American Philosophical Society
The American Philosophical Society, founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, library resources, community outreach. Considered the first learned society in the United States, it has played an important role in American cultural and intellectual life for over 270 years. Through research grants, published journals, the American Philosophical Society Museum, an extensive library, regular meetings, the society continues to advance a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the sciences. Philosophical Hall, now a museum, is located just east of Independence Hall in Independence National Historical Park; the Philosophical Society, as it was called, was founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin, James Alexander, Francis Hopkinson, John Bartram, Philip Syng, Jr. and others as an offshoot of an earlier club, the Junto.
It was founded two years after the University of Pennsylvania, with which it remains tied. Since its inception, the society attracted America's finest minds. Early members included George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James McHenry, Thomas Paine, David Rittenhouse, Nicholas Biddle, Owen Biddle, Benjamin Rush, James Madison, Michael Hillegas, John Marshall, John Andrews; the society recruited members from other countries, including Alexander von Humboldt, the Marquis de Lafayette, Baron von Steuben, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Princess Dashkova. By 1746 the society had lapsed into inactivity. In 1767, however, it was revived, on January 2, 1769, it united with the American Society for Promoting Useful Knowledge under the name American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge. Benjamin Franklin was elected the first president. During this time, the society maintained a standing Committee on American Improvements; the canal, proposed by Thomas Gilpin, Sr. would not become reality until the 1820s.
After the American Revolution, the society looked for leadership to Francis Hopkinson, one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence. Under his influence, the society received land from the government of Pennsylvania, along with a plot of land in Philadelphia where Philosophical Hall now stands. Illustrious names have continually been added to the membership roster, reflecting the society's scope. Charles Darwin, Robert Frost, Louis Pasteur, Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz, John James Audubon, Linus Pauling, Margaret Mead, Maria Mitchell, Thomas Edison became members of the society; the society continues to attract names of high renown today, with a current membership list of 920 members, including 772 resident members and 148 foreign members representing more than two dozen countries. Many members of the Society of the Cincinnati were among the APS's first board members and contributors. In 1786, the society established the Magellanic Premium, a prize for achievement in "navigation, astronomy, or natural philosophy," the oldest scientific prize awarded by an American institution, which it still awards.
Other awards include the Barzun Prize for cultural history, Judson Daland Prize for Outstanding Achievement in Clinical Investigation, the Benjamin Franklin Medal, the Lashley Award for neurobiology, the Lewis Award, the Thomas Jefferson Medal for distinguished achievement in the arts, humanities, or social sciences. The APS has published the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society since 1771. Five issues appear each year; the Proceedings have appeared since 1838: they publish the papers delivered at the biannual meetings of the society. The society has published the collected papers of Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Henry, William Penn, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Jane Aitken bound some 400 volumes for the society. Philosophical Hall, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at 104 South Fifth Street, between Chestnut and Walnut Streets south of Old City Hall, was built in 1785–89 to house the society and was designed by Samuel Vaughan in the Federal style. A third floor was added in 1890, to accommodate the expanding library, but was removed in 1948–50 when the building was restored to its original appearance for the creation of Independence National Historical Park.
In 2001, it was opened to the public as The American Philosophical Society Museum, hosting revolving, thematic exhibitions that explore the intersections of history and science. The museum features works of art, scientific instruments, original manuscripts, rare books, natural history specimens, curiosities of all kinds from the APS's own collections, along with objects on loan from other institutions. In 1789–90, the Library Company of Philadelphia built its headquarters directly across 5th Street from APS. LCP sold its building in 1884, demolished for the expansion of the Drexel & Company Building in 1887; this building itself was demolished in the mid-1950s, during the creation of Independence National Historical Park. APS built a library on the site in 1958, recreated the facade of the old LCP building. According to historical ghost stories, Benjamin Franklin's spirit haunts the library, his statue at the front of the building "comes to life and dances in the streets." APS restored the former Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank building at 425–29 Chestnut Street, built in 1854–
The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
Royal Society of Arts
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges. Founded in 1754 by William Shipley as the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, it was granted a Royal Charter in 1847, the right to use the term Royal in its name by King Edward VII in 1908; the shorter version, The Royal Society of Arts and the related RSA acronym, are used more than the full name. Notable past fellows include Charles Dickens, Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Hawking, Karl Marx, Adam Smith, Nelson Mandela, David Attenborough, William Hogarth, John Diefenbaker, Tim Berners-Lee. Today, the RSA has Fellows elected from 80 countries worldwide; the RSA award three medals, the Albert Medal, the Benjamin Franklin Medal and the Bicentenary Medal. Medal winners include Nelson Mandela, Sir Frank Whittle, Professor Stephen Hawking; the RSA members are innovative contributors to the human knowledge, as shown by the Oxford English Dictionary, which records the first use of the term "sustainability" in an environmental sense of the word in the RSA Journal in 1980.
On the RSA building's frieze The Royal Society of Arts words are engraved, although its full name is Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts and Commerce. The short name and the related R S of A abbreviation is used more than the full name; the RSA's mission expressed in the founding charter was to "embolden enterprise, enlarge science, refine art, improve our manufacturers and extend our commerce", but of the need to alleviate poverty and secure full employment. On its website, the RSA characterises itself as "an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to today’s social challenges"; the RSA's Patron is HM Elizabeth II, the RSA's President is HRH The Princess Royal, its Chairman is Vikki Heywood, its Chief Executive is Matthew Taylor. 1755–1761: The Viscount Folkestone 1761–1793: The Lord Romney 1794–1815: The Duke of Norfolk 1816–1843: HRH The Duke of Sussex 1843–1861: HRH The Prince Consort 1862–1862: William Tooke 1863–1901: HRH The Prince of Wales 1901–1901: Sir Frederick Bramwell 1901–1910: HRH The Prince of Wales 1910–1910: The Lord Alverstone 1911–1942: HRH The Duke of Connaught 1942–1943: Sir Edward Crowe 1943–1945: E. F. Armstrong 1945–1947: The Viscount Bennett 1947–1952: The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh 1952–2011: HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 2011–present: HRH The Princess Royal Prospective fellows can apply for membership.
There have been nearly 28,000 Fellows since 1754. Fellows must have demonstrated a high level of achievement related to the arts and commerce and more "share the values" of the RSA and be "committed to supporting the mission of the RSA"; this change coincided with a rebranding of the RSA mission as a "21st century enlightenment" and its approach as "The Power to Create", which aims at broadening the RSA's impact through increasing its Fellowship. Life Fellows must have demonstrated exceptionally high achievement; the RSA says: "The RSA Fellowship is an international community achievers and influencers from a wide array of backgrounds and professions, distinguished by the title'FRSA'. Fellows are social entrepreneurs to scientists, community leaders to commercial innovators and journalists to architects and engineers, many more." Fellows of the RSA are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSA. Fellowship is regarded as an honour and privilege. Modelled on the Dublin Society for improving Husbandry and other Useful Arts, the RSA, from its foundation, offered prizes through a Premium Award Scheme that continued for 100 years.
Medals and, in some cases, money were awarded to individuals who achieved success in published challenges within the categories of Agriculture, Polite Arts, Manufacture and Trade, Chemistry and Mechanics. Successful submission included agricultural improvements in the cultivation of crops and reforestation, devising new forms of machinery, including an extendable ladder to aid firefighting that has remained in use unchanged, artistic skill, through submissions by young students, many of whom developed into famous artists i.e. Edwin Landseer who at the age of 10 was awarded a silver medal for his drawing of a dog; the RSA specifically precluded premiums for patented solutions. Today the RSA continues to offer premiums. In 1936, the RSA awarded the first distinctions of Royal Designers for Industry, reserved for "those few who in the judgment of their peers have achieved'sustained excellence in aesthetic and efficient design for industry'". In 1937 "The Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry" was established as an association with the object of "furthering excellence in design and its application to industrial purposes": membership of the Faculty is automatic for all RDIs and HonRDIs.
The Faculty has 120 Royal Designers and 45 Honorary Royal Designers: the number of designers who may hold the distinction of RDI at any one time is limited. The Faculty consists of the world’s leading practitioners from fields as disparate as engineering, furniture and textiles, graphics and film design. Early members include Eric Gill, Enid Marx, Sir Frank Whittle and numerous ot
Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
The Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres is a French learned society devoted to the humanities, founded in February 1663 as one of the five academies of the Institut de France. The Académie originated in 1663 as a council of four humanists, "scholars who were the most versed in the knowledge of history and antiquity": Jean Chapelain, François Charpentier, Jacques Cassagne, Amable de Bourzeys, Charles Perrault. In another source, Perrault is not mentioned, other original members are named as François Charpentier and a M. Douvrier; the organizer was King Louis XIV's finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Its first name was the Académie royale des Inscriptions et Médailles, its mission was to compose or obtain Latin inscriptions to be written on public monuments and medals issued to celebrate the events of Louis' reign. However, under Colbert's management, the Académie performed many additional roles, such as determining the art that would decorate the Palace of Versailles. In 1683 Minister Louvois increased the membership to eight.
In 1701 its membership was expanded to 40 and reorganized under the leadership of Chancellor Pontchartrain. It met twice a week at the Louvre, its members began to receive significant pensions, was made an official state institution on the king's decree. In January 1716 it was permanently renamed to the Académie royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres with the broader goal of elevating the prestige of the French monarchy using physical symbols uncovered or recovered through the methods of classical erudition; the Académie produced a catalogue of medals created in honor of Louis XIV, Médailles sur les événements du règne de Louis le Grand, avec des explications historiques, first published in 1702. A second edition was published eight years after Louis' death; each page of the catalogue featured engraved images of the obverse and reverse of a single medal, followed by a lengthy description of the event upon which it was based. The second edition added some medals for events prior to 1700 which were not included in the first volume, in some cases the images of medals in the earlier edition were altered, resulting in an improved version.
The catalogues may therefore be seen as an artistic effort to enhance the king's image, rather than as an accurate historical record. In the words of the Académie's charter, it is: concerned with the study of the monuments, the documents, the languages, the cultures of the civilizations of antiquity, the Middle Ages, the classical period, as well as those of non-European civilizations. Today the academy is composed of fifty-five French members, forty associate foreign members, fifty French corresponding members, fifty foreign corresponding members; the seats are distributed evenly among "orientalists", "antiquists", "medievalists", a fourth miscellaneous group of linguists, law historians, historians of religion, historians of thought, prehistorians. The Volney Prize is awarded based on the proposal of the Académie, it publishes Mémoires. For a list of the Academy's members past and present, see Category:Members of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres French art salons and academies Official website Notes on the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres from the Scholarly Societies project
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts is the national academy of Croatia. Founded in 1866, it is the oldest national academy in Southeast Europe. HAZU was founded under patronage of the Croatian bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer under the name Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts since its founder wanted to make it the central scientific and artistic institution of all South Slavs. Today, its main goals are encouraging and organizing scientific work, applying the achieved results, development of artistic and cultural activities, carrying about the Croatian cultural heritage and its affirmation in the world, publishing the results of scientific research and artistic creativity and giving suggestions and opinions for the advancement of science and art in areas of particular importance to Croatia; the academy is divided into nine classes. The Academy started in 1866 with 16 full members which grew to today's 160. Besides full, members can be honorary, corresponding or associate; the institution was founded in Zagreb on 29 April 1861 by the decision of the Croatian Parliament as the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts.
The bishop and benefactor Josip Juraj Strossmayer, a prominent advocate of higher education during the 19th century Croatian national romanticism, set up a trust fund for this purpose and in 1860 submitted a large donation to the viceroy of Croatia Josip Šokčević for the cause of being able to After some years of deliberations by the Croatian Parliament and the Emperor Franz Joseph, it was sanctioned by law in 1866. The official sponsor was Josip Juraj Strossmayer, while the first Chairman of the Academy was the distinguished Croatian historian Franjo Rački. Đuro Daničić was elected for secretary general of the Academy, where he played a key role in preparing the Academy's Dictionary, "Croatian or Serbian Dictionary of JAZU". The Academy's creation was the logical extension of the University of Zagreb, the institution created in 1669 and renewed by bishop Strossmayer in 1874. Bishop Strossmayer initiated the building of the Academy Palace in the Zrinjevac park of Zagreb, the Palace was completed in 1880.
In 1884, the Palace became a host of The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters that contained 256 works of art. The same is today one of the most prominent art galleries in Zagreb; the Academy started publishing the academic journal Rad in 1867. In 1882, each of the individual scientific classes of the Academy started printing their own journals. In 1887, the Academy published the first "Ljetopis" as a year book, as well as several other publications in history and ethnology. Ivan Supek, Mihailo Petrović, Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger and Lavoslav Ružička were JAZU members; the Academy changed name from "Yugoslav" to "Croatian" between 1941 and 1945 during the Axis client regime of the Independent State of Croatia. It has again been renamed "Croatian" in 1991; the Academy is divided into nine departments: Department of Social Sciences Department of Mathematical and Chemical Sciences Department of Natural Sciences Department of Medical Sciences Department of Philological Sciences Department of Literature Department of Fine Arts Department of Music and Musicology Department of Technical Sciences One of the research units of the Academy is the Institute for Historical Sciences.
It is located in a Renaissance villa in Dubrovnik, holds a rich manuscript and library collection. Two peer-reviewed journals are published by the Institute, which are available online: Anali in Croatian and Dubrovnik Annals in English. There are four classes of members: Full members Associate members Honorary members Corresponding membersThe number of full members and corresponding members is limited to 160 each, while the maximum number of associate members is 100. Number of full members per department is limited to 24. Only the full members may carry the title of "academician"; the Academy has been criticized to the effect that membership and activities are based on academic cronyism and political favor rather than on scientific and artistic merit. In 2006 matters came to a head with the Academy's refusal to induct Dr. Miroslav Radman, an accomplished biologist, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, an advocate of a higher degree of meritocracy and accountability in Croatian academia.
His supporters within the Academy and the media decried the decision as reinforcing a politically motivated, unproductive status quo. Dr. Ivo Banac, a Yale University professor and a deputy in the Croatian parliament, addressed the chamber in a speech decrying a "dictatorship of mediocrity" in the Academy, while Globus columnist Boris Dežulović satirized the institution as an "Academy of stupidity and obedience." Dr. Vladimir Paar and others defended the Academy's decision, averring that it did take pains to include accomplished scientists but that, since Dr. Radman's work has taken place outside Croatia, it was appropriate that he remain a Corresponding rather than a Full Member of the Academy. Nenad Ban, a distinguished molecular biologist from ETH Zurich and a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina is only a corresponding member of HAZU. Ivan Đikić, an accomplished Croatian scientist, working at the Goethe University Frankfurt, a member of Leopoldina sin
Gnessin State Musical College
The Gnessin State Musical College and Gnesins Russian Academy of Music is a prominent music school in Moscow, Russia. Known as the Gnessin Institute, it was established on February 15, 1895 by three sisters: Evgenia Fabianovna, Elena Fabianovna, Maria Fabianovna Gnessin; each of the Gnessin sisters had studied piano and graduated with distinction from the Moscow Conservatory. The college became, remains, an elite music school, considered second only to the Moscow Conservatory; the Gnessin sisters were born in Rostov-on-Don, the children of Rostov Rabbi Fabian Osipovich Gnessin. The entire family appears to have possessed musical talent, their brother, Mikhail Fabianovich Gnessin, was a celebrated composer and teacher who served as head of Gnessin State Musical College. Russian unless otherwise stated Gnesin Academy of Music official website Gnessin State Musical College website
Royal Society of Thailand
The Royal Society of Thailand known as the Royal Society of Siam, is the national academy of Thailand in charge of academic works of the government. The secretariat of the society is the Office of the Royal Society of Thailand known as the Royal Institute of Thailand; the office is an independent department in the executive branch of Thailand and is not subject to any other agency. The Royal Society of Siam was established on 19 April 1926 and was dissolved on 31 March 1933; the dissolved society was split into the Royal Institute of Thailand and the Fine Arts Department of Thailand. On 14 February 2015, the Royal Institute of Thailand was reorganised, its administrative council became the Royal Society of Thailand, whilst the institute itself became the office of the society. According to the present structure, the members of the Royal Society of Thailand are of three types: associate fellows and honorary fellows; the associate fellows are experts appointed by the society. The fellows are associate fellows selected by the society and appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister.
And the honorary fellows are prominent experts selected by the society and appointed in the same manner as the fellows. The society is known for its official roles in the planning and regulation of the Thai language, as well as its many publications the Royal Institute Dictionary, the official and prescriptive dictionary of the Thai language, the Royal Thai General System of Transcription, the official system for romanising Thai words; the budget allocated to the Royal Society for FY2019 is 192.2 million baht. On 19 April 1926, the Royal Society of Siam was established by King Prajadhipok; the society was dissolved on 31 March 1933 and its divisions were incorporated into two new agencies. The academic divisions became the Royal Institute of Thailand; the archaeological divisions became the Fine Arts Department of Thailand. According to the Act on Royal Institute, 1934, which took effect on 24 April 1933, the institute was a legal person sponsored by the government and the prime minister was in charge of the institute.
The act gave the institute three main duties: to conduct research in all fields and publish the outcomes for the common good of the nation, to exchange knowledge with foreign academic bodies, to provide academic opinions to the government and public agencies. Under the act, the institute members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon approval of the cabinet and the House of Representatives. On 1 April 1942, 1942, entered into force; the act changed the status of the institute from a legal person to a public organisation and authorised the prime minister to directly command the institute. The act modified the method of selecting the institute members; the members were nominated to the monarch by the prime minister. On 31 December 1944, 1944, came into operation, it again modified the member selection method. The institute became an independent department commanded by the prime minister and its members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister.
On 12 March 1952, 1952, became operative. It changed the commander of the institute from the prime minister to the culture minister. On 1 September 1958, 1958, became effective, it again changed the commander of the institute from the culture minister to the education minister. On 29 September 1972, Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn, leader of the junta called Revolutionary Council, issued the Revolutionary Council Announcement No. 216 which once again modified the status of the institute. According to the announcement, the institute changed its status from an independent department to a government department, not subject to any other agency and was commanded by the education minister. On 13 November 2001, 2001, entered into operation. Under the act, the institute was a government department, not subject to any other agency; the act improved the structure of the institute and increased its missions. On 14 February 2015, 2015, came into force and reorganised the institute. Under the act, the administrative council of the institute known as Council of Fellows, became the Royal Society, the institute became the secretariat of the society, known as the Office of the Royal Society.
The act granted many new powers to the office, including the powers to manage its own budgets, to provide advanced training in all fields of the society, to confer certificates upon the trainees. A welfare fund for the society members was established by the act. Many of the fellows objected to renaming the institute because no public hearing on the matter was held. On 21 August 2006, the society relocated to offices at Sanam Suea Pa, near the Royal Plaza in Bangkok; the institute was located in the Grand Palace, Bangkok. For administrative purposes, the society has four divisions: Secretariat General Moral and Political Sciences Division Science Division Arts DivisionThe society's website states that each division has a staff of civil servants and clerical employees who perform both business and academic functions facilitating the works of fellows and associate fellows as well as conducting and promoting various academic activities. Scholars from the academic community of Thailand can ap