Sidewise Award for Alternate History
The Sidewise Awards for Alternate History were established in 1995 to recognize the best alternative history stories and novels of the year. The awards take their name from the 1934 short story "Sidewise in Time" by Murray Leinster, in which a strange storm causes portions of Earth to swap places with their analogs from other timelines; the awards were created by Steven H Silver, Evelyn C. Leeper, Robert B. Schmunk. Over the years, the number of judges has fluctuated between three and eight, including judges in the UK and South Africa; each year, two awards are presented at the World Science Fiction Convention. The Short-Form award is presented to a work under 60,000 words in length; the Long-Form award may be presented to a work longer than 60,000 words, including both novels and complete series. At their discretion, the judges may elect to recognize an individual or work with a Special Achievement Award in recognition of works that were published prior to the award's inception. 1995 – Paul J. McAuley, Pasquale's Angel 1996 – Stephen Baxter, Voyage 1997 – Harry Turtledove, How Few Remain 1998 – Stephen Fry, Making History 1999 – Brendan DuBois, Resurrection Day 2000 – Mary Gentle, Ash: A Secret History 2001 – J. N. Stroyar, The Children's War 2002 –: Martin J. Gidron, The Severed Wing & Harry Turtledove, Ruled Britannia 2003 – Murray Davies, Collaborator 2004 – Philip Roth, The Plot Against America 2005 – Ian R. MacLeod, The Summer Isles 2006 – Charles Stross, The Family Trade, The Hidden Family, The Clan Corporate 2007 – Michael Chabon, The Yiddish Policemen's Union 2008 – Chris Roberson, The Dragon's Nine Sons 2009 – Robert Conroy, 1942 2010 – Eric G. Swedin, When Angels Wept: A What-If History of the Cuban Missile Crisis 2011 – Ian R. MacLeod, Wake Up and Dream 2012 – C. J. Sansom, Dominion 2013 – D.
J. Taylor, The Windsor Faction & Bryce Zabel, Surrounded by Enemies: What If Kennedy Survived Dallas? 2014 – Kristine Kathryn Rusch, The Enemy Within 2015 – Julie Mayhew, The Big Lie 2016 – Ben H. Winters, Underground Airlines 2017 – Bryce Zabel, Once There Was a Way 1995 – Stephen Baxter, "Brigantia's Angels" 1996 – Walter Jon Williams, "Foreign Devils" 1997 – William Sanders, "The Undiscovered" 1998 – Ian R. MacLeod, "The Summer Isles" 1999 – Alain Bergeron, "The Eighth Register" 2000 – Ted Chiang, "Seventy-two Letters" 2001 – Ken MacLeod, "The Human Front" 2002 – William Sanders, "Empire" 2003 – Chris Roberson, "O One" 2004 – Warren Ellis, The Ministry of Space 2005 – Lois Tilton, "Pericles the Tyrant" 2006 – Gardner Dozois, "Counterfactual" 2007 –: Michael Flynn, "Quaestiones Super Caelo Et Mundo" & Kristine Kathryn Rusch, "Recovering Apollo 8" 2008 – Mary Rosenblum, "Sacrifice" 2009 – Alastair Reynolds, "The Fixation" 2010 – Alan Smale, "A Clash of Eagles" 2011 – Lisa Goldstein, "Paradise Is a Walled Garden" 2012 – Rick Wilber, "Something Real" 2013 – Vylar Kaftan, "The Weight of the Sunrise" 2014 – Ken Liu, "The Long Haul: From the Annals of Transportation, The Pacific Monthly, May 2009" 2015 – Bill Crider, "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" 2016 –: Daniel M. Bensen, "Treasure Fleet" & Adam Rovner, "What If the Jewish State Had Been Established in East Africa" 2017 – Harry Turtledove, "Zigeuner" 1995 – L. Sprague de Camp, lifetime achievement 1997 – Robert Sobel: For Want of a Nail 1999 – Randall Garrett: The Lord Darcy Series The Sidewise Award website
Retrofuturism is a movement in the creative arts showing the influence of depictions of the future produced in an earlier era. If futurism is sometimes called a'science' bent on anticipating what will come, retrofuturism is the remembering of that anticipation." Characterized by a blend of old-fashioned "retro styles" with futuristic technology, retrofuturism explores the themes of tension between past and future, between the alienating and empowering effects of technology. Reflected in artistic creations and modified technologies that realize the imagined artifacts of its parallel reality, retrofuturism can be seen as "an animating perspective on the world". However, it has manifested in the worlds of fashion, design, literature and video games. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, an early use of the term appears in a Bloomingdales advertisement in a 1983 issue of The New York Times; the ad talks of jewellery, "silverized steel and sleek grey linked for a retro-futuristic look". In an example more related to retrofuturism as an exploration of past visions of the future, the term appears in the form of “retro-futurist” in a 1984 review of the film Brazil in The New Yorker.
Critic Pauline Kael writes, " presents a retro-futurist fantasy."Several websites have referenced a 1967 book published by Pelican Books called "Retro-Futurism" by T. R. Hinchliffe as the originator of the term, but this account is unverified. There exist no records of this author. Retrofuturism builds on ideas of futurism, but the latter term functions differently in several different contexts. In avant-garde artistic and design circles, futurism is a long-standing and well established term, but in its more popular form, futurism is "an early optimism that focused on the past and was rooted in the nineteenth century, an early-twentieth-century'golden age' that continued long into the 1960s' Space Age". Retrofuturism is first and foremost based on modern but changing notions of "the future"; as Guffey notes, retrofuturism is "a recent neologism", but it "builds on futurists' fevered visions of space colonies with flying cars, robotic servants, interstellar travel on display there. It took its current shape in the 1970s, a time when technology was changing.
From the advent of the personal computer to the birth of the first test tube baby, this period was characterized by intense and rapid technological change. But many in the general public began to question whether applied science would achieve its earlier promise—that life would improve through technological progress. In the wake of the Vietnam War, environmental depredations, the energy crisis, many commentators began to question the benefits of applied science, but they wondered, sometimes in awe, sometimes in confusion, at the scientific positivism evinced by earlier generations. Retrofuturism "seeped into academic and popular culture in the 1960s and 1970s", inflecting George Lucas's Star Wars and the paintings of pop artist Kenny Scharf alike". Surveying the optimistic futurism of the early twentieth century, the historians Joe Corn and Brian Horrigan remind us that retrofuturism is "a history of an idea, or a system of ideas—an ideology; the future, or course, does not exist except as an act of belief or imagination."
Retrofuturism incorporates two overlapping trends which may be summarized as the future as seen from the past and the past as seen from the future. The first trend, retrofuturism proper, is directly inspired by the imagined future which existed in the minds of writers and filmmakers in the pre-1960 period who attempted to predict the future, either in serious projections of existing technology or in science fiction novels and stories; such futuristic visions are refurbished and updated for the present, offer a nostalgic, counterfactual image of what the future might have been, but is not. The second trend is the inverse of the first: futuristic retro, it starts with the retro appeal of old styles of art, clothing and grafts modern or futuristic technologies onto it, creating a mélange of past and future elements. Steampunk, a term applying both to the retrojection of futuristic technology into an alternative Victorian age, the application of neo-Victorian styles to modern technology, is a successful version of this second trend.
In the movie Space Station 76, mankind has reached the stars, but clothes, technology and above all social taboos are purposely reminiscent of the mid-1970s. In practice, the two trends cannot be distinguished, as they mutually contribute to similar visions. Retrofuturism of the first type is influenced by the scientific and social awareness of the present, modern retrofuturistic creations are never copies of their pre-1960 inspirations. In the same way, futuristic retro owes much of its flavor to early science fiction, in a quest for stylistic authenticity may continue to draw on writers and artists of the desired period. Both retrofuturistic trends in themselves refer to no specific time; when a time period is supplied for a story, it might be a counterfactual present with unique technology. Examples include the film Sky Captain and the World of
Lady Cynthia Asquith
Lady Cynthia Mary Evelyn Asquith was an English writer and socialite, now known for her ghost stories and diaries. She wrote novels and edited a number of anthologies, as well as writing for children and on the British Royal family, her father was Hugo Richard Charteris, 11th Earl of her mother Mary Constance Wyndham. She married Herbert Asquith in 1910. In 1913, she met D. H. Lawrence in Margate, became a friend and correspondent, she took a position as secretary to Peter Pan creator J. M. Barrie, with whom she became close friends, continuing to work for him until his death in 1937. Barrie left the bulk of his estate to her – minus the Peter Pan works. Author L. P. Hartley became a lifelong friend. Asquith became known for editing The Ghost Book, an anthology of supernatural fiction that included work by D. H. Lawrence, Algernon Blackwood, Arthur Machen, Oliver Onions, May Sinclair. One of Asquith's stories, "The Follower", was adapted for BBC Radio, along with stories by Algernon Blackwood, Marjorie Bowen, Noel Streatfeild.
In addition to her literary work, Asquith contributed to the screenplay of the 1937 film Dreaming Lips starring Elisabeth Bergner. The Flying Carpet, editor Treasure Ship, editor The Ghost Book, editor The Duchess of York, biography The Black Cap, editor Shudders, editor When Churchyards Yawn, editor My Grimmest Nightmare, editor The Spring House, novel Dreaming Lips, screenplay One Sparkling Wave, novel This Mortal Coil, stories Haply I May Remember What Dreams May Come?, stories The Second Ghost Book, editor Portrait of Barrie The Third Ghost Book, editor Married to Tolstoy, biography Thomas Hardy at Max Gate "The Corner Shop" "God Grante That She Lye Stille," collected in When Churchyards Yawn, was adapted in 1961 by Robert Hardy Andrews as an episode of the anthology TV series Thriller. List of horror fiction authors List of science fiction editors The Diaries of Cynthia Asquith 1915-1918 Best Friends: Memories of David and Rachel Cecil, Cynthia Asquith, L. P. Hartley and Others Julian Fane Tuck, Donald H..
The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 23. ISBN 0-911682-20-1. Asquith, Cynthia in The Encyclopedia of Fantasy Cynthia Asquith at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Lady Cynthia Asquith at Library of Congress Authorities, with 47 catalogue records
Fantasy films are films that belong to the fantasy genre with fantastic themes magic, supernatural events, folklore, or exotic fantasy worlds. The genre is considered a form of speculative fiction alongside science fiction films and horror films, although the genres do overlap. Fantasy films have an element of magic, wonder and the extraordinary. Several sub-categories of fantasy films can be identified, although the delineations between these subgenres, much as in fantasy literature, are somewhat fluid; the most common fantasy subgenres depicted in movies are Sword and Sorcery. Both categories employ quasi-medieval settings, magical creatures and other elements associated with fantasy stories. High Fantasy films tend to feature a more richly developed fantasy world, may be more character-oriented or thematically complex, they feature a hero of humble origins and a clear distinction between good and evil set against each other in an epic struggle. Many scholars cite J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings novel as the prototypical modern example of High Fantasy in literature, the recent Peter Jackson film adaptation of the books is a good example of the High Fantasy subgenre on the silver screen.
Sword and Sorcery movies tend to be more plot-driven than high fantasy and focus on action sequences pitting a physically powerful but unsophisticated warrior against an evil wizard or other supernaturally endowed enemy. Although Sword and Sorcery films sometimes describe an epic battle between good and evil similar to those found in many High Fantasy movies, they may alternately present the hero as having more immediate motivations, such as the need to protect a vulnerable maiden or village, or being driven by the desire for vengeance; the 1982 film adaptation of Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarian, for example, is a personal story concerning the hero's quest for revenge and his efforts to thwart a single megalomaniac—while saving a beautiful princess in the process; some critics refer to such films by the term Sword and Sandal rather than Sword and Sorcery, although others would maintain that the Sword and Sandal label should be reserved only for the subset of fantasy films set in ancient times on the planet Earth, still others would broaden the term to encompass films that have no fantastic elements whatsoever.
To some, the term Sword and Sandal has pejorative connotations, designating a film with a low-quality script, bad acting, poor production values. Another important subgenre of fantasy films that has become more popular in recent years is contemporary fantasy; such films feature magical effects or supernatural occurrences happening in the "real" world of today. Films with live action and animation such as Disney's Mary Poppins, Pete's Dragon and the Robert Zemeckis film Who Framed Roger Rabbit are fantasy films although are more referred to as Live action/animation hybrids. Fantasy films set in the afterlife, called Bangsian Fantasy, are less common, although films such as the 1991 Albert Brooks comedy Defending Your Life would qualify. Other uncommon subgenres include Historical Fantasy and Romantic Fantasy, although 2003's Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl incorporated elements of both; as noted above, superhero movies and fairy tale films might each be considered subgenres of fantasy films, although most would classify them as altogether separate movie genres.
As a cinematic genre, fantasy has traditionally not been regarded as as the related genre of science fiction film. Undoubtedly, the fact that until fantasy films suffered from the "Sword and Sandal" afflictions of inferior production values, over-the-top acting, decidedly poor special effects was a significant factor in fantasy film's low regard. Since the early 2000s, the genre has gained new respectability in a way, driven principally by the successful adaptations of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy is notable due to its ambitious scope, serious tone, thematic complexity; these pictures achieved phenomenal commercial and critical success, the third installment of the trilogy became the first fantasy film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. The Harry Potter series has been a tremendous financial success, has achieved critical acclaim for its design, thematic sophistication and emotional depth, grittier realism and darkness, narrative complexity, characterization, boasts an enormous and loyal fanbase.
Following the success of these ventures, Hollywood studios have greenlighted additional big-budget productions in the genre. These have included adaptations of the first and third books in C. S. Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia series and the teen novel Eragon, as well as adaptations of Susan Cooper's The Dark Is Rising, Cornelia Funke's Inkheart, Philip Pullman's The Golden Compass, Holly Black's The Spiderwick Chronicles, Nickelodeon's TV show Avatar: The Last Airbender, the Fantasia segment The Sorcerer's Apprentice Fantasy movies in recent years, such as The Lord of the Rings films, the first and third Narnia adaptations, the first, second and seventh Harry Potter adaptations have most been released in November and December; this is in contrast to science fiction films, which are released during the northern hemisphere summer. All three installments of the Pirates of the Caribbean fantasy films, were released in July 2003, July 2006, May 2007 and the latest releases in the Harry Potter se
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit fear. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, Mary Shelley, horror has existed as a film genre for more than a century; the macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction, thriller genres. Horror films aim to evoke viewers' nightmares, fears and terror of the unknown. Plots with in the horror genre involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, extraterrestrials, werewolves, Satanism, evil clowns, torture, vicious animals, evil witches, zombies, psychopaths, ecological or man-made disasters, serial killers; some sub-genres of horror film include low-budget horror, action horror, comedy horror, body horror, disaster horror, found footage, holiday horror, horror drama, psychological horror, science fiction horror, supernatural horror, gothic horror, natural horror, zombie horror, disaster films, first-person horror, teen horror.
The first depiction of the supernatural on screen appear in several of the short silent films created by the French pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès in the late 1890s. The best known of these early supernatural-based works is the 3-minute short film Le Manoir du Diable known in English as The Haunted Castle or The House of the Devil; the film is sometimes credited as being the first horror film. In The Haunted Castle, a mischievous devil appears inside a medieval castle and harasses the visitors. Méliès' other popular horror film is La Caverne maudite, which translates to "the accursed cave"; the film known for its English title The Cave of the Demons, tells the story of a woman stumbling over a cave, populated by the spirits and skeletons of people who died there. Méliès would make other short films that historians consider now as horror-comedies. Une nuit terrible, which translates to A Terrible Night, tells a story of a man who tries to get a good night's sleep but ends up wrestling a giant spider.
His other film, L'auberge ensorcelée, or The Bewitched Inn, features a story of a hotel guest getting pranked and tormented by an unseen presence. In 1897, the accomplished American photographer-turned director George Albert Smith created The X-Ray Fiend, a horror-comedy that came out a mere two years after x-rays were invented; the film shows a couple of skeletons courting each other. An audience full of people unaccustomed to the idea would have found it frightening and otherworldly; the next year, Smith created the short film Photographing a Ghost, considered a precursor to the paranormal investigation subgenre. The film portrays three men attempting to photograph a ghost, only to fail time and again as the ghost eludes the men and throws chairs at them. Japan made early forays into the horror genre. In 1898, a Japanese film company called Konishi Honten released two horror films both written by Ejiro Hatta. Though there are no records of the cast, crew, or plot of Bake Jizo, it was based on the Japanese legend of Jizo statues, believed to provide safety and protection to children.
The presence of the word bake—which can be translated to "spook," "ghost," or "phantom"—may imply a haunted or possessed statue. Spanish filmmaker Segundo de Chomón, regarded as one of the most significant silent film directors, was popular for his frequent camera tricks and optical illusions, an innovation that contributed to the popularity of trick films in the period, his famous works include Satan at Play. The Selig Polyscope Company in the United States produced one of the first film adaptations of a horror-based novel. In 1908, the company released Mr. Hyde, now a lost film, it is based on Robert Louis Stevenson's classic gothic novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, published 15 years prior, about a man who transforms between two contrasting personas. Georges Méliès liked adapting the Faust legend into his films. In fact, the French filmmaker produced at least six variations of the German legend of the man who made a pact with the devil. Among his notable Faust films include Faust aux enfers, known for its English title The Damnation of Faust, or Faust in Hell.
It is the filmmaker's third film adaptation of the Faust legend. In it, Méliès took inspiration from Hector Berlioz's Faust opera, but it pays less attention to the story and more to the special effects that represent a tour of hell; the film takes advantage of stage machinery techniques and features special effects such as pyrotechnics, substitution
Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Magic, the supernatural and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds, it is a story that adults can read. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. Most works of fantasy were written, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games and art. A number of fantasy novels written for children, such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, The Harry Potter series and The Hobbit attract an adult audience. Stories involving magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature. Classical mythology is replete with fantastical stories and characters, the best known being the works of Homer and Virgil.
The contribution of the Greco-Roman world to fantasy is vast and includes: The hero's journey. The philosophy of Plato has had great influence on the fantasy genre. In the Christian Platonic tradition, the reality of other worlds, an overarching structure of great metaphysical and moral importance, has lent substance to the fantasy worlds of modern works; the world of magic is connected with the Roman Greek world. With Empedocles, the elements, they are used in fantasy works as personifications of the forces of nature. Other than magic concerns include: the use of a mysterious tool endowed with special powers. India has a long tradition of fantastical characters, dating back to Vedic mythology; the Panchatantra, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BC. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine". was influential in Europe and the Middle East. It used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science.
Talking animals endowed with human qualities have now become a staple of modern fantasy. The Baital Pachisi, a collection of various fantasy tales set within a frame story is, according to Richard Francis Burton and Isabel Burton, the germ which culminated in the Arabian Nights, which inspired the Golden Ass of Apuleius. Boccacio's Decamerone the Pentamerone and all that class of facetious fictitious literature."The Book of One Thousand and One Nights from the Middle East has been influential in the West since it was translated from the Arabic into French in 1704 by Antoine Galland. Many imitations were written in France. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba; the Fornaldarsagas and Icelandic sagas, both of which are based on ancient oral tradition influenced the German Romantics, as well as William Morris, J. R. R. Tolkien; the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Celtic folklore and legend has been an inspiration for many fantasy works.
The Welsh tradition has been influential, owing to its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton; the Irish Ulster Cycle and Fenian Cycle have been plentifully mined for fantasy. Its greatest influence was, indirect. Celtic folklore and mythology provided a major source for the Arthurian cycle of chivalric romance: the Matter of Britain. Although the subject matter was reworked by the authors, these romances developed marvels until they became independent of the original folklore and fictional, an important stage in the development of fantasy. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative, popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe, they were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures of a knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest, yet it is "the emphasis on love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the chanson de geste and other kinds of epic, in which masculine military heroism predominates."
Popular literature drew on themes of romance, but with ironic, satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends, fairy tales, history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel Don Quixote. Still, the modern image of "medieval" is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, the word medieval evokes knights, distressed damsels and other romantic tropes. Romance literature was written in Old French, Anglo-Norman and Provençal, in Portuguese, in Castilian, in English, in Italian and German. During the early 13th century, romances