A dacha is a seasonal or year-round second home located in the exurbs of Russian-speaking and other post-Soviet countries. A cottage or shack serving as a family's main or only home, or an outbuilding, is not considered a dacha, although some dachas have been converted to year-round residences and vice versa. In some cases, owners occupy their dachas for part of the year and rent them to urban residents as summer retreats. People living in dachas are colloquially called dachniki; the Russian term is said to have no exact counterpart in English. Dachas are common in Russia, are widespread in most parts of the former Soviet Union and in some countries of the former Eastern Bloc. Surveys in 1993–1994 suggest about 25% of Russian families living in large cities had dachas. Most dachas are in colonies of dachas and garden plots near large cities; these clusters have existed since the Soviet era, consist of numerous small 600-square-metre, land plots. They were intended only as recreation getaways of city dwellers and for growing small gardens for food.
Dachniki use their dachas for fishing and other leisure activities. Growing garden crops – still seen as an important part of dacha life – remains popular. Dachas originated as small country estates given as a gift by the tsar, have been popular among the Russian upper- and middle-classes since. During the Soviet era, many dachas were state-owned, were given to the elite of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; the government of the Russian Federation continues to own State dachas used by the president and other officials. They were popular in the Soviet Union, because people did not have the opportunity to buy land and build a house where they wanted, because they lacked other opportunities to spend their time and money; as regulations restricted the size and type of dacha buildings for ordinary people during the Soviet period, permitted features such as large attics or glazed verandas became widespread and oversized. In the period from the 1960s to 1985 legal limitations were strict: only single-story summer houses without permanent heating and with living areas less than 60 m2 were allowed as second housing.
In the 1980s planners loosened the rules, since 1990 all such limitations have been eliminated. The first dachas in Russia began to appear during the 17th century referring to small estates in the country that were given to loyal vassals by the tsar. In archaic Russian, the word dacha means something given, from the verb "дать" – "to give". During the Age of Enlightenment, Russian aristocracy used their dachas for social and cultural gatherings, which were accompanied by masquerade balls and fireworks displays; the coming of the Industrial Revolution to Russia brought about a rapid growth in the urban population, wealthy urban residents desired to escape the polluted cities, at least temporarily. By the end of the 19th century, the dacha became a favorite summer retreat for the upper and middle classes of Russian society. In the tsarist era, dachas were not used much for growing food. Anton Chekhov wrote a novelette entitled Dachniki, about newlywed city-dwellers living a'simple' summer life of walks in the countryside.
Following the Russian Revolution, most dachas were nationalised. Some were converted into vacation homes for factory workers, while others of better quality, were distributed among the prominent functionaries of the CPSU and the newly emerged cultural and scientific elite. All but a few dachas remained the property of the state and the right to use them was revoked when a dacha occupant was dismissed or fell out of favour with the rulers of the state. Building new dachas required permission from senior officials and was granted during the early years of the Soviet Union; the seniormost Soviet leaders all had their own dachas, Joseph Stalin's favourite was in Gagra, Abkhazia. New dachas started to be built in larger numbers during the 1930s, dacha colonies for artists, or soldiers, or various classes of party functionaries, started to form. There were legal size restrictions for dacha houses in the Soviet era, they had to be only one story tall. For that reason, they had a mansard roof, considered by authorities as just a large garret or attic, not a second story.
Ill-equipped and without indoor plumbing, dachas were a solution for millions of working-class families, to have their own form of summer retreat. Having a piece of land offered an opportunity for city dwellers to indulge themselves in growing their own fruits and vegetables. In the years before and after World War II, cultivation of garden crops on dacha plots was substantial, because of the failure of the centrally planned Soviet agricultural programme to supply enough fresh produce. Many dacha owners grew crops for market. Since growing garden crops has been of lesser importance, but continues to be widespread. Many Russian dacha owners still see gardening as a key value of dachnik culture. Keeping historical food shortages in mind, they take great pride in growing their own food rather than buying it at a store; the period after World War II saw moderate growth in dacha development. Since there was no actual law banning the construction of dachas, people began occupying unused plots of land near cities and towns, growing gard
An izba is a traditional Russian countryside dwelling. A log house, it forms the living quarters of a conventional Russian farmstead, it is built close to the road and inside a yard, which encloses a kitchen garden, hay shed, barn within a simple woven stick fence. Traditional, old-style izba construction involved the use of simple tools, such as ropes, axes and spades. Nails were not used, as metal was expensive, neither were saws a common construction tool. Both interior and exterior are of split pine tree trunks, the gap between is traditionally filled with river clay, not unlike the North American log cabin; the dominant building material of Russian vernacular architecture, material culture for centuries was wood. Houses were made from locally-cut rough-hewn logs, with little or no stone, metal, or glass. Churches and urban buildings were wooden until the eighteenth century. All of the building's components were cut and fitted together using a hand axe. Coins and frankincense were customarily placed beneath the corners of the house as an expression of the superstition that doing this would make the people living there healthy and wealthy.
From the fifteenth century on, the central element of the interior of izba was the Russian oven, which could occupy up to one quarter of the floorspace in smaller dwellings. There were no beds for many members of the household, as people would sleep directly on the plaster top of the oven, or on shelves built directly above the stove; the outside of izbas were embellished by various special architectural features, for example the rich wood carving decoration of windows. Such decorative elements and the use of the Russian oven are still found in many modern Russian countryside houses though only the older wooden houses are called izbas today. An alternative word for "izba" in Russian is khata, the word in most Slavic languages for any cottage or small house. According to historian of Russia Geoffrey Hosking, starting in the eighteenth century khata was used in to refer to cottages on the tree-poor southern steppes which used logs only for the framing, used wattle-and-daub as infill covered with a plaster and whitewash exterior.
However this wattle-and-daub house is called "mazanka" and "khata" is not a "mazanka". "Izba" is the Bulgarian and Croatian word for "cellar", as in wine cellar or a basement used for storing foodstuffs treated to last a long time in general. In several other Slavic languages, izba is a generic term for a room inside a house. Mazanka Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records Russian izba's Full HD photos
A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages in mountainous or limited access areas, in order to command and defend strategic points with reduced forces. At the same time, they were used as an aristocrat's residence, around which a castle town was constructed. After their initial appearance in Ireland, Basque Country and England during the High Middle Ages, tower houses were built in other parts of western Europe as early as the late 14th century in parts of France and Italy. In Italian medieval communes, tower houses were built by the local barons as power centres during times of internal strife. Scotland has many fine examples of medieval tower houses, including Crathes Castle, Craigievar Castle and Castle Fraser, in the unstable Scottish Marches along the border between England and Scotland the peel tower was the typical residence of the wealthy, with others being built by the government.
In seventeenth century Scotland these castles became the pleasurable retreats of the upper-classes. While able to adopt a military nature, they were furnished for social interaction. Tower houses are commonly found in northern Spain in the Basque Country, some of them dating back to the 8th century, they were used as noble residences and were able to provide shelter against several enemies, starting with the Arabs and Castile and Aragon. However, due to complex legal charters, few had boroughs attached to them, and, why they are found standing alone in some strategic spot like a crossroad, rather than on a height. During the petty wars among the Basque nobles from 1379 to 1456, the upper floors of most of them were demolished. Few have survived unscathed to the present day. Since they have been used only as residences by their traditional noble owners or converted into farm houses. To the west of the Basque Country, in Cantabria and Asturias similar tower houses are found. Furthest west in the Iberian peninsula in Galicia, medieval tower houses are in the origin of many Modern Age pazos, noble residences as well as strongholds.
In the Balkans, a distinctive type of tower house was built during the Ottoman occupation, developed in the 17th century by both Christians and Muslims in a period of decline of Ottoman authority and insecurity. The tower house served the purpose of protecting the extended family. In the Baltic states, the Teutonic Order and other crusaders erected fortified tower houses in the Middle Ages, locally known as "vassal castles", as a means of exercising control over the conquered areas; these tower houses were not intended to be used in any major military actions. A number of such tower houses still exist, well-preserved examples include Purtse and Kiiu castles in Estonia. In Svaneti, there are some medieval settlements famous of their tower houses, like Chazhashi and Ushguli; the Yemeni city of Shibam has hundreds of tower houses. Many other buildings in the Asir and Al-Bahah provinces of Saudi Arabia have many stone towers and tower houses, called a "qasaba". There are numerous examples of tower houses in Georgia in the Caucasus, where there was a clanlike social structure in a country where fierce competition over limited natural resources led to chronic feuding between neighbours.
One theory suggests that private tower-like structures proliferate in areas where central authority is weak, leading to a need for a status symbol incorporating private defences against small-scale attacks. Hundreds of Tibetan tower houses dot the so-called Tribal Corridor in Western Sichuan, some 50 metres high with as many as 13 star-like points, the oldest are thought to be 1,200 years old. Most notable in the New World might be considered a focal element of the Mesa Verde Anasazi ruin in Colorado, United States. There is a prominent structure at that site, in fact called the "tower house" and has the general appearance characteristics of its counterparts in Britain and Ireland; this four-storey building was constructed of adobe bricks about 1350 AD, its rather well preserved ruins are nestled within a cliff overhang. The towers of the ancient Pueblo people are, both of smaller ground plan than Old World tower houses, are only parts of complexes housing communities, rather than isolated structures housing an individual family and their retainers, as in Europe.
Aul Nakh architecture Diaolou Bastle house Castle Keep Ksar L Plan Castle Manor house Peel tower The Fortified House in Scotland Fortified house Pazo Qasaba Z-plan castle Culă Johnson Westropp, Thomas. "Notes on the Lesser Castles or'Peel Towers' of the County Clare". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 20: 348–365. Greville Pounds, Norman John; the Culture of the English People: Iron Age to the Industrial Revolution. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 10 May 2012. Ernst J. Grube, George Michell. Architecture of the Islamic world: its history and social meaning, with a complete survey of key monuments. Morrow. Retrieved 10 May 2012. Media related to Tower houses at Wikimedia Commons Cutaway drawing Of Urquhart Castle tower house
A trullo is a traditional Apulian dry stone hut with a conical roof. Their style of construction is specific to the Itria Valley, in the Murge area of the Italian region of Apulia. Trulli were constructed as temporary field shelters and storehouses or, as permanent dwellings by small proprietors or agricultural labourers. In the town of Alberobello, in the province of Bari, whole districts contain dense concentrations of trulli; the golden age of trulli was the nineteenth century its final decades, which were marked by the development of wine growing. The Italian term il trullo refers to a house whose internal space is covered by a dry stone corbelled or keystone vault. Trullo is an italianized form of the dialectal term, used in a specific area of the Salentine peninsula where it is the name of the local agricultural dry stone hut. Trullo has replaced the local term casedda, used by locals in the Murgia to call this type of house. A stonemason specializing in the building of trulli is a trullaro in Italian.
The corresponding dialectal term is i.e. builder of casedde. The style of construction is specific to the Itria Valley, in the Murge area of the Italian region of Apulia. Trulli may be found in and out of Alberobello, in the areas around Locorotondo, Ostuni, Martina Franca, Ceglie Messapica; the Murgia is a karst plateau. Winter rains drain through the soil into fissures in the strata of limestone bedrock and flow through underground watercourses into the Adriatic. There is no permanent surface water, water for living purposes must be trapped in catchment basins and cisterns; the surface forms a landscape of rolling hills and ridges punctuated now and again with dolines and other forms of enclosed depressions characteristic of karsts. The trullo is a rural building type. With its thick walls and its inability to form multi-story structures, it is wasteful of ground space and ill-suited to high density settlement. Being constructed of small stones, however, it has a flexibility and adaptability of form making the design most helpful in tight urban situations.
In the countryside, trullo domes were built singly or in groups of up to five, or sometimes, in large farmyard clusters of a dozen or two dozen, but never for the occupancy of more than a single rural family. Depending on the area, the building material used could be either hard calcareous tufa. Traditionally trulli were built using dry stone masonry, i.e. without any cement. This style of construction is prevalent in the surrounding countryside where most of the fields are separated by dry-stone walls. In Alberobello, the structural walls of a trullo are laid directly on the bedrock, after removal of the topsoil when necessary, their width varies from 0.80 metres to 2.70 metres. Their height ranges from 1.60 metres to 2 metres. Their exterior facing has a 3 to 5% batter; the stones needed for starting to build a trullo were provided by digging a cistern, an absolute necessity in an area devoid of water. The cistern was capped with a lime-mortared barrel vault or dome that in many cases, supported the floor of the house.
The trullo may take on a square plan. The circular trullo is a temporary shelter for animals and their fodder, or, for the peasant himself; the trullo, part of a grouping of three, four, or five follows a squarish plan. It may serve as a kitchen, animal shelter, store room for food or tools, oven, or cistern, as the case may be. In Alberobello, groupings did not exceed two trulli, as evidenced by nineteenth-century notarial deeds; the roofs are constructed in two skins: an inner skin of limestone voussoirs, capped by a closing stone, an outer skin of limestone slabs that are tilted outwardly, ensuring that the structure is watertight. The roof stones may be taken away without compromising the stability of the rest of the building. In Alberobello, atop the cone of a trullo, there is a hand-worked sandstone pinnacle, that may be one of many designs - disk, cone, polyhedron, or a combination thereof, supposed to be the signature of the stonemason who built the trullo. Additionally, the cone may have a symbol painted on it Such symbols may include Christian symbols such as a simple cross, a cross on a heart pierced by an arrow, a circle divided into four quarters with the letters S, C, S, D in them and quite a few others.
The symbols now visible on a row of trulli in via Monte Pertica were painted only in the late twentieth century and the early 2000s when the roof cones were renovated. The quaint symbols that grace the trullo-like cones of bungalows at the Hotel dei Trulli in Alberobello first appeared in the late 1950s, when the hotel resort was built; the vast majority of trulli have one room under each conical roof, with additional living spaces in arched alcoves. Children would sleep in alcoves made in the wall with curtains hung to separate them from the central room. A multi-room trullo house has each representing a separate room. A
A bungalow is a type of building developed in the Bengal region of the subcontinent. The meaning of the word bungalow varies internationally. Common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow associated with the United States was popular after the First World War. In North America and the United Kingdom, a bungalow today is a house detached, that may contain a small loft, it is either single-story or has a second story built into a sloping roof with dormer windows. The term originated in the Indian subcontinent, deriving from the Hindi word "बंगला", meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style"; this Asian architectural form and design originated in the countryside of Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent. Such houses were traditionally small, of one story and detached, had a wide veranda; the term was first found in English from 1696, where it was used to describe "bungales or hovells" in India for English sailors of the East India Company.
It became used for the spacious homes or official lodgings of officials of the British India, was so known in Britain and America, where it had high status and exotic connotations. The style began to be used in the late 19th century for large country or suburban residential buildings built in an Arts and Crafts or other Western vernacular style—essentially as large cottages, a term sometimes used. Developers began to use the term for smaller buildings. Bungalows are convenient for the homeowner in that all living areas are on a single-story and there are no stairs between living areas. A bungalow is well suited to persons with impaired mobility, such as the elderly or those in wheelchairs. Neighborhoods of only bungalows offer more privacy than similar neighborhoods with two-story houses; as bungalows are one or one and a half stories, strategically planted trees and shrubs are sufficient to block the view of neighbors. With two-story houses, the extra height requires much taller trees to accomplish the same, it may not be practical to place such tall trees close to the building to obscure the view from the second floor of the next door neighbor.
Bungalows provide cost-effective residences. On the other hand closely spaced bungalows make for quite low-density neighborhoods, contributing to urban sprawl. In Australia, bungalows have broad verandas to shade the interior from intense sun, but as a result they are excessively dark inside, requiring artificial light in daytime. On a per unit area basis, bungalows are more expensive to construct than two-story houses, because a larger foundation and roof area is required for the same living area; the larger foundation will translate into larger lot size requirements, as well. Due to this, bungalows are fully detached from other buildings and do not share a common foundation or party wall: if the homeowner can afford the extra expense of a bungalow relative to a two-story house, they can afford a detached property as well. Although the'footprint' of a bungalow is a simple rectangle, any foundation is theoretically possible. For bungalows with brick walls, the windows are positioned high, are close to the roof.
This architectural technique avoids the need for special arches or lintels to support the brick wall above the windows. However, in two-story houses, there is no choice but to continue the brick wall above the window In rural Bangladesh, the concept is called Bangla ghar and remain popular. Today's main construction material is corrugated steel sheets or red clay tiles, while past generations used wood and khar straw; this straw was used keeping the house cooler during hot summer days. From 1891 the Federation Bungalow style swept across Australia, first in Camberwell and through Sydney's northern suburbs after 1895; the developer Richard Stanton built in Federation Bungalow style first in Haberfield, New South Wales, the first Garden Suburb, in Rosebery, New South Wales. Beecroft and Lindfield contain many examples of Federation Bungalows built between 1895 and 1920. From about 1910 until 1930, the California Bungalow style was popular in Australia and New Zealand; the style seems to have first been imported in Sydney and spread throughout the Australian states and New Zealand.
In South Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens contains many well-preserved bungalow developments. The first two bungalows in England were built in Westgate-on-Sea in 1869 or 1870. A bungalow was a prefabricated single-story building used as a seaside holiday home. Manufacturers included Boulton & Paul Ltd, who made corrugated iron bungalows as advertised in their 1889 catalogue, which were erected by their men on the purchaser's light brickwork foundation. Examples include Woodhall Spa Cottage Museum, Castle Bungalow at Peppercombe, North Devon, owned by the Landmark Trust. Construction of this type of bungalow peaked towards the end of the decade, to be replaced by brick construction. Bungalows became popular in the United Kingdom between the two World Wars and large numbers were built in coastal resorts, giving rise to the pejorative adjective, "bungaloid", first found in the Daily Express from 1927: "Hideous allotments and bungaloid growth make the approaches to any city repulsive".
Many villages and seaside resorts have large estates of 1960s bungalows occupied by retired people. The typical 1930s bungalow is square
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T
Tower houses in Britain and Ireland
The tower house appeared in the British Isles, starting from the High Middle Ages. Such buildings were constructed in the wilder parts of Great Britain and Ireland in Scotland, throughout Ireland, until at least up to the 17th century; the remains of such structures are dotted around the Irish and Scottish countryside, with a particular concentration in the Scottish Borders where they include peel towers and bastle houses. Some are still intact and inhabited today, while others stand as ruined shells. Tower houses are called castles, despite their characteristic compact footprint size, they are formidable habitations and there is no clear distinction between a castle and a tower house. In Scotland a classification system has been accepted based on ground plan, such as the L-plan castle style, one example being the original layout of Muchalls Castle in Scotland; the few surviving round Scottish Iron Age towers known as brochs are compared to tower houses, having mural passages and a basebatter, although the entrances to Brochs are far less ostentatious.
Irish archaeologist Tom Finan has stated that while the precise origins of the Irish tower house is "shady", he makes the case that "the Irish hall house is in fact the parent of the Irish tower house". Tadhg O'Keefe has stressed that there remain issues over the use of terms halls,'hall-houses', and'tower-houses' have become needlessly entangled and argues for a clearer understanding of the terms, where they apply. In Ireland, there are well over two thousand tower houses extant, with many more many built between the 15th and 17th centuries. After 1500 many lords built fortified houses, although the introduction of cannons rendered such defenses obsolete, it is possible many were built after King Henry VI of England introduced a building subsidy of £10 in 1429 to every man in the Pale who wished to build a castle within 10 years. However recent studies have undermined the significance of this grant, demonstrating that there were many similar grants at different times and in different areas, because many were built in areas outside English control.
They were built by both the Anglo-Irish and Gaelic Irish, with some constructed by English and Scottish immigrants during successive conquests of Ireland between the 1570s and 1690s. Many were positioned within sight of each other and a system of visual communication is said to have been established between them, based on line of sight from the uppermost levels, although this may be a result of their high density. County Kilkenny has several examples of this arrangement such as Neigham. County Clare is known to have had two hundred and thirty tower houses in the 17th century, some of which were surveyed by the notable Irish antiquarian Thomas Johnson Westropp in the 1890s; the Irish tower house was used for both defensive and residential reasons, with many lordly dynasties building them on their demesne lands in order to assert status and provide a residence for the senior lineage of the family. Many had a defensive wall around the building, known as a bawn. Architecture in early modern Scotland#Vernacular architecture Bawn Scottish Vernacular Vernacular architecture https://www.academia.edu/9284251/Hall_Houses_Church_and_State_in_Thirteenth_Century_Roscommon_The_Origins_of_the_Irish_Tower_House