and Frodo and the Sackville-Bagginses. Devastated by her son Lotho's murder, Lobelia moved back with her original family, the Bracegirdles of Hardbottle, she died in 3020, and was over 100 years old. She bequeathed what remained of her money to helping hobbits made homeless during Saruman's regime.
Longo Baggins: (2860–2950) The middle son of Mungo Baggins. He married Camellia Sackville, creating the Sackville-Baggins family, they had an only child, Otho Sackville-Baggins. When his nephew Bilbo Baggins was presumed dead in 2942, he was Bilbo's heir-at-law.
Lotho "Pimple" Sackville-Baggins: (2964–3019) Only child of Otho and Lobelia Sackville-Baggins, and a first cousin once removed of Bilbo. He was called "Pimple" because of his complexion, he became an accomplice of Saruman during the War of the Ring. Trading pipe-weed with Saruman for money, he began buying land in the Southfarthing, where Men from Isengard were stationed. With the aid of these ruffians, Lotho was able to depose and imprison Will Whitfoot, the Shire's lawful mayor, and declared himself Chief Shirriff. Under his command the Shire was industrialised, and Lotho became The Boss. However, Lotho was soon stripped of his power, and Saruman took over. Saruman's servant Gríma Wormtongue killed Lotho, and either buried Lotho or ate him, as hinted by Saruman after his defeat in the Shire.
Madoc "Proudneck" Brandybuck: (2775–2877) Master of Buckland from 2836 to his death. Eldest son of Gormadoc Brandybuck and Malva Headstrong, he married Hanna Goldworthy and they had one son, Marmadoc.
Malva "Headstrong" Brandybuck: (c. 2738–2839) was the earliest female recorded in the Hobbit genealogies. She married Gormadoc Brandybuck, Master of Buckland, and had three sons: Madoc, Sadoc, and Marroc.
Marigold (Gamgee) Cotton: (b. 2983) The youngest child of Hamfast Gamgee, and a sister of Samwise, she married Tom, the oldest son of Farmer Cotton.
Marmadas Brandybuck: (b. 2943) The only son of Gorbulas. Marmadas and his three children attended the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins, they were among the 144 special guests, and his younger daughter Melilot danced on a table, interrupting Bilbo's speech.
Marmadoc "Masterful" Brandybuck: (2917–2910) Master of Buckland from 2877 to his death. He was the only son of Madoc Brandybuck and Hanna Goldworthy, he married Adaldrida Bolger and they had four children: Gorbulas, two daughters and Orgulas.
Marroc Brandybuck: (c. 2783–?) Youngest son of Gormadoc Brandybuck and Malva Headstrong, he had many descendants.
May Gamgee: (2928–?) The sister of Hamfast Gamgee (the Gaffer).
May Gamgee: (2976–?) The fourth child of Hamfast Gamgee (the Gaffer), and a sister of Samwise.
Melilot Brandybuck: (2985–?) The youngest child of Melilot Brandybuck. With her father and siblings she attended the farewell party of Bilbo Baggins (where they were among his 144 special guests); Melilot danced the Springle-ring (a hobbit dance) with Everard Took, interrupting Bilbo's party-speech, she was a third cousin of Meriadoc Brandybuck.
Menegilda (Goold) Brandybuck: (b. c.2905) was the wife of Rorimac "Old Rory" Brandybuck, the Master of Buckland from 2963 to 3008. They had two sons: Saradoc (father of Meriadoc Brandybuck) and Merimac, she did not attend Bilbo's farewell party, indicating she was indisposed (by death or otherwise).
Mentha Brandybuck: (b. 2984). Second child of Marmadas Brandybuck, she attended Bilbo's farewell party with her father and siblings. There they were among the 144 special guests, and her sister Melilot danced on a table, interrupting Bilbo's party-speech.
Merimac Brandybuck: (S.R. 1342–1430). The younger son of Rorimac Brandybuck (Master of Buckland), he and his son Berilac attended the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins, where they were among the 144 special guests. He was Merry's uncle.
Merimas Brandybuck: (b. 2981) Eldest child of Marmadas Brandybuck. Merimas, his father and siblings attended the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Merry Gardner: (b. S.R. 1427) Second son of Samwise Gamgee, and the fourth of his thirteen children.
Milo Burrows: (b. 2937) Noted for never returning letters. He was a son of Rufus Burrows and Asphodel Brandybuck, he married Peony Baggins (a relation of Bilbo) had four children. Milo, his wife and children attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Mimosa (Bunce) Baggins: (b. c.2820) She married Ponto Baggins and had two children: Rosa (an ancestress of Merry Brandybuck and Pippin Took) and Polo. Mimosa was possibly connected to old Mrs. Bunce of Michel Delving.
Minto Burrows: (b. 2996) Youngest child of Milo Burrows and Peony Baggins. He did not attend the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins, indicating that he was too young or otherwise indisposed.
Mirabella (Took) Brandybuck: (2860–2960) The youngest of the three "remarkable" daughters of the Old Took. She married Gorbadoc Brandybuck, the Master of Buckland, and they had seven children, her descendants included Frodo Baggins and Meriadoc Brandybuck.
Moro Burrows: (b. 2991) Second son of Milo Burrows and Peony Baggins (a relation of Bilbo). Milo attended Bilbo's farewell party with his parents and two siblings; they were among the 144 special guests.
Mosco Burrows: (b. 2987) Eldest child of Milo Burrows and Peony Baggins (a relative of Bilbo). Mosco attended Bilbo's farewell party with his parents and two siblings; there they were among the 144 special guests.
Mungo Baggins: (2807–2900) was the grandfather of Bilbo Baggins. Mungo was the eldest son of Balbo Baggins and Berylla Boffin. Mungo married Laura Grubb and had five children, his eldest son, Bungo, was the father of Bilbo Baggins.
Myrtle Burrows: (b. 2993) The third child of Milo Burrows and Peony Baggins, who were relations of Bilbo Baggins. Myrtle attended Bilbo's farewell party with her parents and her two older siblings; they were among the 144 special guests.
Odovacar Bolger: (S.R. 1335-1431) was the son of Herugar Bolger, a cousin of Bilbo Baggins. He married Rosamunda Took, and they had an only son, Fredegar Bolger. Odovacar and his wife and son attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among the 144 special guests.
"Old Noakes": (fl. 3001) A hobbit of Bywater, and an acquaintance of Hamfast "Gaffer" Gamgee.
Olo Proudfoot: (2946–F.A. 15) was a son of Odo Proudfoot and the father of Sancho Proudfoot. With his father and son attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins; they were among his 144 special guests.
Otho Sackville-Baggins: (2910–3012) Otho was the only child of Longo and Camellia Sackville-Baggins. He inherited the headship of the Sackville family through his mother, Camellia, he also stood to inherit the headship of the Baggins family, which would have made him the head of two families at once. In 2942 his cousin Bilbo Baggins was presumed dead, and Otho's father was Bilbo's closest living heir; the Sackville-Bagginses nearly acquired Bag End, but were foiled by Bilbo's unexpected return. Otho's future wife, the formidable Lobelia Bracegirdle, was a little more successful: she had appropriated many of Bilbo's silver spoons. Many years later Bilbo adopted Frodo Baggins, a more distant relative, as his heir, thus thwarting Otho's ambitions for the Baggins inheritance. Otho was infuriated, and scrutinized Bilbo's will for any irregularities under the Shire's strict witnessing laws. Otho died between the time of Bilbo's Long Expected Party (which he attended) and Frodo's departure to Bree. Accordingly, he never enjoyed the luxuries of Bag End when Lobelia finally took ownership.
Otto Boffin: (2812-2900) More commonly known as Otto the Fat. He was the eldest child of Bosco Boffin, his descendants include Fredegar Bolger and Folco Boffin, Lobelia Sackville-Baggins (through his daughter Primrose Boffin), and Lotho Sackville-Baggins
Paladin II Took (2933–3034): The only son of Adalgrim Took. He married Eglantine Banks; they had three daughters, and finally a son, Peregrin Took. In 2982 Paladin became heir presumptive to the Thainship; in 3015 he succeeded his second cousin, becoming "the Took" (head of the Took clan) and 31st Thain of the Shire. Paladin owned and farmed lands around Whitwell, near Tuckborough; when Lotho Sackville-Baggins took over the Shire during the War of the Ring, Paladin, as Thain, resisted him, and refused to acknowledge his rule. This led to skirmishing between the Tooks and Saruman's ruffians, who attempted to lay siege to the Tookland; when Merry and Pippin started their revolt, Paladin sent Pippin with 100 Tooks to aid in the Battle of Bywater.
Pansy (Baggins) Bolger: (b. 2812) The elder daughter of Balbo Baggins and Berylla Boffin. She married Fastolph Bolger, and had various descendants.
Pearl Took: (2975–?) was the eldest sister of Peregrin "Pippin" Took. She also had two sisters named Pimpernel and Pervinca. In The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien it is mentioned that she was the caretaker of the Took matriarch Lalia (Clayhanger)Took, the acid-tongued mother of Thain Ferumbras Took. Lalia was obese and immobile, and perished when her wheelchair tipped from the top of Great Smials and she tumbled into the gardens, it was widely speculated that Pearl might have been intentionally responsible for Lalia's "fatal fall" by tipping the chair. For a while Pearl was shunned, although the demise of Lalia was doubtless welcomed by many in private.
Peony (Baggins) Burrows: (b. 2950) Youngest child of Posco Baggins (a second cousin of Bilbo) and Gilly Brownlock. She married Milo Burrows and they had four children. Peony, her husband and their three eldest children attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Pervinca Took: (b. 2985) Third daughter of Paladin II Took and Eglantine Banks, and thus one of Pippin's sisters. With her parents and siblings attended the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins (a relation of her father), where they were among his 144 special guests.
Pimpernel Took: (b. 2979) Second daughter of Paladin II Took and Eglantine Banks, and thus a sister of Pippin. Attended Bilbo's farewell party with her parents and siblings.
Pippin Gardner: (b. S.R. 1429) 3rd son of Samwise Gamgee, and the 5th of his 13 children.
Polo Baggins: (b. c.2860) The son of Ponto Baggins and Mimosa Bunce. He had a son Posco and a daughter Prisca.
Ponto Baggins: (2812–2911) Third child of Balbo Baggins and Berylla Boffin. He married Mimosa Bunce, and they had a daughter Rosa and a son Polo. Ponto died in the year of the Fell Winter. One of his great-grandsons was also named Ponto Baggins.
Ponto Baggins: (b. 2946) Eldest child of Posco Baggins (a second cousin of Bilbo) and Gilly Brownlock. His wife's name is not recorded, but they had an only child, Angelica. Ponto and his daughter attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests, he shared his name with his great-grandfather.
Poppy (Chubb-Baggins) Bolger (born 2944) The only child of Falco Chubb-Baggins (one of Bilbo's cousins), she married Filibert Bolger (a more distant relative of Bilbo). She and her husband attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Porto Baggins: (b. 2948) Second child of Posco Baggins and Gilly Brownlock. Attended the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins, where he and his family were among the 144 special guests.
Posco Baggins: (b. 2902) The son of Polo Baggins, he married Gilly Brownlock and had three children. He appears to have died before Bilbo's farewell party.
Primrose (Boffin) Bracegirdle: (b. 2865) Daughter of Otto Boffin, husband of Blanco Bracegirdle, and mother of Bruno Bracegirdle and the formidable Lobelia Sackville-Baggins.
Primrose Gardner: (b. S.R. 1435) 5th daughter of Samwise Gamgee, and the 9th of his 13 children.
Primula (Brandybuck) Baggins: (2920–2980) was the youngest daughter of Gorbadoc Brandybuck, Master of Buckland, and Mirabella Took, herself the youngest daughter of the Old Took. She married Drogo Baggins, and had one child, Frodo, she and her husband died in 2980, leaving Frodo orphaned. Primula was Bilbo's youngest cousin.
Prisca (Baggins) Bolger: (b. 2906) The daughter of Polo Baggins, and one of Bilbo's second cousins. She married Wilibald Bolger, and they had three children, it appears she died before Bilbo's party.
Reginard Took (born 2969): Eldest child of Adelard Took. With his father and siblings attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Robin "Cock-robin" Smallburrow: (fl. 3019) Robin Smallburrow was the Shirriff in the area of Bywater.
Robin Gardner: (b. S.R. 1440) 6th son of Samwise Gamgee, and the 12th of his 13 children.
Rorimac "Goldfather / Old Rory" Brandybuck (2902–3008): Head of the Brandybuck family and Master of Buckland from 2963 until his death, and Merry's paternal grandfather. A guest at Bilbo's birthday party, he was intelligent enough to guess (correctly) that Bilbo has vanished in order to go travelling again. Bilbo rewarded him for his hospitality over many years with a gift of a dozen bottles of wine.
Rosa (Baggins) Took: (2856–?) ancestor to both Merry and Pippin. Rosa was the daughter of Ponto Baggins and Mimosa Bunce and elder sister to Polo Baggins, her husband was Hildigrim Took, one of the many sons of the Old Took, and they had a son, Adalgrim Took.
Rosamunda (Took) Bolger: (b.2938) The daughter of Sigismond Took, who was a grandson of the Old Took and a cousin of Bilbo. She married Odovacar Bolger of Budge Ford, and was the mother of Fredegar Bolger and Estella Bolger. Rosamunda and her husband and children attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Rose "Rosie" (Cotton) Gardner: (2984–F.A. 61). Daughter of Tolman Cotton and Lily Brown and sister of Tolman (Tom), Wilcome (Jolly), Bowman (Nick), and Carl (Nibs). Rosie was a long-time friend of Samwise Gamgee, and they were married in 3020 when Sam returned home after the War of the Ring. Sam and Rosie had thirteen children (Elanor, Frodo, Rose, Merry, Pippin, Goldilocks, Hamfast, Daisy, Primrose, Bilbo, Ruby, Robin, Tolman (Tom)). Many were named after Sam and Rosie's friends and relatives. Rosie died in the year 61 of the Fourth Age. Sam then left Middle-earth for the Undying Lands later that year. In the film trilogy Rosie lives at 10 Bagshot Row and is played by Sarah McLeod.
"I think the simple 'rustic' love of Sam and his Rosie (nowhere elaborated) is absolutely essential to the study of his (the chief hero's) character, and to the theme of the relation of ordinary life (breathing, eating, working, begetting) and quests, sacrifice, causes, and the 'longing for Elves', and sheer beauty." - J. R. R. Tolkien letter dated 1951
Rose: (b. 2849) Youngest child of Holman the greenhanded of Hobbiton. She married Cotman, and her first-name passed to their great-granddaughter Rose Cotton.
Rose Gardner: (S.R. 1425) Second daughter of Samwise, and the third of his thirteen children.
Rowan: (b. 2949) Eldest child of Holman the greenhanded of Hobbiton. She married Hob Gammidge of Tighfield. Hamfast (Gaffer) Gamgee was one of their grandchildren.
Ruby (Bolger) Baggins: (b. 2864) Youngest child of Adalgar Bolger. She married Fosco Baggins and had three children and two grandchildren, of whom the younger was Frodo Baggins.
Ruby Gardner: (b. S.R. 1438) 6th and youngest daughter of Samwise, and the 11th of his 13 children.
Rudigar Bolger: (2855-2948) Eldest child of Adalgar Bolger. He married Belba Baggins (one of Bilbo's aunts). Fredegar Bolger was their great-grandson.
Rufus Burrows: (b. c.2910) Married Asphodel Brandybuck (one of Bilbo's cousins) and had a son, Milo. Rufus, his wife, son and grandchildren attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Sancho Proudfoot: (b. 2990) The son of Olo. Sancho with his father and grandfather attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests. After the party he started to damage Bag End in an attempt to find gold, but Frodo managed to restrain him.
Saradas Brandybuck: (2908-3007) Second son of Gorbadoc, Master of Buckland, and a cousin of Bilbo Baggins. Saradas and his son (Seredic) and grandchildren attended Bilbo's farewell party, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Seredic Brandybuck: (b. 2948) The son of Seredas. He married Hilda Bracegirdle and had three children. Seredic, his wife and children attended the Farewell Party of their relative Bilbo Baggins, where they were among his 144 special guests.
Sigismond Took: (2890-2931) The son of Hildibrand (8th son of the Old Took) and a cousin of Bilbo Baggins. Sigismond had a daughter, Mrs. Rosamunda Bolger, and a son, Ferdinand.
Tanta (Hornblower) Baggins: (b. c.2825) Married Largo Baggins; they had one son, Fosco, who was the paternal grandfather of Frodo Baggins.
Ted Sandyman (fl. 3018–3019): Ted Sandyman was a miller in Hobbiton. When first Lotho and then Saruman took control of the Shire, he was persuaded to make "improvements" to it, which many hobbits considered to be ugly, and which may have done little to increase its power, he supported many of the changes made by Saruman.
Tobold "Old Toby" Hornblower: Tobold Hornblower was the first person to domesticate pipe-weed in Middle-earth, which he did in 2670. This development led to its cultivation in the Southfarthing, and the pipe-weed, known as Longbottom Leaf from the town where Hornblower was from, became an important product of the Shire, and was widely regarded as the finest pipe-weed; this was shown by the fact that Saruman imported barrels of it to Isengard.
Togo Goodbody: (b. c.2820) Married Lily Baggins. They had various descendants.
Tolma Hlothran: The 'real' name of Tolman Cotton in Westron.
Tolman "Tom" Cotton: (S.R. 1341-1440) Also known as "Farmer Cotton". He and his sons had key roles in the Battle of Bywater. After the War of the Ring he noticed one of Frodo's illnesses, and his daughter Rose married Samwise Gamgee.
Tolman "Young Tom" Cotton: (b. 2980) Eldest son of Farmer Cotton. Participated in the Battle of Bywater. Married Marigold Gamgee, Sam's youngest sister.
Tolman "Tom" Gardner: (b. S.R. 1442) The 7th son of Samwise Gamgee, and the youngest of his 13 children.
Trahald: The 'real' name of Sméagol (Gollum) in the Mannish language of Wilderland, where it means 'burrowing'.
Widow Rumble: (fl. 3020) After the War of the Ring she looked after Hamfast "Gaffer" Gamgee.
Wilcome "Jolly" Cotton: (b. 2984) Second son of Farmer Cotton.
Wilcome "Will" Cotton: (b. 2946) The younger brother of Farmer Cotton.
Wilibald Bolger: (2904-3000) The grandson of Gundabald Bolger and Salvia Brandybuck. He married Prisca Baggins and had three children.
Will "old Will / old Flourdumpling" Whitfoot: (fl. 1418-1427) At the time of the War of the Ring, Will Whitfoot was Mayor of Michel Delving. He was said to be the fattest hobbit in the Westfarthing. On one occasion the roof of the Town Hole collapsed, covering Will in chalk and earning him the nickname 'Flourdumpling'.
Soon after Frodo Baggins left Bag End, Lotho Sackville-Baggins began buying properties in the Southfarthing. With the aid of ruffians in the pay of Saruman, Lotho quickly took control of the Shire; when Will went to Bag End to protest, he was seized by the ruffians and locked up. He spent nearly a year in imprisonment, until he was released after the Scouring of the Shire, he spent several months recovering, during which time Frodo Baggins acted as Deputy Mayor. At the Free Fair of S.R. 1420, Will Whitfoot is re-elected as Mayor for another seven years. His successor in the post is Sam Gamgee.
Willie Banks: (d. 3019) One of the two Bree-hobbits killed in driving off an invasion of Bree.
Wiseman Gamwich: (b. 2800) The great-great-grandfather of Samwise Gamgee; his surname comes from his family home in the town of Gamwich. He moved to Tighfield.
In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria named Khazad-dûm, is a fabulous and ancient subterranean complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast labyrinthine network of tunnels, chambers and huge halls; the complex ran under and through the Misty Mountains. Moria is one of the wonders of the world of Middle-earth. Moria is introduced in Tolkien's novel The Hobbit, is a major scene of action in the sequel, The Lord of the Rings. In much of Middle-earth's fictional history, which spanned many millennia, Moria was the greatest city of Dwarves in Middle-earth; the Dwarves had founded and built Moria, giving it the name Khazad-dûm, inhabiting it for thousands of years. The city's wealth was founded on its mines, which produced mithril, a metal of high value and versatility; however by the times in which The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set, Moria had been abandoned by the Dwarves long ago. It was now a place with an evil repute; this is the situation. Tolkien deploys his constructed languages to translate a number of names for Moria.
The relative frequency of these various names in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings reflects the usage in the fictional times in which those novels are set. Moria is thus by far the most common name of the place in Tolkien's writings; the name means "the Black Chasm" or "the Black Pit", from Sindarin mor ='dark, black' and iâ ='void, pit'. The element mor had the sense'sinister, evil' by association with infamous names such Morgoth and Mordor; the name Moria had applied only to the Black Chasm itself. However after the Dwarves were forced to abandon Khazad-dûm, its many bright lamps were destroyed, the whole subterranean complex was drowned in darkness: a veritable Black Pit. Tolkien borrowed the name Moria itself, but not its meaning, from a book. Khazad-dûm is the second-most used name, tends to be limited in application to the fabulous city-kingdom of the Dwarves in an historical or nostalgic context. In the fictional history, Khazad-dûm was Moria's original name, that given it by the Dwarves in their own language.
It is translated as the Dwarrowdelf,'dwarrows' being an archaic English plural of'dwarf', and'delf' an archaic alternative to'delving', from the verb'delve', to dig. However whilst'delf' connotes an ancient excavation, it does not capture the sense'large halls' in the Dwarvish dûm. Tolkien rhymes dûm with tomb; such was Khazad-dûm's splendour and long history that it was well known by many peoples in Middle-earth. Some of them translated Khazad-dûm into their own languages: Hadhodrond by the Sindar, Casarrondo by the Noldor and Phurunargian in the Common Speech; however by the times in which The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set, these translated names are little used: the name Moria is dominant. Moria was a system of natural caves located in Dimrill Dale, a great valley on the eastern side of the central Misty Mountains; the caves led to an immeasurably-deep subterranean abyss: the Black Chasm. Three of the Misty Mountains' most massive peaks embayed Dimrill Dale: the Mountains of Moria.
In the Common Tongue they are named Silvertine and Cloudyhead. The caves of Moria, where the Dwarf city-kingdom of Khazad-dûm was founded, were situated under Silvertine; the area was discovered by Durin the Deathless, one of the Fathers of the Dwarves and the first King of Khazad-dûm. He named its main natural features. Durin gave the names in Khuzdul, the language of Dwarves, but the main features became better known by their translations in Sindarin and the Common Tongue; the first feature encountered by Durin was the great valley itself: "a glen of shadows between two great arms of the mountains, above which three white peaks were shining". Within this valley, a long series of short waterfalls led down to a long, oval lake, which appeared to have a magical quality: "There, like jewels sunk in the deep shone glinting stars, though sunlight was in the sky above". Perceiving these stars as a crown glittering above his head, Durin took this as an auspicious sign, named the lake Kheled-zâram, the'Mirrormere'.
The three peaks overshadowing the lake he named Barazinbar'the Redhorn', Zirakzigil'the Silvertine' and Bundushathûr,'Cloudyhead'. The icy-cold springs below the lake he called Kibil-nâla, the valley itself he gave the name Azanulbizar, the Dimrill Dale. Durin chose the eastward-facing caves above Kheled-zâram as the earliest beginnings of his new stronghold. All of these places became revered by Durin's Folk. A rune-carved stone monolith – Durin's Stone — was erected on the site where Durin had first looked into the Mirrormere, it was still standing, although much worn at the end of the Third Age. Not far within Moria's original caves, thus not far within the city of Khazad-dûm, lay a subterranean abyss of vast depth: the Black Chasm, whose Sindarin translation Moria was applied to the whole subterranean complex; the Black Chasm was some fifty feet wide. The Black Chasm was a second line of defence to Khazad-dûm's Great Gates, it lay at the eastern end of Khazad-dûm's Second Hall, where ther
In J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy writings, Orcs are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains of The Silmarillion, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings—Morgoth and Saruman. Although not dim-witted and crafty, they are portrayed as miserable beings, hating everyone including themselves and their masters, whom they serve out of fear, they make no beautiful things, but rather design cunning devices made to destroy. In some of his unpublished early work, Tolkien appears to distinguish orcs from goblins. By the time of his published work, the terms had become synonymous; the Hobbit uses the term goblin, while The Lord of the Rings prefers orc. The opponents of the dwarves in "Dwarf and Goblin War" of The Hobbit are described as orcs in Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings. No distinction is made by size. Tolkien's The Father Christmas Letters features goblins. Orc is from Old English orcneas, which appears in the epic poem Beowulf, refers to one of the races who are called the offspring of Cain during the initial description of Grendel.
In a letter of 1954 Tolkien gave orc as "demon" and claimed he used the word because of its "phonetic suitability"—its similarity to various equivalent terms in his Middle-earth languages. In an essay on Elven languages, written in 1954, Tolkien gives meaning of'orc' as "evil spirit or bogey" and goes on to state that the origin of the Old English word is the Latin name Orcus—god of the underworld. About the goblins of The Hobbit, Tolkien wrote: They are not based on direct experience of mine. There is no evidence for Tolkien having been influenced by the spelled character Orc in William Blake's mythology. In the High-elven tongue Quenya, the word for "Orc" was urco, plural urqui, meaning "bogey", or "bogeyman", that is, something that provokes fear. In the Grey-elven tongue Sindarin, it was plural yrch. In the Dwarven tongue Khuzdul, it was rukhs, plural rakhâs. In the language of the Drúedain or Wild Men, it was gorgûn. In the Black Speech of Mordor, the equivalent was Uruk, as can be seen in Uruk-hai, "Orc-folk".
Orc itself is from Rohirric and the Hobbit-language, which shared linguistic roots, but the term is related to the older Elvish words. Uruk and Uruk-hai were reserved for the Uruks themselves, breeds of Orc; the Sindar referred to the Orcs as a whole as the Glamhoth, "noisy horde". The word "goblin" is used to represent the original Hobbit Orc. In The History of Middle-earth Tolkien writes about an Orc captain named Boldog but specifies that Boldog may have been either a term or a title for another special kind of Orc instead of a personal name; the earliest appearance of goblins in Tolkien's writings is the 1915 poem Goblin Feet his first published work, which appeared in the annual volume of Oxford Poetry published by Blackwells. It features quaint elvin creatures, some 45 years Tolkien dismissed it as juvenile. In The Book of Lost Tales the names Orcs and goblin are given to creatures who enslave and war with the Elves. Christopher Tolkien notes that while the author differentiates between "goblins and Orcs" in the Tale of Tinúviel, the two terms appear to be synonymous in the Tale of Turambar.
The word Gongs is used on a few occasions. Christopher Tolkien remarks that Gongs are "evil beings obscurely related to Orcs". Both goblins and Orcs are mentioned as being "of Melkor" and acting independently. Orcs and gongs appear in Tolkien's two lexicons of elvish languages; the Qenya Lexicon from 1915 defines Orc as meaning "monster, demon", the Gnomish Lexicon dated 1917 defines Orc as "goblin" and Gong as "one of a tribe of the Orcs, a goblin". Christopher Tolkien notes that in the latter lexicon, the word Gnome is an emendation from Goblin. In The Hobbit the inhabitants of the Misty Mountains who capture the Dwarves of Thorin's Company, who fight the Men and Dwarves at the Battle of the Five Armies, are identified as goblins, consistent with the usage in The Book of Lost Tales; the term Orc does occur twice. In The Lord of the Rings, Orc is used predominantly, goblin appears in the hobbits' speech; the second volume of the story, The Two Towers, "goblin" is applied to large orcs of the Uruk-hai: There were four goblin-soldiers of greater stature, slant-eyed, with thick legs and large hands.
They were armed with short broad-bladed swords, not with the curved scimitars usual with Orcs: and they had bows of yew, in length and shape like the bows of Men. And: Upon a stake in the middle was set a great goblin head; the "white badge" mentioned in the latter passage makes it clear that the beheaded goblin was one of Saruman's Uruk-hai. Tolkien writes. Tolkien wrote the following note, a
Gandalf is a fictional character and a protagonist in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, he is a wizard, member of the Istari order, as well as leader of the Fellowship of the Ring and the army of the West. In The Lord of the Rings, he is known as Gandalf the Grey, but returns from death as Gandalf the White. Although known as Gandalf, the character has a number of names in Tolkien's writings. Gandalf himself says, "Many are my names in many countries. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkûn to the Dwarves, Olórin I was in my youth in the West, forgotten, in the South Incánus, in the North Gandalf. In Norse the name means staff-elf; this is reflected in his name Tharkûn, "said to mean'Staff-man' " in Khuzdul, one of Tolkien's invented languages. In Middle-earth the colour of a Wizard's cloak distinguishes him from other Wizards. For most of his manifestation as a wizard, Gandalf's cloak is famously grey, from this derive a number of his appellations: hence Gandalf the Grey, Greyhame.
Mithrandir is a name in Sindarin, the translation of which gives rise to further names for Gandalf: the Grey Pilgrim and the Grey Wanderer. Midway through The Lord of the Rings, Gandalf is promoted to the head of the order of Wizards, is thus named Gandalf the White instead of Gandalf the Grey; this change in status introduces yet another name for the wizard: the White Rider. However after this transformation, characters who speak Elvish still refer to the wizard as Mithrandir. At times in The Lord of the Rings, other characters address Gandalf by nicknames disparaging: hence Stormcrow, Láthspell, Grey Fool. Láthspell means'Ill-news' in Old English. Tolkien discusses Gandalf in his essay on the Istari, he describes Gandalf as the last of the wizards to appear in Middle-earth, one who: "seemed the least, less tall than the others, in looks more aged, grey-haired and grey-clad, leaning on a staff". Yet the Elf Círdan who met him on arrival considered him "the greatest spirit and the wisest" and gave him the Elven Ring of Power called Narya, the Ring of Fire, containing a "red" stone for his aid and comfort.
Tolkien explicitly links Gandalf to the element fire in the same essay: Warm and eager was his spirit, for he was the Enemy of Sauron, opposing the fire that devours and wastes with the fire that kindles, succours in wanhope and distress. Merry he could be, kindly to the young and simple, yet quick at times to sharp speech and the rebuking of folly, he journeyed tirelessly on foot, leaning on a staff, so he was called among Men of the North Gandalf'the Elf of the Wand'. For they deemed him to be of Elven-kind, since he would at times work wonders among them, loving the beauty of fire, yet it is said that in the ending of the task for which he came he suffered and was slain, being sent back from death for a brief while was clothed in white, became a radiant flame. As one of the Maiar, Gandalf would have participated in the Music of the Ainur at the creation of the world; however he does not attain any prominence. In Valinor, Gandalf was known as Olórin; as recounted in the "Valaquenta" in The Silmarillion, he was one of the Maiar of Valinor of the people of the ValaManwë.
He was closely associated with two other Valar: Irmo, in whose gardens he lived, Nienna, the patron of mercy, who gave him tutelage. When the Valar decided to send the order of the Wizards to Middle-earth in order to counsel and assist all those who opposed Sauron, Olórin was proposed by Manwë. Olórin begged to be excused as he feared Sauron and lacked the strength to face him, but Manwë replied that, all the more reason for him to go; as one of the Maiar, Gandalf was not a mortal Man but an angelic being. As one of those spirits, Olórin was in service to the Creator and the Creator's'Secret Fire'. Along with the other Maiar who entered into the world as the five Wizards, he took on the specific form of an aged old man as a sign of his humility; the role of the wizards was to advise and counsel but never to attempt to match Sauron's strength with his own, the kings and lords of Middle-earth would be more receptive to the advice of a humble old man than a more glorious form giving them direct commands.
The Istari arrived in Middle-earth separately, around T. A. 1000. He seemed the oldest and least in stature of them, but Círdan the Shipwright felt that he had the highest inner greatness on their first meeting in the Havens, gave him Narya, the Ring of Fire. Saruman, the chief Wizard learned of the gift and resented it. Gandalf hid the ring well, it was not known until he left with the other ring-bearers at the end of the Third Age that he, not Círdan, was the holder of the third of the Elven-rings. Gandalf's relationship with Saruman, the head of their Order, was strained; the Wizards were commanded to aid Men and Dwarves, but only through counsel.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ
The work was intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, the other to be The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher. For economic reasons, The Lord of the Rings was published in three volumes over the course of a year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955; the three volumes were titled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end; some editions combine the entire work into a single volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been translated into 38 languages. Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917, in a process he described as mythopoeia. Influences on this earlier work, on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.
The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy. The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works, the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works; the Lord of the Rings has inspired, continues to inspire, music and television, video games, board games, subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio and film. In 2003, it was named Britain's best novel of all time in the BBC's The Big Read. Thousands of years before the events of the novel, the Dark Lord Sauron had forged the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power and corrupt those who wore them: three for Elves, seven for Dwarves, nine for Men. Sauron was defeated by an alliance of Men led by Gil-galad and Elendil, respectively. In the final battle, son of Elendil, cut the One Ring from Sauron's finger, causing Sauron to lose his physical form.
Isildur claimed the Ring as an heirloom for his line, but when he was ambushed and killed by the Orcs, the Ring was lost in the River Anduin. Over two thousand years the Ring was found by one of the river-folk called Déagol, his friend Sméagol fell under strangled Déagol to acquire it. Sméagol was hid under the Misty Mountains; the Ring gave him long life and changed him over hundreds of years into a twisted, corrupted creature called Gollum. Gollum lost the Ring, his "precious", as told in The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins found it. Meanwhile, Sauron took back his old realm of Mordor; when Gollum set out in search of the Ring, he was tortured by Sauron. Sauron learned from Gollum. Gollum was set loose. Sauron, who needed the Ring to regain his full power, sent forth his powerful servants, the Nazgûl, to seize it; the story begins in the Shire, where the hobbit Frodo Baggins inherits the Ring from Bilbo Baggins, his cousin and guardian. Neither hobbit is aware of the Ring's nature, but Gandalf the Grey, a wizard and an old friend of Bilbo, suspects it to be Sauron's Ring.
Seventeen years after Gandalf confirms his guess, he tells Frodo the history of the Ring and counsels him to take it away from the Shire. Frodo sets out, accompanied by his gardener and friend, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, two cousins, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, they are nearly caught by the Black Riders, but shake off their pursuers by cutting through the Old Forest. There they are aided by Tom Bombadil, a strange and merry fellow who lives with his wife Goldberry in the forest; the hobbits reach the town of Bree, where they encounter a Ranger named Strider, whom Gandalf had mentioned in a letter. Strider persuades the hobbits to take him on as their protector. Together, they leave Bree after another close escape from the Black Riders. On the hill of Weathertop, they are again attacked by the Black Riders, who wound Frodo with a cursed blade. Strider leads the hobbits towards the Elven refuge of Rivendell. Frodo falls deathly ill from the wound; the Black Riders nearly capture him at the Ford of Bruinen, but flood waters summoned by Elrond, master of Rivendell, rise up and overwhelm them.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor