Bowden is an historic estate in the parish of Ashprington, near Totnes in Devon, England. The present mansion house known as Bowden House is a grade I listed building and, having been modified over many centuries, is composed of various building styles, with an emphasis on English Baroque and Tudor. Two possible derivation have been put forward as to the roots of the word Bowden. Bowden’s elevated, yet sheltered, location would match the combining of the words ‘Boga’ and ‘Dunne’ - a phrase meaning ‘the crest of a hill’ or’ rounded hill‘ an explanation put forward and favoured by Humpreys. Considering that the original access route from Totnes was an eastern approach going straight over the hill this would seem to be appropriate. A second proposition derives the origin from the word ‘Bodeton’, in which ‘ton’ - from the Anglo Saxon ‘tun’ - means enclosure, farmstead or village, in this case belonging to someone named Bode or Bude - again there is no further evidence to support this latter derivation.
Bowden House was given a grade 1 listing in 1952, being one of less than 10,000 such building in the UK and so is in the same category as Windsor Castle, York Minster and Blackpool Tower. Bowden House is thus considered of national importance; the Register of Listed Building provides the following description: 5180 GREEN LANE ---------- Bowden House SX 85 NW 8/5 7.1.52. GRADE I Listing NGR: SX8014358848 Circa 1509 manor house built for John Gyles, remodelled with new south-east and south-west fronts circa 1700-04 for Nicholas Trist. 2 storeys. South-east facade, symmetrical with central entrance. South-west facade symmetrical with 5 bays and fenestration 2:2:1:2:2. Hipped Welsh slate roof with rendered stacks. Devonian limestone ashlar with pilasters carrying parapet, plain 1st floor band. Architraved sash windows with glazing bars. Main entrance with architraved doorway, console bracketed entablature with pulvinated frieze and ½ glazed door: early C19 glazed porch. C16 range at rear with original doorways to former screen's passage.
3-light mullioned window with cavetto hoodmould over former rear entrance. Early C19 stable block adjoining C16 range with arcaded stable yard. Symmetrical stable block with honey-comb brick treatment to 1st floor hay lofts for ventilation. Outbuildings incorporate doorway and other carved fragments from the C16 house. Interior Former Tudor hall the kitchen, retains a moulded plaster ceiling decorated with rib work and part of figured frieze. C18 front room with earlier C17 panelling and a fine carved chimneypiece with elaborate coat of arms and crowned supporters inscribed below Holophernies and Judith with date 1585. Elaborate C18 plasterwork to entrance hall including doorcase, chimney- piece etc. Naturalistic classical ceiling. Medallion of Charles I dated 1735. Large panelled room over entrance hall. Fine mid C18 open staircase with open string spaced, turned balusters, column newels and swept, moulded handrail. On first approach Bowden’s primary facades provide a consistent and refined 18th C screen to the mixture of ages and styles of its much remodeled interior.
The massive rendered chimney stacks - some with their roots in the 16C - appear a little crude in contrast to the cleanly square dressed stone of the S and W elevations. These elevations together, contain 30 well proportioned openings with two main entrances and 30 sliding sash windows all set within polished ashlar architraves; the secondary elevations to the E and N display much more the many modifications made over time and incorporate masonry remnants and leftovers from previous builds. The oldest parts of the house lie to the N and E. Land at Bowden was occupied by the de Broase family in 1154 but nothing is visible in the structure of the house to suggest it contains anything as early as this. Much of the foundation and some of the internal walls of the current building are therefore to have their origin in the construction work done during the ownership of Thomas Giles who acquired Bowden in 1464. A large Tudor Mansion arose early in the 1520's - about one third of which remains today and was incorporated into the current building.
Evidence of the original plan layout of Giles’ construction can be gleaned from studying the still existing cellar walls and the Southern outer courtyard walls, which contain significant sculpted masonry features: a large granite gateway with an arched four centered head, continuously moulded jambs and leaf carved spandrels. It leads to a former stable range on the E side of the courtyards; this now external granite gateway is similar to the W entrance of the screens passage of the remaining Tudor Hall. Hinges to the inner face of the gateway and a worn and polished doorsill with a central latch bolt hole might indicate that these outer courtyard walls once carried a roof. Alternatively the gateway was reused as a courtyard entrance as was the tracery window frame behind the beebole - though the wall running further to the East contain further doorways and other features; the cellar and courtyard walls together suggest a possible original H-shaped arrangement of internal spaces with the afore mentioned stable yard to th
Artieda is a municipality located in the province of Zaragoza, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 107 inhabitants
The Bruderhof is a Christian movement that practices community of goods after the example of the first church described in Acts 2 and Acts 4. They have communities in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and Australia; the Bruderhof is seen as Anabaptist due to its beliefs and practice, their claim that another life is possible. The Bruderhof practices adult baptism, non-violence and peacemaking, full community of goods, the proclamation of the gospel and lifelong faithfulness in marriage; the communities are best known by the name "Bruderhof" or sometimes "Bruderhof Communities", though "Bruderhof" is the name used on their website. The communities are incorporated in the US as "Church Communities International", their corporation used to be called The Society of Brothers. When the Bruderhof was part of the Hutterite Church, they were sometimes called "Hutterian Brethren"; the word "Bruderhof" was first used by the early Anabaptists in Moravia. The Bruderhof was founded in Germany in 1920 by Eberhard Arnold, a philosophy student and intellectual inspired by the German Youth Movement and his wife Emmy, née von Hollander.
In 1920 the young family with five children rented a house in Sannerz and founded a Christian community. When the group outgrew the house at Sannerz, they moved to the nearby Rhön Mountains. While there, Arnold discovered. In 1930 he was ordained as a Hutterian minister. With the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism, the Rhön community moved its draft-age men and children to Liechtenstein around 1934 because of their conscientious refusal to serve in the armed forces and to accept Nazi teachers; this community became known as the Alm Bruderhof. Continuing pressure from the Nazi government caused others to move to England and found the Cotswold Bruderhof in 1936. On April 14, 1937, secret police surrounded the Rhön Bruderhof, confiscated the property, gave the remaining community members forty-eight hours to flee the country. By 1938, all the Bruderhof members had reassembled in England. While in England, the population grew to over 350 members through the addition of young English members seeking an alternative to war.
Before the outbreak of World War II, the community's German members and its pacifist stance attracted deep suspicion locally resulting in economic boycotts. When confronted with the option of either having all German members interned, or leaving England as a group, the Bruderhof chose the latter, began to look for refuge abroad. Soon after the United Kingdom entered the war, the Bruderhof emigrated to Paraguay—the only country that would accept a pacifist community of mixed nationalities; this move was facilitated by the Mennonite Central Committee. Starting in the hostile Chaco region, the Bruderhof relocated to eastern Paraguay where three settlements were founded on a large tract of land called Primavera. Bruderhof members founded a hospital for local Paraguayans; the only clinic in the area, it served tens of thousands for the next two decades. By the early 1960s, the community in Paraguay had grown and was attracting visitors from North America. In 1942, several leaders of the community came in conflict with a group of members over the community's trajectory.
This group, which included the founder's wife Emmy Arnold, argued that the founder's vision was rooted in a pietistic faith in Jesus Christ, not in communitarian ideals. The church leadership, headed by the founder's son-in-law Hans Zumpe, banished the dissidents from the Bruderhof; those who supported them were silenced with harsh discipline. Allowed back to join their families, the dissidents re-joined the community. One of them, Johann Heinrich Arnold, a son of Eberhard and Emmy Arnold, was sent with his family to the United States to raise funds and started a new community called Woodcrest, in Rifton, New York, in 1954. Over the following years, conflicts between Zumpe and Arnold continued, culminating in a crisis resulting in Zumpe being relieved of his leadership role by the community. Zumpe left the community in 1960 after revelations of personal issues. Many members who supported Zumpe, some who were confused by the turmoil, left or were asked to leave the community; the communities in Paraguay were dissolved and the members who remained relocated to the United States.
Many of those who left the community during the 1960s returned, but some remained outside of the community and formed a group of critics of the Bruderhof. Their stories formed the basis for the 2000 book written by Julius Rubin, The Other Side of Joy: Religious Melancholy among the Bruderhof. Rubin himself never visited the Bruderhof. In 2010, the Bruderhof opened the Villa Primavera Community in Paraguay. In 1954, the Bruderhof started a settlement known as the Woodcrest Bruderhof in the United States near Rifton in upstate New York, in response to a dramatic increase in the number of American guests. Woodcrest absorbed the Macedonia Cooperative Community in Georgia and many members of the Kingwood Community in New Jersey. Through the Macedonia Cooperative Community Woodcrest inherited the business Community Playthings. Additional new communities were founded in Connecticut. In 1990, the Spring Valley Bruderhof was founded adjacent to the New Meadow Run Bruderhof in Farmington, Pennsylvania; as of September 2017, there are a total of 13 Bruderhof communities in the United States.
In 1971, the Bruderhof purchased a property in Robertsbridge, East Sussex, United Kingdom called Darvell. The property had previou
ZEGG is an ecovillage located on the outskirts of Bad Belzig, about 80 km south-west of Berlin. It is an intentional community and an international seminar centre aiming to develop and implement practical models for a and ecologically sustainable way of living. To do this, it integrates personal growth work, the establishment of a cooperative and environment-friendly way of living and participation in political issues. In particular, ZEGG focuses on exploring innovative approaches to love and sexuality and it has developed and practices the use of tools for personal expression and trust building in large groups, including the ZEGG Forum. ZEGG was founded in 1991 on a 37-acre site. 100 people now live, including youth. The facilities on site include: an ecological sewage plant, a CO2-neutral heating system, organic vegetable garden, some clay buildings, a meditation room, artists’ studios, workshops, a guesthouse, the "Children’s Building" and a range of other rooms and facilities for events and seminars.
Since 2015 ZEGG is recognized as a non-profit organization. ZEGG Community offers many workshops throughout the year, they cover topics such as community knowledge, communication and sexuality, non-violent communication and singing. The official host for all these events is the non-profit limited company ZEGG gGmbH; the seminar business is the main source of community income. ZEGG’s social aim is the long-term promotion of a community-based way of life and it has created its own social structure to achieve this. Community members participate in social processes designed to promote communication, resolve conflicts and support personal development processes. There are regular discos, seasonal celebrations, internal lectures and discussion rounds and other cultural events. Many of the community members work within the seminar business, which encompasses catering, organisation of events and running seminars. Other areas where members work directly for the community include the garden and the site maintenance team.
Community-members are self-employed, some have day jobs in the region or earn their living further afield. Members are expected to carry out some voluntary work within the community. Most community members live in shared accommodation of various sizes. Most children go to nurseries or schools in the region. In the afternoons, a parents’ initiative organises childcare in the Children’s Building; the whole community shares the costs of maintaining this building and providing accommodation and care for the children. ZEGG has adopted a sociocratic model for its internal organisation, it is built on self-organizing teams that represent the whole organisation, with more comprehensive ones at the top and more specialised ones under them. The teams represent a clear area of activity such as the garden or catering; the Management team takes financial decisions and implements the organisation’s goals whilst keeping the higher-level interests of the community in mind. These are the responsibility of the Board.
All decisions can be revised. Important social and financial decisions are made by the community as a whole using consensus decision-making. One of the ZEGG community's founding aims was to research the issues of sexuality. In the early years the prevailing idea was that of free love. Inspired by Dieter Duhm’s ideas, the community set off on a search for a way to be together that would help to overcome the fears and possessiveness we experience that hinder our ability to love. After the initial radical approach and more emphasis began to be placed on partnerships. Today, some ZEGG members live in various forms of open relationships and others live as monogamous couples; the aim of ZEGG is still to take an open approach to love and sexuality, building trust among each other whatever form relationships may take. "ZEGG-Forum" is a ritualized form of transparent communication between groups. It was invented by the original community of the "Bauhütte" in 1978 and proved essential for the continuation of ZEGG.
It is a social process for groups of 12 to 50 participants and has been adopted by groups in the US and abroad including the Network For A New Culture. It is used to reduce social tensions and to create bonding, its playful and ritualized form makes it easier to share thoughts and feelings that are hidden, thus strengthening social contacts. The idea is that social individuals profit from supportive feedback. ZEGG is a member of the Global Ecovillage Network; the community aims to take as much of its energy supply as possible from CO2-neutral and regional energy sources. ZEGG generates; the lignite-fired power plant on the site was modernised in 2010. It runs on woodchips. Around 85% of the electricity supply comes from photovoltaic plants and gas-powered combined heat and power plants. Additional electricity is purchased from Greenpeace Energy that ensures the supply comes from renewable sources. A constructed wetland sewage treatment system was built in 1992, which purifies all the wastewater from the site in a specially planted marshy area, which provides a new habitat for animals.
The drinking water comes directly from groundwater through three wells. Permaculture is a guiding principle for ZEGG when it comes to developing and using its
Federation of Damanhur
The Federation of Damanhur called Damanhur, is a commune and spiritual community situated in the Piedmont region of northern Italy about 50 kilometres north of the city of Turin. It is located in the foothills of the Alps in the Chiusella Valley, bordering on the Gran Paradiso National Park; the community has currency, the Credito. Damanhur is named after the Egyptian city of Damanhur, the site of a temple dedicated to Horus, it was founded in 1975 by Oberto Airaudi with around 24 followers, by 2000 the number had grown to 800. The group holds a mix of neopagan beliefs, they gained fame in 1992 through the disclosure of their secret excavation of an extensive underground temple, the Temples of Humankind, begun in 1978 under complete secrecy. The Italian authorities ordered construction work to stop because it had been constructed without planning approval, although artwork could continue. Retroactive permission was subsequently granted. Damanhur's supporters claim the activity of the community has revitalized the local area.
The Federation of Damanhur has centers in Europe and Japan. The constitution began with 3 bodies of Damanhur: The School of Meditation Social and The Game of Life. A fourth body was added, Technarcate. Citizens participate in one of 4 levels, depending on their desired involvement: A, B, C, or D. Class A citizens live on site full-time. Class B citizens live on site a minimum of 3 days a week. Class C and D citizens live anywhere. Class A & B citizens participate in The School of Meditation and the Game of Life. Class C citizens participate in The School of Meditation. Citizens participate depending on their personal nature. Ways include the Way of the Oracle, the Way of the Monk, the Way of the Knight, the Way of Health, the Way of the Word, the Way of Art & Work, many others. Most citizens live in houses of 10-20 people each, federated together into the Federation of Damanhur. Marriage works for a period of so many years before renewal. Conception is timed for auspicious birthdays of children. From 1983 onwards, members have assumed animal names.
Merrifield, Jeff. Damanhur: The Real Dream. London: Thorsons. ISBN 0722534965. OCLC 647069892. Merrifield, Jeff. Damanhur: The Story of the Extraordinary Italian Artistic Community. Santa Cruz: Hanford Mead Publishers. ISBN 1592750109. OCLC 63116828. Ananas, Esperide. Damanhur: Temples of Humankind. New York: CoSM Press. ISBN 1556435770. OCLC 62172760. Robertson, Ross. "Atlantis in the Mountains of Italy". What Is Enlightenment?. No. 36. Pp. 94–110. Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Official website
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Dreamtime Village is an intentional community in West Lima, United States, whose residents participate in various permaculture and sustainability projects. Dreamtime was founded in 1990 by Madison artists mIEKAL Lyx Ish. Dreamtime Village website Dreamtime Village's listing at IC.org Into Middle America but Staying on the Fringe - The New York Times