Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, United States. The city was incorporated on August 7,1905, under the McLaughlin Administration, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population is at 103,710. The largest, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city, the Ohlone Indians were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago. The name Richmond appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond. The first post office opened in 1900, Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name. Until the enactment of prohibition in 1919, the city had the largest winery in the world, in the 1920s the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city. In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened a plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in the 1960s.
The old Ford plant has been a National Historic Place since 1988, the city was a small town at that time, until the onset of World War II which brought on a rush of migrants and a boom in the industrial sector. Standard Oil set up here in 1901, including a what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers, the western terminus of the Santa Fe Railroad was established in Richmond with ferry connections at Ferry Point in the Brickyard Cove area of Point Richmond to San Francisco. Many of these lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond, Berkeley. A specially built rail line, the Shipyard Railway, transported workers to the shipyards, kaisers Richmond shipyards built 747 Victory and Liberty ships for the war effort, more than any other site in the U. S. The city broke many records and even built one Liberty ship in a five days. On average the yards could build a ship in thirty days, the medical system established for the shipyard workers at the Richmond Field Hospital eventually became todays Kaiser Permanente HMO.
It remained in operation until 1993 when it was replaced by the modern Richmond Medical Center hospital, Point Richmond was originally the commercial hub of the city, but a new downtown arose in the center of the city. It was populated by many department stores such as Kress, J. C. Penney, Macys, during the war the population increased dramatically and peaked at around 120,000 by the end of the war. Once the war ended the workers were no longer needed
Alameda Island is an island in the San Francisco Bay in California. It is south and west of, and adjacent to Oakland, located on the island is most of the city of Alameda, a city in Alameda County. Also located on the island is the Naval Air Station Alameda, the island was originally a peninsula and a part of Oakland, and is now separated from the mainland by the Oakland Estuary. The island is connected to the mainland by four bridges, the Park Street Bridge, Fruitvale Bridge, High Street Bridge, the Posey and Webster Street tubes connect Oakland to Alameda Island. The island was originally a peninsula connected to Oakland, much of it was low-lying and marshy, but on higher ground the peninsula and adjacent parts of what is now downtown Oakland were home to one of the largest coastal oak forests in the world. The area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for oak grove, Alameda is Spanish for grove of poplar trees or tree-lined avenue, and was chosen in 1853 by popular vote. The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a band of the Ohlone tribe.
The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted to Luis Peralta by the viceroyalty under King Ferdinand VII of Spain, the grant was confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the became known as Bolsa de Encinal or Encinal de San Antonio
Golden Gate National Recreation Area
The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U. S. National Recreation Area protecting 80,002 acres of ecologically and historically significant landscapes surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area. Much of the park is land used by the United States Army. GGNRA is managed by the National Park Service and is one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States, with more than 15 million visitors a year. It is one of the largest urban parks in the world, the park is not one continuous locale, but rather a collection of areas that stretch from southern San Mateo County to northern Marin County, and includes several areas of San Francisco. The park is as diverse as it is expansive, it contains famous tourist attractions such as Muir Woods National Monument, the park was created thanks to the cooperative legislative efforts of cosponsors Congressman William S. Mailliard and Congressman Phillip Burton. In 1972, President Richard Nixon signed into law An Act to Establish the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, the bill allocated $120 million for land acquisition and development.
The National Park Service first purchased Alcatraz and Fort Mason from the U. S. Army, the Nature Conservancy transferred the land to the GGNRA. These properties formed the basis for the park. Throughout the next 30 years, the National Park service acquired land and historic sites from the U. S. Army, private landowners and corporations, incorporating them into the GGNRA. Many decommissioned Army bases and fortifications were incorporated into the park, including Fort Funston, four Nike missile sites, The Presidio, the latest acquisition by the National Park Service is Mori Point, a small parcel of land on the Pacifica coast. In 1988, UNESCO designated the GGNRA and 12 adjacent protected areas the Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve, the property, located south of Pacifica and surrounding the communities of Moss Beach and Montara, is home to many diverse plant and animal species. The bill passed in the Senate, but did not pass the House of Representatives, Fort Baker - former Army post located on the northern side of the Golden Gate Headlands Center for the Arts - an artist residency program set in renovated military buildings in the Marin Headlands.
Nike Missile Site SF-88 - a decommissioned Army surface-to-air missile site located near Fort Barry, located at the southwestern corner of the Presidio Battery Chamberlin - one of the last remaining coastal defense disappearing guns on the U. S. Trails lead across the ridge and to Sharp Park beach, the site includes recently restored wetlands and a pond, protecting endangered San Francisco garter snake and red-legged frog habitat. Rancho Corral de Tierra - the GGNRAs newest park, Golden Gate National Recreation Area Scenery Video, a video showing the scenery observed from the GGNRA, including footage from Lands End
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
The Golden Gate is a strait on the west coast of North America that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. It is defined by the headlands of the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Peninsula, the strait is well known today for its depth and powerful tidal currents from the Pacific Ocean. Many small whirlpools and eddies can form in its waters, with its strong currents, rocky reefs and fog, the Golden Gate is the site of over 100 shipwrecks. The Golden Gate is often shrouded in fog, especially during the summer, heat generated in the California Central Valley causes air there to rise, creating a low pressure area that pulls in cool, moist air from over the Pacific Ocean. The Golden Gate forms the largest break in the hills of the California Coast Range, allowing a persistent, dense stream of fog to enter the bay there. Before the Europeans arrived in the 18th century, the area around the strait, descendants of both tribes remain in the area. The strait was surprisingly elusive for early European explorers, presumably due to this persistent summer fog.
The strait is not recorded in the voyages of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo nor Francis Drake, the strait is unrecorded in observations by Spanish galleons returning from the Philippines that laid up in nearby Drakes Bay to the north. These galleons rarely passed east of the Farallon Islands, fearing the possibility of rocks between the islands and the mainland, the first recorded observation of the strait occurred nearly two hundred years than the earliest European explorations of the coast. Until the 1840s, the strait was called the Boca del Puerto de San Francisco, on 1 July 1846, before the discovery of gold in California, the entrance acquired a new name. Frémont wrote, To this Gate I gave the name of Chrysopylae, or Golden Gate, for the reasons that the harbor of Byzantium was called Chrysoceras. In the 1920s, no bridge spanned the watery expanse between San Francisco and Marin in California—so when the U. S, post Office issued a postage stamp on 1 May 1923, celebrating The Golden Gate, the issue naturally portrayed the scene without a bridge.
The Golden Gate Bridge is a bridge spanning the Golden Gate. As part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension span in the world when completed in 1937. Since its completion, the length has been surpassed by eight other bridges. It still has the second longest suspension bridge span in the United States. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects, Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park consisting of 1,017 acres of public grounds
Cape Mendocino, approximately 200 miles north of San Francisco, is located on the Lost Coast entirely within Humboldt County, California, USA. It is the westernmost point on the coast of California, the South Cape Mendocino State Marine Reserve and Sugarloaf Island are immediately offshore, although closed to public access due to their protected status. Sugarloaf Island is cited as Californias westernmost island, the Cape Mendocino Light was lit December 1,1868, standing on eight prefabricated panels sent up from San Francisco, an automated light stood near the original location but was removed in 2013. The Cape Mendocino region of Californias north coast is one of the most seismically active regions in the contiguous United States, many geologists and seismologists believe that the main shock in the 1992 sequence may be a forerunner of a much more powerful earthquake in the Pacific Northwest. Offshore of Cape Mendocino lies the Mendocino Triple Junction, a triple junction where three tectonic plates come together.
The San Andreas Fault, a boundary, runs south from the junction, separating the Pacific Plate. To the north lies the Cascadia subduction zone, where the Gorda Plate is being subducted under the margin of the North American plate, running west from the triple junction is the Mendocino Fault, the transform boundary between the Gorda Plate and the Pacific Plate
Humboldt Bay is an American natural bay and a multi-basin, bar-built coastal lagoon located on the rugged North Coast of California, entirely within Humboldt County. The largest city adjoining the bay is Eureka, the center and county seat of Humboldt County. Commercially, this second largest estuary in California houses the largest oyster production operations on the West Coast, since the 1850s, the bay has been used extensively to export logs and forest products as part of the historic West coast lumber trade, with infrequent shipping occurring currently. This is partially because it is difficult to see from the ocean. The harbor opens to the sea through a narrow and historically treacherous passage, Humboldt Bay began to form when a river valley drowned about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago during a period of rapid sea level rise. Bay sediments contain buried salt marsh deposits showing that areas of the bay have subsided during episodic large magnitude subduction earthquakes, three rivers, the Mad and Eel, drained into Humboldt Bay during the mid-Pleistocene.
Daby and Indian Island are in the North Bay, low tides reveal two more islands named Bird Island and Sand Island which was formed from dredge spoils left in the early 20th century. A large eelgrass bed in the South Bay which may be exposed at low tides is locally known as Clam Island, at high tide the surface area is approximately 24 square miles while only 10.8 square miles at low tide. Each tidal cycle replaces 41% of the water in Humboldt Bay although exchange in small channels, the bay is approximately 14 miles long, but can be from 0.5 miles wide at the entrance to the widest point at 4.3 miles in the North Bay. Captain Jonathan Winship is credited with the first recorded entry into Humboldt Bay by sea in June 1806 while employed by the Russian-American Company and his party, including Aleuts in baidarka to hunt sea otter, were met with hostility by the local Indians. Winships party named the bay, the Bay of Resanof, after Nikolai Rezanov, the Chamberlain of the Tsar, in 1849, an expedition of seven men led by Josiah Gregg attempted to find an overland route to the Pacific Ocean.
They left from the town of Weaverville for the 150-mile trek to the sea. Because of the density of the forests and because Gregg stopped frequently to measure latitude. The party was near starvation when they emerged on the coast where they discovered what is now known as Humboldt Bay on 20 December 1849, after stocking up on food the party walked to San Francisco to report their discovery of the bay. In March 1850, two ships, the General Morgan and the Laura Virginia, were sent to the bay from San Francisco, after considerable initial difficulty due to waves breaking heavily over shifting sands of the bar crossing, the ships entered the bay in 1850. The members of the Laura Virginia company named the bay after Alexander von Humboldt, the Indian name for the bay was Qual-a-wa-loo, while the Wiyot nation called it Wike or Wiki. Humboldt Bay was charted by the United States Coast Survey in 1850, although the map was not published until 1852. After two years of settlement on Humboldt Bay in 1852, only six ships sailed from the bay to San Francisco
Eureka is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California. The city is located on U. S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay,270 miles north of San Francisco and 100 miles south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 27,191, Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland, and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the center for government, health care, trade. Greater Eureka, one of Californias major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay, a stretch of about 500 miles. The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California State Parks System are in Eureka. As entrepôt for hundreds of mills that once existed in the area. Eureka is home to Californias oldest zoo, the Sequoia Park Zoo, Eurekas Pacific coastal location on Humboldt Bay, adjacent to abundant redwood forests, provided the reason for settlement of this 19th-century seaport town.
Before the arrival of Euro-American settlers, including farmers, miners and loggers, the Wiyot people lived in Jaroujiji, now known as Eureka, for thousands of years prior to European arrival. They are the farthest-southwest people whose language has Algonquian roots and their traditional coastal homeland ranged from the lower Mad River through Humboldt Bay and south along the lower basin of the Eel River. The Wiyot are particularly known for their basketry and fishery management, an extensive collection of intricate basketry of the areas indigenous groups exists in the Clarke Historical Museum in Old Town Eureka. As of 2013, Eureka High School has the largest Yurok language program in California, the timing of this discovery would lead to the May 13,1850 founding of the settlement of Eureka on its shore by the Union and Mendocino Exploring companies. Eureka received its name from a Greek word meaning I have found it and this exuberant statement of successful gold rush miners is the official Motto of the State of California.
Eureka is the only U. S. location to use the seal as the state for its seal. In the United States, California is the largest of about a dozen towns, the first Europeans venturing into Humboldt Bay encountered the indigenous Wiyot. Records of early forays into the bay in 1806 reported that the violence of the indigenous people made it nearly impossible for landing parties to survey the area. After 1850, Europeans ultimately overwhelmed the Wiyot, whose maximum population before the Europeans was in the hundreds in the area of what would become the primary city. The 1860 Wiyot Massacre took place on Indian Island in the spring of 1860, committed by a group of locals, thought to be primarily Eureka businessmen
Belvedere is a city in Marin County, United States, located 1.5 miles northeast of Sausalito. Situated on two islands, it is adjacent to the Tiburon Peninsula, accessible via a short bridge from the city of Tiburon. Belvedere and Tiburon share a post office, mail sent there can be addressed as Belvedere Tiburon, CA. Belvedere is located at 37°52′22″N 122°27′52″W, about 4 mi north of San Francisco, situated on the Tiburon Peninsula about 3 miles south/southeast of Ring Mountain, between Richardson Bay and the Town of Tiburon, Belvedere consists of two islands and the lagoon between them. The larger of the two islands is Belvedere Island, and the one is Corinthian Island, which is shared with Tiburon. The area of Ring Mountain is notable for its resources of extant Native American petroglyphs as well as considerable biodiversity of California native plants. Belvedere Lagoon is owned and maintained by the Belvedere Lagoon Property Owners Association, the lagoon is not accessible by boat from San Francisco Bay, and no public access is provided.
Until somewhat late in the 20th century, houseboats were present in Belvedere Lagoon, the city has a total area of 2.42 sq mi, of which 0.54 sq mi is land and 1.89 sq mi is water. The first settlers arrived in the late 19th century, the railroad came and Tiburon was the last stop for passengers and cargo destined for San Francisco and beyond. Belvedere Lagoon was partially filled after World War II to provide building sites for tract houses and it was once the site of a 9-hole golf course. The first post office opened in 1897, the City Hall was formerly a Presbyterian Church. It was moved to its present location on San Rafael Avenue in 1949, actress Vivian Vance, who played Ethel on I Love Lucy, died in Belvedere in 1979 at the age of 70. Giving back to the community and providing a catalyst to move it forward are goals of the Foundations grant program, as its endowment grows, the Foundation aspires to offer substantial assistance to projects which protect and enhance the quality of life in Belvedere.
Belvedere sits on the side of the tip of Tiburon Peninsula. Many Belvedere properties are renowned for their views of the Bay Area, Angel Island, San Francisco, Sausalito. As a result, land values are extremely high, in 2000,87. 6% of the citys owner-occupied housing units cost more than $1,000,000, compared with 2. 3% for California as a whole. Many houses in Belvedere are in the Victorian style of architecture, some Belvedere homes are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, such as the Valentine Rey House designed by Willis Polk and built in 1893. Other notable architects include Albert Farr, who designed the Belevdere Land Company Building and cottages, Henry Gutterson, and Charles Callister