Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego
Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego formerly Isla de Xátiva is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan. The western portion of the island is in Chile, it forms the major landmass in an extended group of islands or archipelago known as Tierra del Fuego. The island has an area of 47,992 km2, making it the largest island in South America and the 29th largest island in the world, its two biggest towns are Ushuaia and Río Grande, both in Argentina. Other towns are Tolhuin, Camerón, Cerro Sombrero; the Argentine side, Tierra del Fuego Province, has 127,205 inhabitants, whereas the Chilean side though its area is larger, has only 6,656 all located in the Tierra del Fuego Province. Its highest point is Monte Darwin, in Chile; the northern parts of the island have oil deposits. In 1949, an earthquake occurred near the Argentine border. Recorded as 7.8 on the moment magnitude scale, it was the most powerful recorded in the south of Argentina. Tierra del Fuego is bounded on the east by the South Atlantic, on the north by the Magellan Straits and on the south and west by a series of fjords and channels linked to the Pacific Ocean.
One of the few prominent features of the northeast shore is San Sebastián Bay. To the south the island is bounded by the Beagle Channel, south of which lie a series of islands included in Chilean territory. To the west the island has Inútil Bay and Almirantazgo Fjord; the latter lies along the Magallanes–Fagnano Fault and is a continuation of the Cami Lake depression in southern Tierra del Fuego. The southwest part of the island, between the Almirantazgo Fjord and the Beagle Channel and extending west to end at Brecknock Peninsula on the Pacific Ocean, is mountainous with a indented coastline, dominated by the Cordillera Darwin. Most of this part of the island is included in the Alberto de Agostini National Park of Chile; the earliest human settlement occurred more than 10,000 years ago, as people migrated from the mainland under pressure from competitors. The Yaghan people were some of the earliest known humans settling in Tierra del Fuego. Certain archeological sites at locations such as Navarino Island, within the islands of Tierra del Fuego, have yielded artifacts and evidence of their culture from the Megalithic era.
The name Tierra del Fuego derives from Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the first European to visit these lands in 1520, on his voyage to the Philippines from Spain. He believed he was seeing the many fires of the Amerindians, which were visible from the sea and that the "Indians" were waiting in the forests to ambush his armada; these were fires lit by the Yamana Indians who lived in the northern part of the island, to ward off the low temperatures in the area. Called the "Land of Smoke," it was changed to the more exciting "Land of Fire." The British commander Robert Fitzroy, on his first voyage aboard HMS Beagle in 1830, captured four native Fuegians after they stole a boat from his ship. The men included Orundellico named Jemmy Button by his crew. Fitzroy taught them English and took them with him on his return to England, where he took them to Court to meet the King and Queen in London, they became early celebrities. The surviving three were returned to Tierra del Fuego on the second voyage of Beagle, which included the naturalist Charles Darwin, who made extensive notes about his visit to the islands.
In 1881 the island was divided between Argentina and Chile, each of which had claimed it entirely. The 1949 Tierra del Fuego earthquake took place on 17 December 1949, at 06:53:30 AM, it recorded magnitude 7.8 in the Richter scale. Its epicenter was located in the east of the Chilean Tierra del Fuego Province, close to the Argentine border, at a depth of 30 km; this was the most powerful earthquake recorded in the south of Argentina. It was felt with grade VIII in the Mercalli intensity scale, affected the settlements and some others like Punta Arenas and Río Gallegos. Due to low population density, damage was limited; the region has a subpolar oceanic climate with short, cool summers and long, moderate winters. The northeast is characterized by strong winds and little precipitation, while in the south and west it is windy and wet most of the year, with precipitation levels averaging 3,000 millimetres a year; the permanent snow line begins at 700 metres. Only 30 % of the islands have forests. There are six species of tree found in Tierra del Fuego: Canelo or Winter's Bark, Maytenus magellanica, Pilgerodendron uviferum the southernmost conifer in the world, three kinds of southern beech.
Edible fruits grow in open spaces in these forests, such as beach strawberry and calafate, which have been collected by Indians and residents alike. These forests are unique in the world for having developed in a climate with such cold summers. Tree cover extends close to the southernmost tip of South America. Winds are so strong that trees in wind-exposed areas grow twisted by the force of winds, an
Isla Apipé or Isla Apipé Grande is an Argentine island about 25 km long in the Paraná River below the Argentine city of Posadas, Misiones marginally within the border of Paraguay, divided by river and a thin strip of variable marsh depending on the season. Isla Apipé is part of Corrientes Province, separated from the rest of the province by a channel of the Paraná River and marsh up to the mean high water mark along a longer strip of the left bank belonging to Paraguay, a country which otherwise commences on the other side of the island; the island and three smaller notable, permanent islands are surrounded by Paraguayan — being exclaves and enclaves. The other islands are Isla Los Patos and Isla San Martín. In order the four islands measure about 276, 23.8, 11.8 and 3.7 km²
British Antarctic Territory
The British Antarctic Territory is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area. It comprises the region south of 60°S latitude and between longitudes 20°W and 80°W, forming a wedge shape that extends to the South Pole, overlapping the Antarctic claims of Argentina and Chile; the Territory was formed on 3 March 1962, although the UK's claim to this portion of the Antarctic dates back to letters patent of 1908 and 1917. The area now covered by the Territory includes three regions which, before 1962, were administered by the British as separate dependencies of the Falkland Islands: Graham Land, the South Orkney Islands, the South Shetland Islands; the United Kingdom's claim to the region has been suspended since the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1961, Article 4 of which states "No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.
No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force." Most countries do not recognise territorial claims in Antarctica. The United Kingdom has ratified the treaty. In 2012, the southern part of the territory was named Queen Elizabeth Land in honour of Queen Elizabeth II; the territory is inhabited by the staff of research and support stations operated and maintained by the British Antarctic Survey and other organisations, stations of Argentina and other countries. There are no native inhabitants; the United Kingdom has had a continuous presence in the far South Atlantic since 1833 when it reasserted sovereignty over the Falkland Islands. In 1908, the UK extended its territorial claim by declaring sovereignty over "South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, the Sandwich Islands, Graham's Land, situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and on the Antarctic continent to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, lying between the 20th and the 80th degrees of west longitude".
All these territories were administered as Falkland Islands Dependencies from Stanley by the Governor of the Falkland Islands. In 1917, the wording of the claim was modified, so as to, among other things, unambiguously include all the territory in the sector stretching to the South Pole; the new claim covered "all islands and territories whatsoever between the 20th degree of west longitude and the 50th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 50th parallel of south latitude. The United Kingdom claimed Victoria Land in 1841 and Enderby Land in 1930, however all territory between 160°E and 45°E was transferred to Australia in 1933. In 1943, at the height of World War II, the UK undertook a military operation known as Operation Tabarin, to provide reconnaissance and meteorological information in the South Atlantic Ocean; this "secret" wartime project became the civilian Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey and the British Antarctic Survey. BAS is responsible for most of the United Kingdom's scientific research in Antarctica.
In the 1950s the Antarctic Treaty was negotiated to demilitarise the region and retain Antarctica – defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude – for peaceful research purposes. The treaty was passed in 1961; the Antarctic Treaty, signed by all relevant regional claimants, does not in itself either recognise or dispute any territorial claims, leaving this matter to individual signatories. Most of the world's countries do not recognise any national claims to Antarctica. Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, all of whom have territorial claims on the continent, mutually recognise each other's claims. Argentina and Chile dispute the British claim, make their own counter-claims that overlap both Britain's and each other's; the British Antarctic Territory includes the Antarctic Peninsula, the South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands and numerous other offshore islands, the Ronne Ice Shelf, parts of Coats Land. A 437,000-square-kilometre triangle of central Antarctica converging on the South Pole was named Queen Elizabeth Land in December 2012, in honour of the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.
Over 99 per cent of the territory's land surface is covered by a permanent ice sheet, up to about 5,000 metres thick. The highest peak was thought to be Mount Jackson, on the Antarctic Peninsula, at 3,184 metres. However, in 2017 Mount Hope was calculated to be taller at 3,239 metres. There are few plants in the British Antarctic Territories. Many bird species, including seven species of penguin breed in the British Antarctic Territories; the British Antarctic Territories are home to six species of seals. The British Antarctic Territory is administered by the Commonwealth Office. A Commissioner is appointed and is always the Director of the FCO's Overseas Territories Directorate; the Territory has a full suite of laws, legal and postal administrations. Given the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty System, the Territory does not enforce its laws on foreign nations who maintain scientific bases within the Territory, it is self-financing, with income from the sale of postage stamps an
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands sovereignty dispute
The sovereignty of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is disputed between the United Kingdom and Argentina. The United Kingdom claimed South Georgia in 1775, annexed the islands in 1908, has exercised de facto control with the exception of a brief period during the Falklands War in 1982 when the islands were controlled by Argentina; the dispute started in 1927 when Argentina claimed sovereignty over South Georgia, subsequently was expanded in scope with Argentina claiming the South Sandwich Islands in 1938. The islands have no indigenous population, only have about 30 inhabitants; the South Georgia archipelago was first claimed for Great Britain by James Cook in January 1775, having been discovered by Anthony de la Roché. However, the British did little to enforce this claim until 1843, when Letters Patent were issued to provide for the government of the islands, which were to be governed as a Falkland Islands Dependency; these were revised in 1876 and 1892. In 1908, following enquiries regarding the sovereignty of the area covered by the British Antarctic Territory from the Norwegian government, the British government stated that the islands were British, issued Letters Patent to include "South Orkney, South Georgia and South Shetland islands, Graham Land situated in the South Atlantic Ocean to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude and lying between the 20th and 80th degrees of west longitude" as Falkland Islands Dependencies.
It was made clear at this time that the association with the Falkland Islands was intended as an administrative convenience. As it had been observed within the British government that a literal interpretation of this claim would include parts of the South American mainland, the letters patent were clarified on 28 March 1917, redefining the limits to exclude all territories north of 58°S and west of 50°W, but to otherwise include all land in this region. Though the Argentine government were given details of the 1908 letters patent, neither Argentina nor Chile objected to either claim; the Compañía Argentina de Pesca, an Argentine-registered whaling company run by Norwegian Carl Anton Larsen, was the first company to set up operations on South Georgia in 1904. This company founded the settlement of Grytviken and its employees became the first permanent residents of the island. In 1905, the Argentine government authorised a weather station on the island. In 1906, the CAP signed a lease with the Falkland Islands government, following the 1908 annexation the company started to use British whaling licences and leases for land at Grytviken and Jason Harbour.
In 1908, the CAP started looking to the South Sandwich Islands for the expansion of their business. Larsen adopted British citizenship in 1910. Argentina's first explicit claim to South Georgia was made in 1927 and to the South Sandwich Islands in 1938. Following the Argentine claims, the UK offered to take the matter to the International Court of Justice in the Hague but this was turned down by Argentina; when Britain took the issue to the court unilaterally in 1955, Argentina declined to cooperate, citing a lack of jurisdiction. The British divided the Falkland Islands dependencies in 1962, in accordance with the newly signed Antarctic Treaty; those areas south of 60°S became the British Antarctic Territory, while the remainder – South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands – retained their previous status. Argentina established a military base, Corbeta Uruguay, on Thule Island at the far south of the South Sandwich Islands in November 1976; when this base was discovered by the British that December, the British protested diplomatically, sent a task force to protect the Falkland Islands from potential invasion.
On 19 March 1982, a group of 50 Argentines posing as scrap metal merchants landed at Leith Harbour on South Georgia aboard the ARA Bahía Buen Suceso and hoisted the Argentine flag. The British government responded by sending HMS Endurance with 22 Royal Marines to expel the Argentines, but they were held off to avoid increasing the tension. Further Argentine troops, led by Lieutenant Alfredo Astiz were landed and the British set up a station to monitor the activities there. Argentine forces invaded the Falkland Islands on 2 April 1982 and took Grytviken the following day, leaving 44 marines. Despite seizing Grytviken and Leith, the Argentines were not able to take the entire island and several British Antarctic Survey field camps remained in the hands of the United Kingdom throughout the length of the war. In response to the Argentine invasion, the British launched Operation Corporate of which Operation Paraquet was part. Royal Marines retook Grytviken in two hours on 25 April 1982 using intelligence from the SBS who had infiltrated the island, following an attack on the ARA Santa Fe by Royal Naval helicopters.
The garrison at Leith Harbour surrendered the following day, Corbeta Uruguay surrendered on 20 June 1982. It was demolished that December. Britain has administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands separately from the Falklands since the islands were made a British dependent territory in their own right in 1985; the status of the territory was altered by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, the terminology now used is British overseas territory. Argentina considers the islands to be part of the Islas del Atlántico Sur Department of Tierra del Fuego Province; the claim to South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is written into the 1994 Argentine constitution alongside the claim to the Falkland Islands. Argentina claims that: Argentina has, since 1927, protested every British action that it has known abo
South Georgia Island
South Georgia is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean, part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The main settlement is Grytviken. South Georgia is 1.4 to 37 km wide. It is about 830 km northeast of Coronation Island and 550 km northwest from Zavodovski Island, the nearest South Sandwich island; the Island of South Georgia is said to have been first sighted in 1675 by Anthony de la Roché, a London merchant, was named Roche Island on a number of early maps. It was sighted by a commercial Spanish ship named León operating out of Saint-Malo on 28 June or 29 June 1756. Commercial sealing was conducted on the island between 1786 and 1913. During that period 131 sealing visits are recorded, eight of which ended when the vessel was wrecked. Modern industrial sealing associated with whaling stations was carried out between 1909 and 1964. Sealing era relics include iron trypots, hut ruins and inscriptions. On 19 March 1982, a group of Argentinians arrived at Leith Harbour and raised the Argentine flag on the island.
On 3 April, the second day of Argentine naval forces formally annexed the island. South Georgia was retaken by British forces on 25 April during Operation Paraquet; the island is classified as an ET or polar tundra climate on the Köppen-Geiger classification system. It has no tree cover, there is snow on the island during the winter months; the terrain is mountainous, with many fjords and bays along the coast. Additionally, South Georgia is a breeding ground for elephant seals, fur seals, king penguins; the island is home to the South Georgia Pintail and the South Georgia Pipit, the only known habitat for these birds. The island's topography includes a stepped sequence of flat surfaces interpreted as wave-cut platforms formed when sea level was higher relative to the island. At sea level strandflats have been described. In 2018, the island was declared free of invasive rodents after a multiyear extermination effort
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Corrientes is a province in northeast Argentina, in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by: Paraguay, the province of Misiones, Brazil and the provinces of Entre Rios, Santa Fe and Chaco. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquest, the Kaingang and Guaraní lived in a big area that covered most of the current province of Corrientes; the city of Corrientes was founded on April 3, 1588 by Juan Torres de Vera y Aragón as a mid-stop between Asunción and Buenos Aires. Jesuits erected missions in the north of the province, where they dedicated themselves to the expansion of the faith. In the wars of independence from Spain, Corrientes joined Artigas' Liga de los Pueblos Libres; the attack of Paraguayan forces on the province in 1865 marked the start of the War of the Triple Alliance. In 1919 the National University of the Littoral was founded, which in 1956 became the National University of the Northeast. Corrientes is legendary in the world of philately for the postage stamps it issued from 1856 to 1880.
These are among the early or "classic" postage stamps of the world. The Corrientes stamps were close copies of the first issue of stamps from France, which depicted the profile head of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture, were individually crudely engraved by hand, so that each die is noticeably different, were printed in small sheets; the first issues, from 1856 to 1860, bore the denomination in the lower panel. As locally produced "primitives", the early Corrientes stamps have long been prized by collectors. After 1880, stamps of Argentina were used. For much of the 19th and 20th centuries, politics in Corrientes were dominated by the Romero Feris family, prominent local landowners who still control most of the province's tobacco output. During most of this time, the Romero Ferises created one of Argentina's most bloated government payrolls and suppressed dissent and efforts at modest land reform. Following contentious election results in 1991, public protest forced President Carlos Menem to remove Governor Raúl "Tato" Romero Feris from office and, though he was elected mayor of the province's capital in 1997, Romero Feris was indicted for embezzlement of public funds in 1999.
He was sentenced to seven years in prison in May, 2002. Corrientes had a significant impact in national politics in subsequent years. A UCR-led alliance defeated the Romero Feris machine in the 2001 governor's race, but the Corrientes UCR's continued support for President Néstor Kirchner led to a rebuke from the national committee of the UCR itself, this triggered a revolt from the Corrientes chapter of the party, as well as a number of others'; these differences led to the appearance that year of "K" Radicals – UCR governors and other lawmakers allied to President Kirchner. The northeastern tip of Corrientes Province was chosen as the site for Yacyretá Dam following an agreement between President Juan Perón and Paraguayan President Alfredo Stroessner in 1974. Yacyretá, whose 20-year-long construction and US$11 billion cost far exceeded initial estimates, is one of the largest hydroelectric dams in the world. An agreement is being pursued with Paraguay which would allow reservoir expansion works that could double the facility's current installed electric capacity of 4,050 MW.
Culture in Corrientes has been informed and influenced by its European and Guarani roots. Famous correntinos were independence hero General Don José de San Martín and Juan Bautista Cabral, who gave his life for the general in the Battle of San Lorenzo. Tourist destinations in the Corrientes Province include the Iberá Wetlands and the Mburucuyá National Park. On 22 October 2004, Provincial Law No. 5598 declared Guaraní to be an official language of Corrientes, alongside Spanish. It was the first Argentine province to officialize a language other than Spanish, followed in 2010 by Chaco. Corrientes is surrounded by two rivers – the Uruguay River to the east, the Paraná River to the northwest – that contour the shape of the province; the low shore of the Paraná produces frequent floodings. After a specially destructive one in 1982, a protective system has been started with the construction of barriers; the province is for the most part a plain, with the highest points in the east. To the west, a series of descending platforms go down to the Paraná River.
The Iberá Wetlands, an area of lagoons and swamps, is a vast depression from volcanic flow, covered with fluvial and eolic sediments. The climate is predominantly subtropical with no dry season. Temperatures are hot for most of the year while precipitation is abundant and evenly distributed throughout the year. There are four seasons: winter, spring and autumn. Winters are short although occasional incursions of cold, polar air from the south can produce frosts. In contrast, temperatures during summer can reach to 35 to 40 °C. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 1,100 to 1,900 millimetres which decreases from northeast to southwest. Corrientes, like much of the Argentine north, has long had a underdeveloped economy, its 2006 output was estimated at US$4.2 billion (which shall be around US$6.7 billion in 2011, according to Argentina's economic growth