Shades of green
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Green is common in nature in plants. Many plants are green because of a complex chemical known as chlorophyll, involved in photosynthesis. Many shades of green are related to plants. Due to varying ratios of chlorophylls, the plant kingdom exhibits many shades of green in both hue and value; the chlorophylls in living plants have distinctive green colors, while dried or cooked portions of plants are different shades of green due to the chlorophyll molecules losing their inner magnesium ion. Artichoke is a color, a representation of the color of a raw fresh uncooked artichoke. Another name for this color is artichoke green; the first recorded use of "artichoke green" as a color name in English was in 1905.
This is the color called artichoke green in Pantone. The source is Pantone 18-0125 TPX Asparagus is a tone of green, named after the vegetable. Crayola created this color in 1993 as one of the 16 to be named in the Name the Color Contest, it is the color of a wild asparagus plant blowing in the wind of the 1949 classic film Sands of Iwo Jima. Another name for this color is asparagus green; the first recorded use of "asparagus green" as a color name in English was in 1805. Avocado is a color, a representation of the color of the outer surface of an avocado; the color avocado is a dark yellow-green color. Avocado was a common color for metal surfaces, as well as the color harvest gold, during the whole decade of the 1970s, they were both popular colors for shag carpets. Both colors went out of style by the early 1980s. Dark green is a dark shade of green. A different shade of green has been designated as "dark green" for certain computer uses. Fern green is a color. A Crayola crayon named fern was created in 1998, a lighter shade of the top color shown on the right.
The first recorded use of fern green as a color name in English was in 1902. Forest green refers to a green color said to resemble the color of the trees and other plants in a forest; the first recorded use of forest green as the name of a color in the English language was in 1810. Displayed at right is the color green earth. Hooker's green is a dark green color created by mixing Prussian Gamboge, it is displayed on the right. Hooker's green takes its name from botanical artist William Hooker who first created a special pigment for leaves. Displayed at right is the color jungle green. In 1990, Crayola formulated this specific tone of jungle green; the first recorded use of jungle green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1926. Laurel green is a medium light hue of greenish lighter; the first recorded use of laurel green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1705. Light green is a light tint of green. Mantis is a color, a representation of the color of a praying mantis.
The first use of mantis as a color name in English was when it was included as one of the colors on the Xona.com color list, promulgated in 2001. Moss green is a tone of green; the first recorded use of moss green as a color name in English was in 1884. Myrtle green called myrtle, is a color, a representation of the color of the leaves of the myrtle plant; the first recorded use of myrtle green as a color name in English was in 1835. Myrtle is the official designation of the green stripes on Waterloo rugby club's shirts, the green of Hunslet rugby league club, the green stripes of the South Sydney Rabbitohs and the green of the blazers, sports kit and scarf of St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow, it is one of the school colors of Lane Technical College Prep High School in Chicago, the other being old gold. The baggy green, the cricket cap worn by Australian Test cricketers since around the turn of the twentieth century, is myrtle green in color. Pine green is a rich shade of spring green, it is an official Crayola color.
The first recorded use of pine tree as a color name in English was in 1923. Reseda green is a shade of greyish green in the classic range of colors of the German RAL colour standard, in which it is named "RAL 6011"; the name derives from the color of the leaves of Reseda odorata known as mignonette. Sap green is a green pigment, traditionally made of ripe buckthorn berries. However, modern colors marketed under this name are a blend of other pigments with a basis of Phthalocyanine Green G. Sap green paint was used on Bob Ross' TV show, The Joy of Painting. Shamrock green is a tone of green that represents the color of a symbol of Ireland; the first recorded use of shamrock as a color name in English was in the 1820s. This green is defined as Irish green Pantone 347; this green is used as the green on the national flag of the Republic of IrelandIt is customary in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States to wear this or any other tone of green on St. Patrick's Day, March 17; the State of California uses this shade of green of the grass under the bear on their state flag.
The Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association use this shade for their uniforms and other memorabilia. Tea g
Touring car racing
Touring car racing is a motorsport road racing competition with modified road-going cars. It is popular in Argentina, Brazil, Germany and Norway, it has both similarities to and significant differences from stock car racing, popular in the United States. While not as fast as Formula One, the similarity of the cars both to each other and to fans' own vehicles makes for entertaining, well-supported racing; the lesser use of aerodynamics means following cars have a much easier time passing than in F1, the more substantial bodies of the cars makes the subtle bumping and nudging for overtaking much more acceptable as part of racing. As well as short "sprint" races, many touring car series include one or more endurance races, which last anything from 3 to 24 hours and are a test of reliability and pit crews as much as car, driver speed, consistency. While rules vary from country to country, most series require that the competitors start with a standard car body, but every other component may be allowed to be modified for racing, including engines, brakes and tyres.
Aerodynamic aids are sometimes added to the rear of the cars. Regulations are designed to limit costs by banning some of the more exotic technologies available and keep the racing close. Touring cars share some similarity with American stock car racing governed by NASCAR. However, touring cars are, at least notionally, derived from production cars while today's NASCAR vehicles are based on a common design. For the casual observer, there can be a great deal of confusion when it comes to classifying closed-wheel racing cars as'touring cars' or'sports cars'. In truth, there is very little technical difference between the two classifications, nomenclature is a matter of tradition. Touring cars are based upon family cars, while GT racing cars are based upon powerful sports cars, such as Ferraris or Lamborghinis. Underneath the bodywork, a touring car is more related to its road-going origins, using many original components and mountings, while some top-flight GT cars are purpose-built tube-frame racing chassis underneath a cosmetic body shell.
More there has been an increasing push to make GT cars closer to the road cars with the GT3 set of regulations. Many touring car series, such as the BTCC and the now-defunct JTCC distinguish themselves from sports car racing by featuring front-wheel drive, four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive cars with smaller engines. Most sports car championships only allow rear-wheel drive cars. While touring cars have a lower technical level than sports cars, there are some exceptions; the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters is considered to be one of the most technologically advanced racing series in the world, with cars that, underneath their body shells, are more purebred racing machines than most FIA-GT vehicles. When Sports car racing was created in the inter-war period of the 20th century however, sports cars fulfilled the role Touring Cars do today, as the production car variant of racing compared to the specialised vehicles competing in Grand Prix racing. Over time Touring Cars has drifted from its role as racing cars based on modern road cars with categories like NASCAR and DTM having little to no connection to road cars.
This in turn has led to the rise of Production car racing to fulfil the role once performed by Touring Cars and Sports Cars before that. Worldwide Modern World Touring Car Championship started in 2005, evolving from the reborn European Touring Car Championship. Running at major international racing facilities, this series is supported by BMW, SEAT and Chevrolet; the latter fields a works team, whereas the other two only sell racing kits to be installed on their cars, providing technical support to their customers. In 2011 Volvo entered the championship, fielding a one-car team as an evaluation for a possible heavier commitment to the series; the World Touring Car Championship features 1.6-litre cars built to Super 2000 regulations based on FIA Group N. Following the trend of recent FIA rules, cost control is a major theme in the technical regulation. In 2011 the rules concerning the engine capacity have changed, switching from 2000 cc to 1600 cc turbo engines. Cars equipped with the old 2000 cc engines are still eligible in the championship.
Many technologies that have featured in production cars are not allowed, for example: variable valve timing, variable intake geometry, ABS brakes and traction control. United Kingdom The British Touring Car Championship competes at nine circuits in the UK with cars built to Next Generation Touring Car specification, with ballast being used to equalise performance. From 2011, cars that ran to the BTCC's own Next Generation Touring Car specification were eligible to compete in a phased move away from Super 2000 regulations. Cars are 2.0-litre saloons, station wagons and hatchbacks with over 350 bhp and can be front or rear-wheel drive. During the 2016 season manufacturer team entries came from Subaru, MG and Honda. Since BTCC budgets have been kept low, there is a strong independent and privateer presence in the championship. Manufacturers represented by privateers include Vauxhall, Toyota, Volkswagen and Audi. Prior to 2001 the BTCC was contested by cars built to 2.0-litre supertouring regulations and had in its heyday up to nine different manufacturers.
Joachim Winkelhock stated on several occasions that it was the best touri
History of Formula One
Formula One automobile racing has its roots in the European Grand Prix championships of the 1920s and 1930s, though the foundation of the modern Formula One began in 1946 with the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's standardisation of rules, followed by a World Championship of Drivers in 1950. The sport's history parallels the evolution of its technical regulations. In addition to the world championship series, non-championship Formula One races were held for many years, the last held in 1983 due to the rising cost of competition. National championships existed in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and 1970s. Formula One was first defined in 1946 by the Commission Sportive Internationale of the FIA, forerunner of FISA, as the premier single seater racing category in worldwide motorsport to become effective in 1947; this new "International Formula" was known variously as Formula A, Formula I, or Formula 1 with the corresponding "Voiturette" formula being titled Formula B, Formula II, or Formula 2.
When the 500c formula was internationally recognised as Formula 3 in 1950 it was never titled as "Formula C" so the three International Formulae were "officially" titled Formula 1, Formula 2 and Formula 3. In the beginning, the formula was based on pre-World War II regulations defined by engine capacity; the regulation expected to bring a new balance between supercharged and aspirated cars. Non-supercharged 4.5-litre pre-war Grand Prix cars were allowed to race against the pre-war 1.5-litre supercharged'voiturettes', while pre-war supercharged 3-litre Grand Prix cars were banned. The first race under the new regulations was the 1946 Turin Grand Prix held on 1 September, the race being won by Achille Varzi in an Alfa Romeo 158 Alfetta. Championships for drivers or constructors were not introduced immediately. In the early years there were around 20 races held from late Spring to early Autumn in Europe, although not all of these were considered significant. Most competitive cars came from Italy Alfa Romeo.
Races saw pre-war heroes like Rudolf Caracciola, Manfred Von Brauchitsch and Tazio Nuvolari end their careers, while drivers like Alberto Ascari and Juan Manuel Fangio rose to the front. See 1950 season, 1951 season, 1952 season, 1953 season, 1954 season, 1955 season, 1956 season and 1957 season; the Motorcycle World Championships was introduced in 1949. In 1950, the FIA responded with the first official World Championship for Drivers; the championship series, to be held across six of the'major' Grands Prix of Europe plus the Indianapolis 500, was in effect a formalization of what had been developing in Grand Prix racing during the previous years. Italian teams of Alfa Romeo and Maserati were best positioned to dominate the early years. Other national manufacturers – such as the French manufacturer Talbot or the British BRM – competed, although less successfully. A number of private cars took part in local races; the Italian and German factory teams in those days employed 2 to 3 drivers whose nationality was the same as the team's and at least 1 foreign driver.
Alfa Romeo dominated all before them in the 1950 season, winning every race bar one in the championship with the pre-war "Alfetta" 158s. The sole exception was the Indianapolis 500, part of the championship, although not run to Formula One regulations and contested by the European teams; the race would never be important for Formula One and was no longer part of the championship after 1960. Nino Farina won the inaugural championship, Juan Manuel Fangio taking it in 1951 with the Alfa-Romeo 159, an evolution of the 158; the Alfetta's engines were powerful for their capacity: In 1951 the 159 engine was producing around 420 bhp but this was at the price of a fuel consumption of 125 to 175 litres per 100 km. Enzo Ferrari, who had raced the Alfettas before the war, his engine designer Aurelio Lampredi, were the first to understand that the 1.5-litre supercharged engine was a dead end: Any increase in power meant more fuel to carry or more time lost in the pits for refuelling, For the last races of 1950 Ferrari sent his 1.5-litre supercharged 125s to the museum, fielded the new V12 4.5-litre aspirated 375s.
With a fuel consumption of around 35 litres per 100 kilometres the 375s offered fierce opposition to the Alfettas towards the end of the 1951 season. Alfa Romeo, a state-owned company, decided to withdraw after a refusal of the Italian government to fund the expensive design of a new car. Alfa Romeo involvement in racing was made with a thin budget, using pre-war technology and material during the two seasons. For instance the team won two championships using only nine pre-war built engine blocks. No Alfa Romeo, a supporting cast of privateer Lago-Talbot entries and an undriveable, unreliable BRM would make Ferrari invincible; the FIA was in an embarrassing position as it had announced that current Formula One regulations would last until 1954 before switching to 2.5-litre atmospheric engines. Major manufacturers were working to develop cars for the future regulation and it was obvious that nobody would develop a new car for only two years; the promoters of the World Championship Grands Prix, mindful of the lack of serious competition for the Alfettas all adopted Formula Two regulations for two years.
However, Ferrari's dominance went on with the light 4-cylinder powered 500s, bringing Italian Alberto Ascari his two championships in the 1952 and 1953 seasons
Racing flags are traditionally used in auto racing and similar motorsports to indicate track condition and to communicate important messages to drivers. The starter, sometimes the grand marshal of a race, waves the flags atop a flag stand near the start/finish line. Track marshals are stationed at observation posts along the race track in order to communicate both local and course-wide conditions to drivers. Alternatively, some race tracks employ lights to supplement the primary flag at the start/finish line. While there is no universal system of racing flags across all of motorsports, most series have standardized them, with some flags carrying over between series. For example, the chequered flag is used across all of motorsport to signify the end of a session, while the penalty flags differ from series to series. FIA-sanctioned championship flags are the most used internationally as they cover championships such as Formula 1, the FIA World Endurance Championship and WTCC, are adopted by many more motorsport governing bodies across the world such as, for example, the MSA.
Status flags are used to inform all drivers of the general status of the course during a race. In addition, the green and red flags described below may be augmented or replaced by lights at various points around the circuit; the solid green flag is displayed by the starter to indicate the start of a race. During a race, it is displayed at the end of a caution period or a temporary delay to indicate that the race is restarting; the waving of a green flag is universally supplemented with the illumination of green lights at various intervals around the course on ovals. If the race is not under caution or delayed, it is said to be under green-flag conditions. However, the flag itself is not continuously waved by the starter. No flag displayed at the starter's stand implies green-flag conditions. At all times, the green lights remain lit; when shown at a marshalling post, a green flag may indicate the end of a local yellow-flag zone. A separate green flag displayed at the entrance to the pit area indicate.
In NASCAR, a green and yellow flag waved at the same time indicates that the race is being started or restarted under caution and laps are being counted. This is sometimes called a "running yellow" and occurs when a track is drying after a rain delay; the officials will utilize the cars in the field to facilitate the final drying of the course, but in order to not waste fuel, delay the race further, the laps are counted towards the advertised race distance. In 1980, USAC flagman Duane Sweeney started a tradition at the Indianapolis 500 of waving twin green flags for added visual effect at the start of the race. Green flags waved at restarts. Since the 1990s, some races on occasion invite celebrity guests to wave the green flag at the start of the race. Before the use of starting lights in Formula One and most other FIA sanctioned or associated events, the national flag of the country in which a race is occurring, instead of a green flag, was used to signal its start, still does on occasion in the event of equipment failure.
The solid yellow flag, or caution flag, universally requires drivers to slow down due to a hazard on the track an accident, a stopped car, debris or light rain. However, the procedures for displaying the yellow flag vary for different racing styles and sanctioning bodies. In Formula One racing, a yellow flag displayed at the starter's stand or a marshal station indicates that there is a hazard "downstream" of the station; the manner of display depends on the location of the hazard: A single waved flag denotes a hazard on the racing surface itself. A single stationary flag denotes a hazard near the racing surface. Two flags waved denotes a hazard that wholly or blocks the racing surface; this informs the driver that there may be marshals on the track and to prepare to stop, if necessary. When shown at a station, drivers are forbidden from overtaking until either the hazard or the next flag station displaying a green flag is passed; this flag is shown at the discretion of the marshals manning the station.
When the safety car is on the circuit, all flag points will display a'safety car board'. When flag points are under radio control, this will happen otherwise, the board is displayed when the safety car comes round for the first time; this is accompanied by a waved yellow flag. Standard yellow flag conditions apply to the whole circuit; when the safety car comes in and the race resumes, a green flag is displayed at the start line, subsequently at all flag points around the circuit for one lap. Overtaking is not allowed until the cars have passed the start/finish line, or in F1, the safety car line at pit entry; when there are circumstances where double-waved yellow flags are needed yet usage of the safety car is not warranted the race will be under a Virtual Safety Car period, during which all flag points will display a'VSC board' and all light panels on track will display the letters'VSC' surrounded by a flashing yellow border. Under the VSC procedure, all drivers on the track must reduce their speed and stay above a minimum time set by race officials at least once in each marshalling sector.
Overtaking is not permitted unless if another driver enters the pit lane or if a car slows down due to an obvious problem. When deemed safe to end the VSC procedure, teams are notified via the official messaging
British racing green
British racing green, or BRG, is a colour similar to Brunswick green, hunter green, forest green or moss green. It takes its name from the green international motor racing colour of the United Kingdom; this originated with the 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup, held in Ireland, as motor-racing was illegal in England. As a mark of respect, the British cars were painted shamrock green. Although there is still some debate as to an exact hue for BRG the term is used to denote a spectrum of deep, rich greens. "British racing green" in motorsport terms meant only the colour green in general – its application to a specific shade has developed outside the sport. In the days of the Gordon Bennett Cup, Count Eliot Zborowski, father of inter-war racing legend Louis Zborowski, suggested that each national entrant be allotted a different colour; every component of a car had to be produced in the competing country, as well as the driver being of that nationality. The races were hosted in the country of the previous year's winner.
When Britain first competed in 1902, they had to choose a different colour from the national flag colours of red and blue, because those had been taken for the 1900 race by America and France respectively. When Selwyn Edge won the 1902 Gordon Bennett Cup race for England in his Napier it was decided that the 1903 race would be held in Ireland, at that time a part of the United Kingdom, as motor racing at the time was illegal in Great Britain; as a mark of respect for their Irish hosts the English Napier cars were painted shamrock green. In keeping with these Irish/Napier roots, many of the earliest greens used on British racing cars were of a lighter olive, moss or emerald green. Darker shades became more common, though there was a return to lighter greens by HWM and other teams in the 1950s; the colour use only applied to the grandes épreuves, but was codified in the Code Sportif International of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile for use in all international-level motor racing events.
The foremost British participant in International Motor Racing at the highest echelons both before and after the Great War was Sunbeam. Green liveried Sunbeam Racing Cars won the 1912 Coupe de l’Auto as well as being the first British team to win the European Grand Epreuves Grand Prix in both 1923 and 1924; the Green Sunbeams driven by the likes of Henry Segrave and K L Guinness were during the vintage period, the prominent competitors to watch for. In the 1920s Bentley cars were hugely successful at the Le Mans 24h races, all sporting a mid- to dark-green; the first recorded use of the darkest green shades was on the Bugatti of Briton William Grover-Williams, driving in the first Monaco Grand Prix, in 1929. This colour has become known as British Racing Green. In the 1950s and 1960s British teams such as Aston Martin, Cooper, BRM were successful in Formula One and Sports car racing, all in different shades of green; the British Racing Partnership team used a pale green. Scottish teams such as Ecurie Ecosse and Rob Walker Racing used a dark blue, which did not conform to the CSI rules but was tolerated by officials.
The Australian-owned but British-based and licensed Brabham team used a shade of BRG, this was augmented with a gold stripe and green being the national sporting colours of Australia. Another British-based and licensed team, McLaren, made their debut at the 1966 Monaco Grand Prix with the McLaren M2B car painted white with a green stripe, to represent a fictional Yamura team in the John Frankenheimer´s film Grand Prix. Under pressure from a number of teams, most famously the Lotus team who wished to use the Gold Leaf livery on the Lotus 49, in 1968 sponsorship regulations were relaxed in F1. Subsequently, Lotus made their debut in this new livery at the 1968 Spanish Grand Prix. In 1970 the FIA formally gave Formula One an exemption from the national colours ruling and the common green colour soon disappeared, being replaced by various sponsor liveries; this exemption has since been extended to all race series, unless specific regulations require the adoption of national colours. The history of the famous greens was revived in 2000 by Jaguar Racing in Formula One, but after this team was sold to Red Bull by Ford in 2004, the new Red Bull Racing team used their own colours.
Other traditionally British manufacturers have since followed suit. Bentley returned to the Le Mans circuit in 2001, 2002 and 2003, winning with the Bentley Speed 8, painted in a dark shade of BRG. In recent years Aston Martin has returned to endurance racing, with their DBR9s painted in, a Aston, light BRG. Rocketsports Racing used green for its Jaguar XK in the 24 Hours of Le Mans and American Le Mans Series and other. In 2010 the Lotus name returned to Formula One after a gap of 16 years with the Lotus Racing team's Lotus T127 car liveried in dark green with yellow. Although registered in Malaysia, the new team is based in Britain and chose BRG with the aim of "striking an emotional chord with young and old alike and evoking memories of some of motor racing most iconic moments". With the many successes of British racing teams through the years, British Racing Green became a popular paint choice for British sports and luxury cars. A solid colour, British Racing Green is a metallic paint due to the limited range of solids offered by today's manufacturers.
Paying tribute to the small British roadsters of the 1960s that inspired the Mazda MX-5, Mazda produced a limited edition version of the model in 1991 and 2001 called
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
Rosso corsa is the red international motor racing colour of cars entered by teams from Italy. Since the 1920s Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo, Maserati and Ferrari and Abarth have been painted in rosso corsa; this was the customary national racing colour of Italy as recommended between the world wars by the organisations that became the FIA. In that scheme of international auto racing colours French cars were blue, British cars were green, etc. In Formula One, the colour was not determined by the country the car was made in nor by the nationality of the driver but by the nationality of the team entering the vehicle. A yellow Ferrari 156 was entered and driven in the 1961 Belgian Grand Prix by Olivier Gendebien from Belgium, scoring 4th behind 3 other Ferrari 156s painted in red as they were entered by the Scuderia Ferrari itself, driven by US drivers Phil Hill and Richie Ginther as well as German Wolfgang von Trips. Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in Ferrari 158 cars painted white and blue -the national colours of the teams from the United States- as these were entered not by the Italian factory themselves but by the US-based NART team.
This was done as a protest against the agreement between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding their planned mid-engined Ferrari race car. National colours were replaced in Formula One by commercial sponsor liveries in 1968, but unlike most other teams, Ferrari always kept the traditional red but the shade of the colour varies. From 1996 to 2007 Ferrari F1 cars were painted in a brighter orange day-glo to adjust for colour balance on television screens; the original Rosso Corsa may appear dark brown in older television sets. The Rosso corsa shade of red made a return on the F1 cars at the 2007 Monaco Grand Prix in line with the increasing market presence of higher quality high definition television. Red cars are traditional in Alfa Romeo and Ferrari car running in other motorsport champsionships, such as Supertouring championships in the former and the 24 Hours of Le Mans and 24 Hours of Daytona in the latter. In contrast, since the 2000s Maserati has been using white and blue and Abarth has been using white with red flashes.
Rosso Corsa is an popular colour choice for Ferrari road cars, nearly 80% of all Ferraris sold are in the colour. In the Peking to Paris race of 1907, the first to arrive in Paris was Prince Scipione Borghese, an Italian aristocrat, accompanied by Luigi Barzini, a journalist who worked for The Daily Telegraph, a valet, who acted as his mechanic and traveled with a supply of Lanson champagne; the prince was so confident of winning that he took a detour from Moscow to St Petersburg for a dinner in honour of the team, afterwards headed back to Moscow and rejoined the race. Their chief rival was Charles Goddard, a fairground worker and con artist who, until he learned of the race from a scrap of newspaper he found blowing in the wind, had never sat in a motor car and, arrested for fraud as he approached the finishing line. Goddard, who came second, lacked the resources of Borghese and had to beg fellow competitors for fuel. In a desperate attempt to catch up, he set an endurance record for non-stop driving for 24 hours.
The prince's prize was a magnum of Mumm champagne, the red colour of his 1907 Itala car was adopted by Italy as its racing colour in his honour. List of colours List of international auto racing colors Ludvigsen, Karl. Italian Racing Red: Drivers and Triumphs of Italian Motor Racing Racing Colours. Ian Allan Publishers. ISBN 9780711033313