Trindade and Martin Vaz
Trindade and Martin Vaz is an archipelago located in the Southern Atlantic Ocean about 1,100 kilometres east of the coast of Espírito Santo, which it constitutes a part of. The archipelago has a total area of 10.4 square kilometres and a population of 32. The archipelago consists of several rocks and stacks; the islands have rugged terrain. They are barren, except for the southern part of Trindade, they were discovered in 1502 by Portuguese explorer Estêvão da Gama and stayed Portuguese until they became part of Brazil at its independence in 1822. From 1895 to 1896, Trindade was occupied by the United Kingdom until an agreement with Brazil was reached. During the period of British occupation, Trindade was known as "South Trinidad." The islands are situated some 2,100 kilometres southwest of Ascension Island and 2,550 kilometres west of Saint Helena, while the distance to the west coast of Africa is 4,270 kilometres. The individual islands with their respective locations are given in the following: Ilha da Trindade Ilhas de Martim Vaz Ilha do Norte, 300 metres north-northwest of Ilha da Racha, 75 metres high.
Ilha da Racha or Ilha Martim Vaz, the largest, 175 metres high near the northwest end. The shores are strewn with boulders. Rochedo da Agulha, a flat circular rock 200 metres northwest of Ilha da Racha, is 60 metres high. Ilha do. Ilha do; the small island of Trindade, with an area of 10.3 km², lies at the eastern end of an E-W-trending chain of submarine volcanoes and guyots extending about 1,000 km from the continental shelf off the Brazilian coast. The island lies more than halfway between Brazil and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the eastern end of the submarine Vitória-Trindade Ridge. Trindade is a mountainous, desiccated volcanic island with numerous phonolitic lava domes and steep-sided volcanic plugs; the highest summit is Pico Desejado, near the center, 620 metres high. Nearby to the northwest are Pico da Trindade and Pico Bonifácio. Pico Monumento, a remarkable peak in the form of a inclined cylinder, rises from the west coast to 270 m; the youngest volcanism, at Vulcão do Paredão on the southeast tip of the island, constructed a pyroclastic cone with lava flows that are no older than the Holocene.
Remnants of the crater of the 200-metre-high cinder cone are still preserved. Lava flows traveled from the cone to the north, where they formed an irregular shoreline and offshore islands. Smaller volcanic centers of the latest volcanic stage are found in the Morro Vermelho area in the south-central part of the island; until 1850, the island was covered 85% of its length by a forest of Colubrina glandulosa trees, 15m in height and 40 cm trunk diameter. The introduction of non-native animals like goats, sheep, etc. and the indiscriminate cutting of trees led to total extirpation of the same, causing heavy erosion throughout the island with a loss of about 1 to 2 meter of fertile soils. The effect of this devastation impaired the flow of water streams, with the depletion of several springs. There is a small settlement in the north on the shore of a cove called Enseada dos Portugueses, supporting a garrison of the Brazilian Navy, 32 strong; the archipelago is the main nesting site of the green sea turtle in Brazil.
There are large numbers of breeding seabirds, including the endemic subspecies of the Great frigatebird and Lesser frigatebird, it is only Atlantic breeding site for the Trindade petrel. Humpback whales have been confirmed to use the Trindade island as a nursery; the Trindade and Martin Vaz Islands were discovered in 1502 by Portuguese navigators led by Estêvão da Gama, along with Brazil, became part of the Portuguese Empire. Many visitors have been to Martin Vaz, the most famous of whom was the English astronomer Edmund Halley, who took possession of the island on behalf of the British Monarchy in 1700. Wild goats and hogs, descendants of ones set free by Halley, were still found on Martin Vaz in 1939. HMS Rattlesnake, a 198-ton, 12-gun cutter-rigged sloop, was wrecked on Trindade on 21 October 1781, shortly after Commander Philippe d'Auvergne had taken over command. Rattlesnake had been ordered to survey the island to ascertain whether it would make a useful base for outward-bound Indiamen.
She anchored. Two hours the first cable parted and Commander d’Auvergne club-hauled his way out, setting main and fore sails, using the remaining anchor cable as a spring; this put Rattlesnake’s head to seaward. The remaining cable was cut, the sloop wore round and stood out to sea; however the ground now shallowed quite and Rattlesnake struck a submerged rock. She started filling with water, so, in order to preserve the lives of the crew, d'Auvergne ran her ashore. Commodore Johnstone on board HMS Jupiter had wished
Ilhabela is an archipelago and city situated in the Atlantic Ocean four miles off the coast of São Paulo state in Brazil. The city is 205 km from 340 km from the city of Rio de Janeiro; the largest island, although called Ilhabela, is named Ilha de São Sebastião. It, the other islands and the islets make up the municipality of Ilhabela. Ilhabela is part of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte; the population is 32,197. The islands in total cover 347.52 km2. During the holiday months, up to one hundred thousand people may be on the island, since it is a popular destination for tourists. To access the city, one must take a boat or ferry in São Sebastião, as there are no roads which reach it. During the summer, one may wait several hours to take the ferry boat; the ferry takes 15 minutes to cross the channel between the two cities. Before Portugal colonized Brazil in 1500, an indigenous tribe called the Tupinambas, inhabited the island, they called the island ` Ciribai'. The island was named São Sebastião Island by Amerigo Vespucci, on January 20, 1502.
During the 16th century, the Portuguese set up military points on the shore of São Sebastião Island. In August 1591, notorious British explorer Thomas Cavendish spent some time in the island, he was on an expedition to the south of the Strait of Magellan accompanied by navigator John Davis and returned to Brazil, where they hid and refueled in Ilhabela and looted Santos and São Vicente. On September 3, 1805, the Governor of the Province of São Paulo, Antônio José da França e Horta, decreed the political-administrative independence of the county; the island had 3.000 inhabitants at that time. The new county was named paying homage to the princess of Beira. On November 30, 1938, during the Getúlio Vargas' Estado Novo, an act altered the name of the county to Formosa. Six years on November 30, 1944, another act changed the name to Ilhabela. Since the second half of the 20th century, the city is a popular tourist destination. Among the current critical issues of the island, is the lack of proper sewage pipes to collect all houses' wastewater.
As of January 2012, 46,6% of the buildings in the island lacked such infrastructure. In February 2016, the city hall announced R$12 million to be invested in sewer systems for the southern part of the city. By the time it was announced, Ilhabela was the worst coastal municipality in the state of São Paulo in terms of sanitary treatment, according to a research by the State Secretary of the Environment - 35% of the city's sewer is collected, pre-conditioned and released on the sea, according to the secretary, while the city hall claims 61% of the city is covered by sewer systems; the municipality comprises the main island, Ilha de São Sebastião, three smaller inhabited islands: Buzios and Vitória islands, 7½ and 2½ km away from the northeastern tip of the main island and Pescadores Island, near Vitória Island. Buzios and Vitória are home to 50 caiçaras, respectively. There are the small islets. All the urbanized areas are in the narrow plains between the sea and the mountains of the main island, preferably at the west part of the island, facing the continent.
A short but high mountain range forms this main island, reaching above 1,000 meters in seven different points - Pico de São Sebastião, Morro do Papagaio, Pico da Serraria, Morro do Ramalho, Morro do Simão, Morro das Tocas 1,079 m) and Pico do Baepi. Running 8 km into the Atlantic Ocean off the southeast corner of the island, there is the Península do Boi; the east side of the island is inhabited by few people, who concentrates on the Castelhanos beach, the only on this side accessible by road. Only 4x4 jeeps are able to cross this particular road, though.) Most of the city has a tropical climate, but the mountains have an oceanic climate, because of the high altitude. The Atlantic Forest covers the entire city. Ilhabela is a popular sailing point. Several regattas take place at the city's coast, it is popular for many other watersports, including scuba and free diving. The waters around the archipelago are filled with more than 50 shipwrecks, six of them being opened for visiting via diving. Cetacean diversity is rich in the areas, whale watchings targeting such as humpback whales, bryde's whales, minke whales, southern right whales and dolphins are available.
There are many hiking trails with varying degrees of difficulty and 360 waterfalls in the Atlantic jungle. There are 41 beaches on the main island; the ones located along the channel are in general feature calm to moderate waves. The ones facing the ocean are clean and less affected by humans, besides featuring stronger waves, which attracts surfers; these can only be reached by foot and/or by boat, the exception being Castelhanos, as explained above. Bonete was considered the ninth best beach of Brazil by The Guardian. Starting from Castelhanos and going counterclockwise, the beaches are: The only way to access the island by car is via the ferry boats that cross the channel; each boat carries up to 70 vehicles and takes 15 minutes to sail through the 2.4 kilometers that separate the two stations. The SP-131 is the main road on the main island, running from the southwestern coast of the island to its northern coast (both these edges are paved since 2
Ilha da Queimada Grande
Ilha da Queimada Grande known as Snake Island, is an island off the coast of Brazil in the Atlantic Ocean. It is administered as part of the municipality of Itanhaém in the State of São Paulo; the island is small in size and has many different types of terrain, ranging from bare rock to rainforest, a temperate climate. It is the only home of the critically endangered, venomous Bothrops insularis, which has a diet of birds; the snakes became trapped on the island when rising sea levels covered up the land that connected it to the mainland. The ensuing selection pressure allowed the snakes to adapt to their new environment, increasing in population and rendering the island dangerous to public visitation. Queimada Grande is closed to the public in order to protect the snake population. Located 33 kilometres off the coast of the state of São Paulo, the island is 430,000 square metres in area; the island ranges in elevation from sea level to 206 metres above sea level. The island has a temperate climate, similar to its neighbouring island Nimer.
0.25 square kilometres of the island is covered by rain forest. Queimada Grande ranges from an average of 18.38 °C in August to 27.28 °C in March, rainfall ranges from 0.2 millimetres per month in July to 135.2 millimetres in December. Ilha da Queimada Grande has a variety of vegetation; the island is covered in rainforest and bare rock and grassy cleared areas, a result of deforestation. The deforestation is the origin of the island's name: the term "Queimada", in Portuguese, means “to burn” because when locals attempted to clear land for a banana plantation on the island, they had to clear rainforest using this technique. A lighthouse was constructed in 1909 to steer ships away from the island; the last human inhabitants left the island. The island and the Ilha Queimada Pequena to the west are protected by the 33 hectares Ilhas Queimada Pequena e Queimada Grande Area of Relevant Ecological Interest, created in 1985; the Brazilian Navy has closed the island to the public and the only people who are allowed on the island are research teams who receive waivers to collect data.
Because there are so many snakes on one island, by some estimates one snake to every square meter of the island, there is competition for resources. Despite a population of 41 recorded bird species on Queimada Grande, the golden lancehead relies on only two: the Troglodytes musculus, able to avoid the golden lancehead as a predator, the Elaenia chilensis, which feeds on vegetation in the same area as the snake; the island was thought to have a population of about 430,000 snakes, but recent estimates are much lower. The first systematic study of the population of the golden lancehead found the population to be 2,000 to 4,000, concentrated entirely in the rainforest area of the island; this might have happened because there was a limited amount of resources and the population became level, but in 2015 an estimate by a herpetologist on a Discovery Channel documentary stated that the population remains at 2,000 to 4,000 golden lanceheads. The Bothrops insularis may be at risk from inbreeding, effects of which are evident in the population.
Because of the overall low population of the golden lancehead, the snake was labelled critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It was placed on the list of Brazil's endangered animals; the island is home to a smaller population of Dipsas albifrons, a non-venomous snake species. Ilhas Queimada Pequena e Queimada Grande Area of Relevant Ecological Interest Atlas Obscura: Snake Island: Ilha da Queimada Grande National Geographic Field Tale: Snake Island Mark O'Shea's Lost Worlds Vice News: Snake Island Full Length
The Vargas Era is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas. The Brazilian Revolution of 1930 marked the end of the Old Republic. President Washington Luís was deposed. Federal intervention in State governments increased and the political landscape was altered by suppressing the traditional oligarchies of São Paulo and Minas Gerais states; the Vargas Era comprises three successive phases: the period of the Provisional Government, when Vargas governed by decree as Head of the Provisional Government instituted by the Revolution, pending the adoption of a new Constitution. The period of the Constitution of 1934, when a new Constitution was drafted and approved by the Constituent Assembly of 1933–34, Vargas – elected by the Constituent Assembly under the transitional provisions of the Constitution – governed as President, alongside a democratically elected Legislature; the Estado Novo period, that began when in order to perpetuate his rule, Vargas imposed a new, quasi-totalitarian Constitution in a coup d'état, shut down Congress, assuming dictatorial powers.
The deposition of Getúlio Vargas and his Estado Novo regime in 1945 and the subsequent re-democratization of Brazil with the adoption of a new Constitution in 1946 mark the end of the Vargas Era and the beginning of the period known as the Second Brazilian Republic. The tenente rebellion did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough for Brazil's bourgeois social reformers, but the ruling paulista coffee oligarchy could not withstand the economic meltdown of 1929. Brazil's vulnerability to the Great Depression had its roots in the economy's heavy dependence on foreign markets and loans. Despite limited industrial development in São Paulo, the export of coffee and other agricultural products was still the mainstay of the economy. Days after the U. S. stock market crash on October 29, 1929, coffee quotations fell 30% to 60%. And continued to fall. Between 1929 and 1931, coffee prices fell from 22.5 cents per pound to 8 cents per pound. As world trade contracted, the coffee exporters suffered a vast drop in foreign exchange earnings.
The Great Depression had a more dramatic effect on Brazil than on the United States. The collapse of Brazil's valorization program, a safety net in times of economic crisis, was intertwined with the collapse of the central government, whose base of support resided in the landed oligarchy; the coffee planters had grown dangerously dependent on government valorization. For example, in the aftermath of the recession following World War I, the government was not short of the cash needed to bail out the coffee industry, but between 1929–30, world demand for Brazil's primary products had fallen far too drastically to maintain government revenues. By the end of 1930, Brazil's gold reserves had been depleted, pushing the exchange rate down to a new low; the program for warehoused coffee collapsed altogether. The government of President Washington Luís faced a deepening balance-of-payments crisis and the coffee growers were stuck with an unsaleable harvest. Since power rested on a patronage system, wide-scale defections in the delicate balance of regional interests left the regime of Washington Luís vulnerable.
Government policies designed to favor foreign interests further exacerbated the crisis, leaving the regime alienated from every segment of society. Following the Wall Street panic, the government attempted to please foreign creditors by maintaining convertibility according to the money principles preached by the foreign bankers and economists who set the terms for Brazil's relations with the world economy, despite lacking any support from a single major sector in Brazilian society. Despite capital flight, Washington Luís clung to a hard-money policy, guaranteeing the convertibility of the Brazilian currency into gold or British sterling. Once the gold and sterling reserves were exhausted amid the collapse of the valorization program, the government was forced to suspend convertibility of the currency. Foreign credit had now evaporated. A populist governor of Brazil's southernmost Rio Grande do Sul state, Vargas was a cattle rancher with a doctorate in law and the 1930 presidential candidate of the Liberal Alliance.
Vargas was a member of the gaucho-landed oligarchy and had risen through the system of patronage and clientelism, but had a fresh vision of how Brazilian politics could be shaped to support national development. He came from a region with a positivist and populist tradition, was an economic nationalist who favored industrial development and liberal reforms. Vargas built up political networks, was attuned to the interests of the rising urban classes. In his early years Vargas relied on the support of the tenentes of the 1922 rebellion. Vargas understood that with the breakdown of direct relations between workers and owners in the growing factories of Brazil, workers could become the basis for a new form of political power – populism. Using such insights, he established such mastery over the Brazilian political world that, upon achieving power, he stayed in power for 15 years. During this time, as the stranglehold of the agricultural elites eased, new urban industrial leaders acquired more influence nationally, the middle class began to show strength.
Aside from the Great Depression and the emergence of the Brazilian bourgeoisie, Brazil's historic dynamic of inter
Indigenous peoples in Brazil
Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500. Unlike Christopher Columbus, who thought he had reached the East Indies, the Portuguese, most notably Vasco da Gama, had reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached Brazil; the word índios was by established to designate the people of the New World and continues to be used today in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while a person from India is called indiano in order to distinguish the two. At the time of European contact, some of the indigenous people were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. Many of the estimated 2,000 nations and tribes which existed in the 16th century suffered extinction as a consequence of the European settlement and many were assimilated into the Brazilian population; the indigenous population was killed by European diseases, declining from a pre-Columbian high of millions to some 300,000, grouped into 200 tribes.
However, the number could be much higher if the urban indigenous populations are counted in all the Brazilian cities today. A somewhat dated linguistic survey found 188 living indigenous languages with 155,000 total speakers. On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now surpassed New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world. Brazilian indigenous people have made substantial and pervasive contributions to the world's medicine with knowledge used today by pharmaceutical corporations and cultural development—such as the domestication of tobacco and cassava. In the last IBGE census, 817,000 Brazilians classified themselves as indigenous. Questions about the original settlement of the Americas has produced a number of hypothetical models; the origins of these indigenous people are still a matter of dispute among archaeologists. Anthropological and genetic evidence indicates that most Amerindian people descended from migrant people from North Asia who entered the Americas across the Bering Strait or along the western coast of North America in at least three separate waves.
In Brazil most native tribes who were living in the land by 1500 are thought to be descended from the first Siberian wave of migrants, who are believed to have crossed the Bering Land Bridge at the end of the last Ice Age, between 13,000 and 17,000 years before the present. A migrant wave would have taken some time after initial entry to reach present-day Brazil entering the Amazon River basin from the Northwest.. An analysis of Amerindian Y-chromosome DNA indicates specific clustering of much of the South American population; the micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. According to an autosomal genetic study from 2012, Native Americans descend from at least three main migrant waves from East Asia. Most of it is traced back to a single ancestral population, called'First Americans'. However, those who speak Inuit languages from the Arctic inherited half of their ancestry from a second East Asian migrant wave.
And those who speak Na-dene, on the other hand, inherited a tenth of their ancestry from a third migrant wave. The initial settling of the Americas was followed by a rapid expansion southwards, by the coast, with little gene flow especially in South America. One exception to this are the Chibcha speakers, whose ancestry comes from both North and South America. Another study, focused on the mtDNA, revealed that the indigenous people of the Americas have their maternal ancestry traced back to a few founding lineages from East Asia, which would have arrived via the Bering strait. According to this study, it is probable that the ancestors of the Native Americans would have remained for a time in the region of the Bering Strait, after which there would have been a rapid movement of settling of the Americas, taking the founding lineages to South America. Linguistic studies have backed up genetic studies, with ancient patterns having been found between the languages spoken in Siberia and those spoken in the Americas.
Two 2015 autosomal DNA genetic studies confirmed the Siberian origins of the Natives of the Americas. However an ancient signal of shared ancestry with the Natives of Australia and Melanesia was detected among the Natives of the Amazon region; the migration coming out of Siberia would have happened 23,000 years ago. According to a 2016 study, focused on mtDNA lineages, "a small population entered the Americas via a coastal route around 16.0 ka, following previous isolation in eastern Beringia for ~2.4 to 9 thousand years after separation from eastern Siberian populations. Following a rapid movement throughout the Americas, limited gene flow in South America resulted in a marked phylogeographic structure of populations, which persisted through time. All of the ancient mitochondrial lineages detected in this study were absent from modern data sets, suggesting a high extinction rate. To investigate this further, we applied a novel principal components multiple logistic regression test to
History of Brazil
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century; the first European to colonize what is now the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire; the country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century. On September 7, 1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal and it became the Empire of Brazil. A military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic; the country has seen two dictatorship periods: the first during Vargas Era and the second during the military rule under Brazilian military government.
When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil, the region was inhabited by hundreds of different types of Jiquabu tribes, "the earliest going back at least 10,000 years in the highlands of Minas Gerais". The dating of the origins of the first inhabitants, who were called "Indians" by the Portuguese, is still a matter of dispute among archaeologists; the earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere, radiocarbon-dated 8,000 years old, has been excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil, near Santarém, providing evidence to overturn the assumption that the tropical forest region was too poor in resources to have supported a complex prehistoric culture". The current most accepted view of anthropologists and geneticists is that the early tribes were part of the first wave of migrant hunters who came into the Americas from Asia, either by land, across the Bering Strait, or by coastal sea routes along the Pacific, or both; the Andes and the mountain ranges of northern South America created a rather sharp cultural boundary between the settled agrarian civilizations of the west coast and the semi-nomadic tribes of the east, who never developed written records or permanent monumental architecture.
For this reason little is known about the history of Brazil before 1500. Archaeological remains indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, occasional large state-like federations. At the time of European discovery, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 tribes; the indigenous peoples were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Natives were living on the coast and along the banks of major rivers. Tribal warfare and the pursuit of brazilwood for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should Christianize the natives, but the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their South American possessions, had brought diseases with them, against which many Natives were helpless due to lack of immunity. Measles, tuberculosis and influenza killed tens of thousands of indigenous people; the diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans.
Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River. Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island; these pieces are large, elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks; the extent, level of complexity, resource interactions of the Marajoara culture have been disputed. Working in the 1950s in some of her earliest research, American Betty Meggers suggested that the society migrated from the Andes and settled on the island. Many researchers believed that the Andes were populated by Paleoindian migrants from North America who moved south after being hunters on the plains. In the 1980s, another American archeologist, Anna Curtenius Roosevelt, led excavations and geophysical surveys of the mound Teso dos Bichos.
She concluded. The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people; the Native Americans of the Amazon rainforest may have used their method of developing and working in Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. There are many theories regarding, the first European to set foot on the land now called Brazil. Besides the accepted view of Cabral's discovery, some say that it was Duarte Pacheco Pereira between November and December 1498 and some others say that it was first encountered by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, a Spanish navigator who had accompanied Colombus in his first voyage of discovery to the Americas, having arrived in today's Pernambuco region on 26 January 1500 but was unable to claim the land because of the Treaty of Tordesillas. In April 1500, Brazil was claimed for Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
The Portuguese encountered stone-using natives d
São Luís Island
São Luís Island known as Upaon-açu Island or Maranhão Island is an island in state of Maranhão, Brazil with an area of 1,410 km², located between the Baía de São Marcos and the Baía de São José. There are 4 cities located in the island: São Luís, after which the island is named, São José de Ribamar, Paço do Lumiar, Raposa; the city of São Luís covers three more minor islands, Tauá Mirim, Tauá, Medo. Raposa has an island; the population of these 4 cities in July 2013 IGBE estimate is 1,366,266, up from 1,309,330 in the 2010 Census. São Luís is the capital of the state; the Island was named Upaon-Açu by the natives. It is in the top 50 on the list of islands by population. São Luiz was founded in 1612 by Daniel de la Rivardière, a French officer commissioned by Henry IV of France to establish a colony in this vicinity; the French colony was expelled in 1615 by the Portuguese, who, in turn, surrendered to the Dutch in 1641. In 1644 the Dutch abandoned the island, when the Portuguese resumed possession, held the city to the end of their colonial rule in Brazil.
The city became the seat of a bishopric in 1679. The island of Upaon-Açu is located between two large estuarine systems that are the bays of São Marcos on the right side and São José on the left side in the central region of Golfão Maranhense; the two bays are interconnected in the southwest by the channels of the Strait of Mosquitoes and Strait of Coqueiros. In the São Marcos bay, the watershed of the Mearim river and its tributaries flows, while in the São José/Arraial bay the watersheds of the Itapecuru and Munim rivers break. In this region, the amplitude of the tides can exceed seven meters; the region presents numerous tidal channels. Several agents have modeled relief such as those of climatic and oceanographic origin, as well as intense wind and fluvial activity, with vegetation characterized by remnants of the Amazonian Forest and Campo de Perizes, an extensive fluvial plain with predominantly herbaceous, located on the mainland; the climate is characterized as hot, semi-humid, tropical of equatorial zone, with two distinct seasons that go from damp the drought, with average rainfall of 2,200 mm per year.
Some of the conservation units of the island are: APA das Reentrancias Maranhenses. On the Strait of Mosquitoes, there are road and railroad bridges linking the mainland to Upaon-Açu Island: the Marcelino Machado bridge, BR-135, composed of two parallel inlet and outlet bridges. There is a ferry service between São Luís and Alcântara and São Luís International Airport. On the island are the Port of Alumar, the Port of Itaqui and the Ponta da Madeira, to which iron and bauxite extracted from Carajás are transported through the Carajás Railway, which transports soy, fuel and other products