Tweed Heads, New South Wales
Tweed Heads is a town in New South Wales. It is located on the Tweed River in Australia, in Tweed Shire. Tweed Heads is located next to the border with Queensland, adjacent to its "twin town" of Coolangatta, a suburb of the Gold Coast, it is referred to as a town where people can change time zones – celebrate New Year twice within an hour – by crossing the street, due to its proximity to the Queensland border, the fact that New South Wales observes daylight saving whereas Queensland does not. In 1823 John Oxley was the first European to see the Tweed Valley, he wrote of it: "A deep rich valley clothed with magnificent trees, the beautiful uniformity of, only interrupted by the turns and windings of the river, which here and there appeared like small lakes; the background was Mt. Warning; the view was altogether beautiful beyond description. The scenery here exceeded anything I have seen in Australia."Timber cutters moved to the Tweed Valley in 1844. After the timber had been cleared, farmers moved in with bananas and dairy farming dominating the area, while a fishing industry developed.
The first school opened in 1871. Tweed Heads was once connected to the Queensland Railways system, with the South Coast line providing a direct connection to Brisbane; the railway opened on 10 August 1903 It had been hoped that the New South Wales government would extend their railway line from Murwillumbah to Tweed Heads, but this did not occur due to cost of resuming the land and the expenses associated with the tunnel and bridge that would be required. The Tweed Heads railway station was located on the western side of Enid Street between Bay Street and Frances Street; the railway line to Brisbane closed in 1961. The Tweed Heads and Coolangatta Surf Life Saving Club opened on 13 September 1911; the Tweed Shire, inclusive Murwillumbah was declared in 1947. Given its proximity to the Gold Coast, Tweed Heads has a shared economy with Coolangatta based on tourism. Tweed Heads' most popular tourist destinations include Mount Warning, one of the largest shield volcanoes in the Southern Hemisphere, the nearby Nightcap, Border Ranges and Lamington National Parks, which abound with sub-tropical fauna and flora.
Some areas of the Tweed can receive both TV broadcasts from Northern New South Wales. Brisbane stations are Seven Brisbane BTQ, Nine Brisbane QTQ, Ten Brisbane TVQ; the local Northern NSW stations are NBN Television and WIN Television. In the 2016 census, Tweed Heads recorded a population of 8,176 people made up of 52.2 percent female and 47.8 percent male. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.4% of the population. The median age of the population was 18 years above the Australian median; this has made the Tweed Heads region a prime location for retirement living, with 14 separate retirement villages. 69.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 5.8% and New Zealand 3.6%. 83.8% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 26.3%, Catholic 24.1% and Anglican 20.4%. Composition of the Tweed Heads urban area Population by Statistical Local Area. Composition of the Tweed Heads urban area Population by Statistical Local Area.
Below are a list of retirement villages and retirement living facilities in the Tweed Region: Serene Living Tall Trees Care Communities Banora Point Palm Lake Resort Aveo Banora Point Tweed Broadwater Village Southern Cross Car St Joseph's Villa Fairways Winders Retirement Community St Cuthbert's Retirement Living Complexes Darlington Retirement Community Southern Cross Care St Martha Ocean View Banora Point Bangalor Retreat Gateway Lifestyle Tweed Shores Due to its close proximity, Tweed Heads sports teams compete in Gold Coast/Queensland-based competitions. Tweed Heads was once home to several iterations of professional rugby league clubs in the New South Wales Rugby League competition between 1988-1995; the Gold Coast-Tweed Giants were established in 1988 and based out of the Tweed Heads Seagulls premises in west Tweed Heads. The Seagulls ran a successful social club that turned large profits due to poker machines and by 1990 the club had acquired the Giants' NSWRL licence and rebranded the team to become the Gold Coast Seagulls, despite remaining based in Tweed Heads.
The team pulled off its biggest coup in 1990 when it signed future Rugby League Immortal Wally Lewis. After years of poor on field results and low attendances, the Seagulls sold their NSWRL licence to businessman Jeff Muller who moved the team to Carrara on the Gold Coast; the Seagulls returned to the Group 18 Rugby League competition in 1996 and were granted entry into the Queensland Cup in 2003. Australian rules football was brought to the area in 1962 when the Coolangatta Tweed Heads Australian Football Club, it was intended to represent the twin towns of Coolangatta and Tweed Heads and competed in the Gold Coast Australian Football League competition. In 1984 the Northern Rivers region established the Summerland Australian Football League that included the Tweed Coast Football Club; the league was amalgamated into Queensland Australian Football League as its own division in 2012. Despite not being based inside Queensland, the area acts as a feeder zone for both the Gold Coast Titans in the National Rugby League and the Gold Coast Suns in the Australian Football League.
Tweed United is a soccer Club based in the area that competes in the Football Gold Coast competition plus the Coolangatta Tweed Barbarians who compete in the Gold Coast and District Rugby
Clarence River (New South Wales)
The Clarence River, a mature wave dominated, barrier estuary, is situated in the Northern Rivers district of New South Wales, Australia. The river rises on the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range, in the Border Ranges west of Bonalbo, near Rivertree at the junction of Koreelah Creek and Maryland River, on the watershed that marks the border between New South Wales and Queensland; the river flows south, south east and north east, joined by twenty-four tributaries including the Tooloom Creek and the Mann, Cataract, Coldstream and Esk rivers. The river reaches its mouth at its confluence with the Coral Sea in the South Pacific Ocean, between Iluka and Yamba. On its journey it passes through the towns of Tabulam and Copmanhurst, the city of Grafton, the towns of Ulmarra, Maclean; the river features many large river islands, including Woodford, Ashby and Harwood islands. The river supports a large prawn fishing industry; the Clarence River system is an extensive east coast drainage with many tributaries of differing size.
Apart from the Murray River, it is the largest river in mainland Australia south of the Tropic of Capricorn, though its flow for comparison is only half that of the Potomac. Its basin is, together with the similarly-sized Hawkesbury, Australia's largest Pacific watershed south of Bundaberg; the intense rainfalls that typify the North Coast mean, that major floods can temporarily raise the flow of the Clarence to 24 feet, as happened in 1890. The climate of most of the basin is subtropical, though the highest areas with cooler weather are of the temperate Cfb type. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,600 millimetres on the coast at Yamba down to 1,080 millimetres in the shielded valley at Grafton. At higher altitudes, rainfall may reach 2,000 millimetres on exposed slopes but data are poor. Most of the high areas receive no more rain than Grafton though variability from year to year is less. Temperatures are very warm, with maxima in lower area ranging from 27 °C in January to 19 °C in July. In the highlands, temperatures are much cooler and in July range from lows of around 2 °C to maxima around 13 °C - though in January days remain warm at around 25 °C.
Rainfall per month on the coast ranges from around 220 millimetres in February and March to around 70 millimetres in September. During Cyclone Oswald, the Clarence was subject to minor flooding, brought about due to the storm's residual effects and associated monsoon trough that passed over parts of Queensland and New South Wales. At Grafton, the river peaked at a new record height of 8.1 metres. Two years earlier, the river peaked 7.6 metres, forcing the evacuation of 3000 people from their homes. On both occasions, the city's levee was credited with preventing more severe flooding; the local historical society has published an account of newspaper reports documenting flooding of the river from the late 1800s to 2011. Tourism is a significant industry in the Clarence Valley generating around A$457million per annum and employing around 2500 people. Most of the Clarence basin is forested, with important areas of remnant subtropical and temperate rainforest occurring all along the course. Only in alluvial areas where soils are less leached is there major agricultural development: in these areas the chief industries are cattle rearing and the growing of sugar cane in lower-lying areas.
Of particular interest is the small island town of Harwood, where a Sperry New Holland factory and a quaint Bush Pub overlook the Clarence delta. Harwood is the location of the local sugar mill, the Harwood Sugar Mill built in 1873 and is the oldest Australian mill still operational; the sugar mill is situated on the river due to its importance in transporting sugar cane from farms in the surrounding area in previous times. Harwood is just after the Harwood Bridge on part of Australia's National Highway from Sydney, Port Macquarie, Coffs Harbour to Brisbane; the freshwater reaches of the Clarence River support important populations of native freshwater fish including Eastern freshwater cod, an endangered fish species unique to the Clarence River system, Australian bass. The Indigenous Bundjalung people call the river Boorimbah, while the coastal Yaygir people call it the Ngunitiji; the Aboriginal people from the Tenterfield district used the word neyand, meaning "top" as the name for the headwaters of the river.
The river remained unknown to British authorities until the mid 1830s when escaped convict Richard Craig, living with Aboriginals in the area, reported its existence. It was called the Big River, but this caused confusion as the Gwydir River in northern New South Wales was colloquially known by this name. In November of 1839 the Governor of New South Wales, George Gipps changed the name to the Clarence River in honour of the previous King of the British Empire, William IV, 1st Duke of Clarence and St Andrews; the local government area of the Clarence Valley Council draws its name from the river and covers the lower half of the river valley. There are few fixed crossings of the Clarence River. Going downstream, these include: Bridge over Hootens Rd Bonalbo Bridge at Tabulam, on the Bruxner Highway Bridge at Lilydale near Copmanhurst Rogan Bridge, a bridge th
Dangar Island is a forested island, 29 hectares in area, in the Hawkesbury River, just north of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Dangar Island is a suburb of Hornsby Shire and as at the 2016 census had a population of 303, which swells during holiday seasons; the island is serviced by Brooklyn Ferry Service and departs from Brooklyn and takes about fifteen minutes. The Brooklyn ferry is itself adjacent to Hawkesbury River railway station; the ferry service is in operation 7 days a week. Dangar Island has been known to the local Guringai Aborigines for thousands of years; the first European to visit the area was Governor Arthur Phillip, who explored the lower river by small boat in March 1788 within weeks of the First Fleet's arrival. He named it Mullet Island, for the abundance of fish in the local Hawksbury River. At first the local people were friendly towards him, but when he returned a year they would not come into contact. By 1790, over half the Guringai people had succumbed to the smallpox the British had brought with them.
The island was purchased in 1864 and renamed by Henry Cary Dangar, the son of Henry Dangar, a surveyor and parliamentarian. Dangar leased the island to the Union Bridge Company of Chicago for the construction of the original Hawkesbury River Rail Bridge between 1886-1889. About 400 Americans and their families lived there and the island boasted a large social hall, school and its own newspaper. In the 1920s the island, a five-minute walk across, was divided into residential plots, though space was reserved on the beach, the flat and the top of the hill for recreational use. Dangar Island Post Office opened on 1 September 1951 and closed in 1986. In the 2016 Census, there were 303 people in Dangar Island. 61.2% of people were born in Australia and 85.4% of people spoke only English at home. The most common response for religion was No Religion at 49.2%. In contrast to much of the surrounding area, designated national park, Dangar Island is heavily inhabited; this was not always so. The island has several tarmacked roads which are closed off to all but the community fire truck, the council ute and vehicles with special permits.
There are no private cars on the island. A wheelbarrow is a common method used to haul goods from the ferry; the island has one shop/café, a bowling club for members/visitors which has a bar. The island has a community hall that supports several community groups, including a children's film workshop, mains water; the island was connected to the water supply system by the Metropolitan Water Sewerage and Drainage Board in the 1980s. The island has since been connected to the Sydney sewerage system by Sydney Water, via a sub-marine pipeline to the mainland and a state-of-the-art treatment plant in Brooklyn. Septic tanks are being phased out by most residents, providing a boost to the Hawkesbury waterways surrounding Dangar Island; the island has a shop next to the ferry wharf that serves light snacks, coffee and lunch. It sells groceries and has a good supply of meat. On the weekend the Dangar Island Bowling Club, licensed, serves meals and you can play bowls. Travelling by road from the south, from either Sydney or Hornsby, access is available by the M1 motorway.
Drive across the Hawkesbury River Bridge at Kangaroo Point and follow the Brooklyn-Mooney Mooney turnoff just after you cross the river. Travelling by road from the north, from either Newcastle or Gosford, access is available via the M1 motorway; as you approach the Hawkesbury River you can exit the motorway via the Brooklyn-Mooney Mooney turnoff on your left hand side. Follow the signs to Brooklyn and drive through the village. At the end of the road you will find the Dangar Island Ferry Wharf. Rail travellers can catch any all-stations train on the Central Newcastle line. If travelling from Central, the train departs from the InterCity section. Alight at Hawkesbury River Railway Station. Be aware that access to the station is impossible for those in wheelchairs or otherwise disabled. There descend; the Dangar Island ferry can be seen on your left. Scotland Island Little Wobby Howard, Ann. A Ghost, a Murder and Other Dangar Tales: a history of Dangar. ISBN 9780958584340. Howard, Ann. Ten Dry Pies and Other Dangar Tales.
TARKA. ISBN 9780958584357. Howard, Ann. Rainbow on the River and Other Dangar Tales. TARKA. Howard, Ann. Derrymacash to Dangar: Dangar Island in the 1950s as told to Ann Howard. TARKA. ISBN 9780958584371
Ball's Pyramid is an erosional remnant of a shield volcano and caldera that formed about 6.4 million years ago. It lies 20 kilometres southeast of Lord Howe Island in the Pacific Ocean, it is 562 metres high, while measuring only 1,100 metres in length and 300 metres across, making it the tallest volcanic stack in the world. Ball's Pyramid is part of the Lord Howe Island Marine Park in Australia and is over 643 kilometres northeast of Sydney, New South Wales. Steep and eroded, Ball's Pyramid is positioned in the centre of a submarine shelf and is surrounded by rough seas, making any approach a difficult one; the pyramid is named after Royal Navy Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, who reported discovering it in 1788. On the same voyage, Ball reported discovering Lord Howe Island. In The Voyage Of Governor Phillip To Botany Bay With An Account Of The Establishment Of The Colonies Of Port Jackson And Norfolk Island, Arthur Phillip gives this description of the area around Ball's Pyramid, before describing Lord Howe Island: There lies about four miles from the south-west part of the pyramid, a dangerous rock, which shows itself a little above the surface of the water, appears not to be larger than a boat.
Lieutenant Ball had no opportunity of examining. The first person to go ashore is believed to have been Henry Wilkinson, a geologist at the New South Wales Department of Mines, in 1882. In 1964 a Sydney team, which included adventurer Dick Smith and other members of the Scouting movement, attempted to climb to the summit of the pyramid; the first successful climb to the summit was made on 14 February 1965 by a team of climbers from the Sydney Rock Climbing Club, consisting of Bryden Allen, John Davis, Jack Pettigrew and David Witham. In 1979, Smith returned to the pyramid, together with climbers John Hugh Ward, they reached the summit and unfurled a flag of New South Wales provided to them by Premier Neville Wran, declaring the island Australian territory. Climbing was banned in 1982 under amendments to the Lord Howe Island Act, in 1986, all access to the island was banned by the Lord Howe Island Board. In 1990, the policy was relaxed to allow some climbing under strict conditions, which in recent years has required an application to the relevant state minister.
In 2014 two yacht-supported climbers made an unauthorised one-day ascent. They bivouacked 80m below the summit and during the night sighted several live Lord Howe Island stick insects. Like Lord Howe Island and the Lord Howe Seamount Chain, Ball's Pyramid is based on the Lord Howe Rise, part of the submerged continent of Zealandia. Ball's Pyramid has a few satellite islets. Observatory Rock and Wheatsheaf Islet lie about 800 metres west-northwest and west-southwest of the western extremity of Ball's Pyramid. Southeast Rock is a pinnacle located about 3.5 kilometres southeast of Ball's Pyramid. The shelf is 20 kilometres in length and averages 10 kilometres in width and lies under an average depth of 50 metres of water, it is separated by a 500-metre-deep submarine canyon from another shelf on which Lord Howe Island is located. The cliffs of the stack continue under the water surface to the level of the shelf. A Melaleuca howeana shrub was found growing on Ball's Pyramid; the bush was growing in a small crevice where water was seeping through cracks in the underlying rocks.
This moisture supported lush plant growth which had, over time, resulted in a buildup of plant debris several metres deep. Ball's Pyramid supports the last known wild population of Lord Howe Island stick insect. Following the last sighting of the Lord Howe Island stick insect on Lord Howe Island in 1920, the species was presumed extinct. Evidence of continued survival on Ball's Pyramid was discovered during the 1964 climb when a dead specimen was found and photographed. Throughout the following years, several more dead specimens were discovered, but attempts to find live specimens were unsuccessful. In 2001, a team of entomologists and conservationists landed on Ball's Pyramid to chart its flora and fauna; as they had hoped, they discovered a population of the Lord Howe Island stick insect living in an area of 6 by 30 metres, at a height of 100 metres above the shoreline, under a single Melaleuca howeana shrub. The population was small, with only 24 individuals. Two pairs were brought to mainland Australia, new populations have been bred with the ultimate goal of reintroduction to Lord Howe Island.
In 2014 an unauthorised climbing team sighted live stick insects in an exposed position 65 metres below the summit of Ball's Pyramid in a thicket of sedge plants, suggesting that the insect's range on Ball's Pyramid is more widespread than held and its food preferences are not limited to Melaleuca howeana. List of volcanoes in Australia Lot's Wife Rockall Stac Lee Stac an Armin Hutton, Ian; the Australian Geographic Book of Lord Howe Island. Australian Geographic. ISBN 1-876276-27-4. Rock of Ages, transcript of Australian Broadcasting Corporation Australian Story TV episode, 11 April 2005. "Lord Howe Island Marine Park". Marine Parks. Parks Australia. "Lord Howe Island and Ball's Pyramid". Nautical Chart. Australian Hydrographic Service. Archived from the original on Dec 8, 2012. "Ball's Pyramid". World Mountain Encyclopedia. "Balls Pyramid". Volcano World. Allen, Bryden. "Mountaineering exploits: Ball's Pyramid". University of Queensland
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Flinders Island, the largest island in the Furneaux Group, is a 1,367-square-kilometre island located in the Bass Strait, northeast of the island of Tasmania. Flinders Island is part of the state of Tasmania, is situated 54 kilometres from Cape Portland and it is located on 40° south, a zone known as the Roaring Forties. Flinders Island was first inhabited at least 35,000 years ago, when people made their way from Australia across the then-land bridge, now Bass Strait. A population remained until about 4,500 years ago, succumbing to thirst and hunger following an acute El Niño climate shift; some of the south-eastern islands of the Furneaux Group were first recorded in 1773 by British navigator Tobias Furneaux, commander of HMS Adventure, the support vessel with James Cook on Cook's second voyage. In February 1798, British navigator Matthew Flinders charted some of the southern islands, using one of the schooner Francis' open boats; that year, Flinders returned and finished charting the islands in the Norfolk.
James Cook named the islands Furneaux's Islands, after Tobias Furneaux. Flinders named the largest island in the group "Great Island", he named a group of mountains on Flinders Island, the "Three Patriarchs". The small island just to the east, Flinders named "Babel Island" from the noises made by the seabirds there. Phillip Parker King named the largest island Flinders Island, after Matthew Flinders. Flinders named Mount Chappell Island after his wife Ann née Ann Chappelle. There are three islands named "Flinders' Island"—the large island on the east side of Bass Strait, named by Phillip Parker King. In the late 18th century, the island was frequented by sealers and Aboriginal women, the majority of whom had been kidnapped from their mainland tribes. Seal stocks soon collapsed, causing the last sealing permit to be issued in 1828. Many sealers' families chose to stay in the Furneaux Group, subsisting on cattle grazing and muttonbirding. From 1830, the remnants of the Tasmanian Aboriginal population were exiled to Settlement Point on Flinders Island.
These 160 survivors were deemed to be safe from white settlers here, but conditions were poor, the relocation scheme was short-lived. In 1847, after a campaign by the Aboriginal population against their Commandant, Henry Jeanneret, which involved a petition to Queen Victoria, the remaining 47 Aboriginals were again relocated, this time to Oyster Cove Station, an ex-convict settlement 56 kilometres south of Tasmania's capital, where it is thought that Truganini, the last full-blood Tasmanian Aborigine, died in 1876. From the late 19th century freehold land was given out, but it was not until the 1950s that a proper settlement scheme was initiated drawing settlers from mainland Tasmania and central New South Wales to Flinders Island's eastern shore; the Municipality of Flinders Island was instituted in 1903. The island forms part of the state of Tasmania, part of the Municipality of Flinders Island local government area. Flinders Island is only one of the many islands included in the Municipal area.
Of these islands Flinders Island is the only island with more than one permanent settlement, is by far the largest in the Furneaux Group. The island is about 62 kilometres from north to south, 37 kilometres from east to west. With a total land area of 1,333 square kilometres. Mount Strzelecki in the south west is the island's highest peak at 756 metres. About a third of the island is mountainous and rugged with ridges of granite running the length of the island; the coastal areas are dominated by sandy deposits taking the shape of dunes. Many coastal lagoons punctuate the eastern shore, formed by dunes blocking further drainage; this drainage is provided by many small streams, few of them permanently flowing directly leading to the waters of Bass Strait or such a lagoon. The coastal areas are covered in scrub or shrubs, whereas the vegetation at a higher elevation consists of woodland eucalyptus species; the total number of plant species in the Furneaux Group well exceeds 800, showing the great biodiversity of its ecosystem.
Native bird species include the short-tailed shearwater. Marsupial mammals are represented by Bennett's wallaby, brushtail possum, eastern pygmy possum, common ringtail possum and Tasmanian pademelon; the cape fur seal is the sole placental mammal found on Flinders. It is the only remaining habitat of a subspecies of common wombat, V. u. ursinus, listed as vulnerable by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and IUCN Red List. The area surrounding Mount Strzelecki in the south west of the island constitutes Strzelecki National Park; the island supports a population of feral turkeys. Flinders Island has a mild oceanic climate, moderated by the Bass Strait; the summers are drier and less cloudy than the winters, annual average rainfall totals less than 80