Bisbee is a town in Cochise County, Arizona, USA, 92 miles southeast of Tucson. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town was 5,575; the town is the county seat of Cochise County. Bisbee was founded as a copper and silver mining town in 1880, named in honor of Judge DeWitt Bisbee, one of the financial backers of the adjacent Copper Queen Mine. In 1929, the county seat was moved from Tombstone to Bisbee. Mining in the Mule Mountains proved quite successful: in the early 20th century the population of Bisbee soared. Incorporated in 1902, by 1910 its population had swelled to 9,019, it sported a constellation of suburbs, including Warren and San Jose, some of, founded on their own mines. In 1917, open-pit mining was introduced to meet the copper demand during World War I. A high quality turquoise promoted. Many high-quality mineral specimens have come from Bisbee area mines and are to be found in museum collections worldwide; some of these minerals include cuprite, wulfenite, malachite and galena.
Miners attempted to organize to gain better working wages. In 1917, the Phelps Dodge Corporation, using private police, transported at gun point over 1,000 striking miners out of town to Hermanas, New Mexico, due to allegations that they were members of the Industrial Workers of the World. Earlier that year, industry police conducted the Jerome Deportation intended to expel striking miners. Continued underground work enabled the town to survive the changes in mining that caused mines in neighboring towns to close, leading to a resulting dramatic loss of population. But, by 1950 the population of Bisbee had dropped--to less than 6,000. In 1975 the Phelps Dodge Corporation halted its Bisbee copper-mining operations. Bisbee Mayor Chuck Eads, with cooperation of Phelps Dodge, implemented development of a mine tour and historic interpretation of a portion of the Copper Queen Mine as part of an effort to create heritage tourism as another economic base to compensate for the financial loss due to the end of the mining industry.
Community volunteers re-timbered the old workings. This local effort came to the attention of the federal Economic Development Administration, it approved a large grant to the City of Bisbee to help the mine tour project and other improvements in downtown Bisbee. The Queen Mine Tour was opened to visitors on February 1, 1976. More than a million visitors have taken the underground mine tour train. From 1950 to 1960, the sharp population decline changed course and the number of residents of Bisbee increased by nearly 160 percent when open-pit mining was undertaken and the city annexed nearby areas; the peak population was in 1960, at 9,914. In the following decade, there was a decline in jobs and population, although not as severe as from 1930 to 1950. But, the economic volatility resulted in a crash in housing prices. Coupled with an attractive climate and picturesque scenery, Bisbee became a destination in the 1960s for artists and hippies of the counter culture. Artist Stephen Hutchison and his wife Marcia purchased the Copper Queen Hotel, the town's anchor business and architectural gem, from the Phelps-Dodge mining company in 1970.
The company had tried to find a local buyer, offering the deed to any local resident for the sum of $1, but there were no takers. The property needed renovation for continued use. Hutchison renovated the hotel, as well as other buildings in the downtown area. One held Stock Exchange. Hutchison began to market Bisbee as a destination of the "authentic," old Southwest, his work attracted the developer Ed Smart. Among the many guests at the hotel have been celebrities from nearby California. Actor John Wayne was a frequent visitor to the Copper Queen, he befriended Hutchison and partnered with Smart in his real estate ventures. This period of Bisbee's history is well documented in contemporary articles in The New Yorker and in an article by Cynthia Buchanan in The Cornell Review, it was at this time that Bisbee became a haven for artists and hippies fleeing the larger cities of Arizona and California. It attracted people priced out by gentrification of places such as Aspen, Colorado. In the 1990s, additional people were attracted to Bisbee, leading it to develop such amenities as coffee shops and live theatre.
Many of the old houses have been renovated, property values in Bisbee now exceed those of other southeastern Arizona cities. Today, the historic city of Bisbee is known as "Old Bisbee" and is home to a thriving downtown cultural scene; this area is noted for its architecture, including Victorian-style houses and an elegant Art Deco county courthouse. Because its plan was laid out to a pedestrian scale before the automobile, Old Bisbee is compact and walkable; the town's hilly terrain is exemplified by the old four-story high school. The city of Bisbee now includes the satellite communities of Warren and San Jose; the Lowell and Warren townsites were consolidated into Bisbee proper during the early part of the twentieth century. There are smaller neighborhoods interspersed between these larger boroughs, including Galena, Tintown, South Bisbee and Saginaw. Warren was Arizona's first planned community, it was designed as a bedroom community for the more affluent citizens of the mining district. Warren has a fine collection of Arts and Crafts style bungalow houses.
Many have been recognized as historic places
Carondelet St. Joseph's Hospital
Carondelet St. Joseph's Hospital known as St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, is a private, for-profit, 449-bed acute-care hospital on the east side of Tucson, Arizona. St. Joseph's Hospital is part of Carondelet Health Network, owned by Tenet Healthcare, has sister hospitals in Arizona St. Mary's Hospital in Tucson and Holy Cross Hospital in Nogales; the hospital provides services in the following specialties: Neurology Neurosurgery Ophthalmology Maternity care Urology and Gynecology Bariatrics Orthopedics Neonatal Intensive Care Neuro Critical Care Inpatient and Outpatient Rehabilitation Founded in 1962, St. Josephs Hospital continues to meet the needs of Tucson's growing east side. To be called St. Mary's Hospital East, St. Josephs Hospital has undergone many transformations; this includes the Regional Eye Center, Women's Pavilion, North Americas most advanced Neurological Institute. 81,081 Patient Days 4.39 Average Length of Stay in days 156,841 Outpatient Visits 77,563 ER Visits 5,416 Inpatient Surgeries 11,748 Outpatient Surgeries 2,908 Newborn Births
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Queen Creek, Arizona
Queen Creek is a town in Maricopa and Pinal counties in the state of Arizona. The population was 26,361 at the 2010 census; as of October 2018, Queen Creek's population is estimated to be 39,184. The Town of Queen Creek is within Maricopa County, but the Town Limits extend into Pinal County on the eastern and southern borders. Further to the east and south of QC Town Limits in Pinal County is the large unincorporated community of San Tan Valley. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 25.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,557 households, residing in the town; the population density was 167.3 people per square mile. There were 8,557 housing units at an average density of 49.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 82.14% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 6.53% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 14.30% from other races, 2.29% from two or more races. 17.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,218 households out of which 50.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.9% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 11.8% were non-families. 8.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.54 and the average family size was 3.77. In the town, the population age spread was: 35.4% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 4.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $63,702, the median income for a family was $65,679. Males had a median income of $45,000 versus $31,447 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,592. About 6.0% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over.
The Town of Queen Creek is served by six public school districts as well as public charter schools and a private school. Queen Creek Unified School District serves the greatest number of Queen Creek students. Queen Creek High School Newell Barney Junior HighThe other public district schools serving QC students are Higley Unified School District, Chandler Unified School District, J. O. Combs Unified School District, the Coolidge Unified School District Public charter schools serving QC students include... American Leadership Academy is a local public charter district with a K-6 school and 7–12 high school located on the same campus at the southwest corner of Hawes Road and Chandler Heights Blvd. American Leadership Academy High SchoolBenjamin Franklin Charter School, Cambridge Academy, Heritage Academy are additional public charter schools educating students who live in Town of Queen Creek. Higher Education offerings include Communiversity at Queen Creek; the American Heritage Festival – Since 2003 the largest annual educational living history event in Arizona and the Southwestern US.
Schnepf Farms – a family operated farm that holds frequent festivals The Queen Creek Performing Arts Center Horseshoe Park & Equestrian Centre – a large, publicly owned and operated equestrian facility that hosts regional events. Queen Creek Library – the newest branch of the Maricopa County Library District that opened November 8, 2008. Barney Family Sports Complex – a owned and operated indoor sports facility. Queen Creek Olive Mill – a family owned company that grows and presses olives for the production of high quality extra virgin, it was featured on the Food Network show The Best Thing. Rittenhouse Elementary School/San Tan Historical Society Museum There are various properties in the town of Queen Creek which are considered historical and have been included either in the National Register of Historic Places or listed as such by the San Tan Historical Society; the following are images of some of these properties with a short description of the same. Arizona Mansel Carter Pegasus Airpark San Tan Valley, Arizona Town of Queen Creek official website Queen Creek movers Queen Creek town limits Queen Creek Named NerdWallet's 2nd City on the Rise in Arizona
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, United States, home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area was 980,263; the Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor; the city is 108 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi north of the U. S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast and Oracle to the north, Green Valley to the south.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón, is derived from the O'odham Cuk Ṣon, meaning " base of the black ", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak known as "A" Mountain. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo". Tucson was first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago. Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River found a village site dating from 2100 BC; the floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150. These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting; the Early Ceramic period occupation of Tucson saw the first extensive use of pottery vessels for cooking and storage. The groups designated as the Hohokam lived in the area from AD 600 to 1450 and are known for their vast irrigation canal systems and their red-on-brown pottery. Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino visited the Santa Cruz River valley in 1692, founded the Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1700 about 7 mi upstream from the site of the settlement of Tucson.
A separate Convento settlement was founded downstream along the Santa Cruz River, near the base of what is now "A" mountain. Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775. During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were mounted by Apaches; the town came to be called "Tucson" and became a part of the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821. Tucson was captured by Philip St. George Cooke with the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican–American War in 1846-1848, but it soon returned to Mexican control as Cooke continued his mission westward establishing Cooke's Wagon Road to California. Tucson was not included in the Mexican Cession and Cooke's road through Tucson became one of the important routes into California during the California Gold Rush of 1849. Arizona, south of the Gila River, was obtained via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8, 1854.
Tucson became a part of the United States of America, although the American military did not formally take over control until March 1856. In 1857, Tucson became a stage station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and in 1858 became 3rd division headquarters of the Butterfield Overland Mail until the line shut down in March 1861; the Overland Mail Corporation attempted to continue running, following the Bascom Affair, devastating Apache attacks on the stations and coaches ended operations in August 1861. From August 1861 to mid-1862, Tucson was the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory, the eastern capital being Mesilla. In 1862, the California Column drove the Confederate forces out of Arizona. Tucson and all of what is now Arizona were part of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when they became part of the new Arizona Territory. From 1867 to 1877, Tucson was the capital of the Arizona Territory. Tucson was incorporated in 1877. From 1877 to 1878, the area suffered a rash of stagecoach robberies.
Most notable were the two holdups committed by masked road-agent William Whitney Brazelton. Brazelton held up two stages in the summer of 1878 near Point of Mountain Station 17 mi northwest of Tucson. John Clum, of Tombstone, Arizona fame was one of the passengers. Pima County Sheriff Charles A. Shibell and his citizen posse killed Brazelton on Monday August 19, 1878, in a mesquite bosque along the Santa Cruz River 3 miles south of Tucson. Brazelton had been suspected of highway robbery in the Tucson area, the Prescott region and Silver City, New Mexico area. Brazelton's crimes prompted John J. Valentine, Sr. of Wells, Fargo & Co. to send special agent and future Pima County sheriff Bob Paul to investigate. Fort Lowell east of Tucson, was established to help protect settlers from Apache attacks. In 1882, Frank Stilwell was implicated in the murder of Morgan Earp by Cowboy Pete Spence's wife, Marietta, at the coroner's inquest on Morgan Earp's shooting; the coroner's jury concluded Spence, Frederick Bode, Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz were the prime suspects in the assassination of Morgan Earp.
Deputy U. S. Marshal Wyatt Earp gathered a few trusted friends and accompanied
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Florence is a town, 61 miles southeast of Phoenix, in Pinal County, United States. Florence, the county seat of Pinal County, is one of the oldest towns in that county and is regarded as a National Historic District with over 25 buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the population of Florence was 30,770 at the 2015 census. The area where the current town of Florence is located was once inhabited by the members of the Athabascans, ancestors of the San Carlos Apache tribe. Prior to the establishment of the town, the Gila River served as a part of the border between the United States and Mexico. In 1853, the Gadsden Purchase extended American territory well south of the Gila. Levi Ruggles, a veteran of the American Civil War, founded the town of Florence on the south bank of the Gila River, he came to Arizona Territory in 1866 as a U. S. Indian Agent. Recognizing the agricultural potential of the valley, he found an fordable crossing on the Gila River and surveyed a townsite there.
With the aid of Governor R. C. McCormick, he secured a post office in August of the same year. Ruggles held numerous public offices including that of Territorial Legislator. Florence became the county seat in the newly formed Pinal County. Silver was discovered in 1875 in the nearby mountains which led to the creation of the famous Silver King Mine. In 1870, Fred Adams founded a farming community two miles west of the original Florence townsite; the farming town had stores, homes, a post office, a flour mill, water tanks, It was named Adamsville. In the 1900s, the Gila River ran over its banks. Most of the small town was wiped out and the residents moved to Florence; the area where the town was established is now a ghost town and is within the boundaries of Florence. At the junction of Highway 79 and 287 there is a historical marker about Adamsville. A canal was built in the 1880s which enabled water from the Gila River to be diverted for irrigation. Farming and ranching played a major role in Florence’s economy.
All of the federal land transactions for Southern Arizona were conducted in Florence until 1881, when the Federal Land Office was moved to Tucson. One of the most notable gunfights in the Old Southwest occurred in Florence. Sheriff Pete Gabriel hired thirty-nine year old Joseph Phy as his deputy in 1883. Gabriel supported his deputy Phy for the job. Gabriel withdrew his support because of personal differences with Phy; the two friends had a confrontation on May 31, 1888 in the Tunnel Saloon. A gunfight spread to the street. Both men received gunshot wounds. Phy died a few hours after the gunfight; the second Pinal County Courthouse was built in 1891. It was the site, they were Pearl Heart, Eva Dugan and Winnie Ruth Judd, known as the "Trunk Murderess". Pearl Heart was an outlaw of the American Old West, she committed one of the last recorded stagecoach robberies in the United States. She was tried in 1899 and was acquitted, however the judge ordered a second trial and she was found guilty and sentenced to five years in prison.
In the 1930s Eva Dugan was convicted of murder. She was sentenced to be executed by hanging. However, it resulted in her decapitation and influenced the State of Arizona to replace hanging with the gas chamber as a method of execution. Winnie Ruth Judd was a Phoenix medical secretary, found guilty of murdering and dismembering her friends Agnes Anne LeRoi and Hedvig Samuelson over the alleged affections of her lover Jack Halloran; the jury found her guilty of first-degree murder on February 8, 1932. An appeal was unsuccessful, her trial was marked by suspicious circumstances. Judd was sentenced to be hanged February 17, 1933, sent to the Arizona State Prison in Florence; the sentence she received raised debate about capital punishment. Her death sentence was overturned. In 1940, the cowboy movie star Tom Mix was killed when he lost control of his speeding Cord Phaeton convertible and rolled into a dry wash in Florence, Arizona. Mix, a regular tenant in the Ross/Fryer-Cushman House, was returning to Florence from Tucson.
There is a 2-foot–tall iron statue of a riderless horse with a plaque on the site of the accident. Florence is located at 33°2′32″N 111°23′4″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.3 square miles, all land. The city has the typical hot desert climate of lowland Arizona, with brutal summers and warm winters; as of 2015, there were 30,770 people, 6,832 households in the town. There were 9,319 housing units in an incorporated; the racial makeup of the town was 82.2% White, 6.0% Black or African American, 4.5% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 4.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. 36.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,832 households out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 13.2% und