Cape Verde or Cabo Verde the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. It forms part of the Macaronesia ecoregion, along with the Azores, Canary Islands and the Savage Isles. In ancient times these islands were referred to as "the Islands of the Blessed" or the "Fortunate Isles". Located 570 kilometres west of the Cape Verde Peninsula off the coast of Northwest Africa, the islands cover a combined area of over 4,000 square kilometres; the Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers discovered and colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants and pirates; the end of slavery in the 19th century led to economic emigration. Cape Verde recovered as an important commercial center and stopover for shipping routes.
Incorporated as an overseas department of Portugal in 1951, the islands continued to campaign for independence, peacefully achieved in 1975. Since the early 1990s, Cape Verde has been a stable representative democracy, remains one of the most developed and democratic countries in Africa. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is service-oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment, its population of around 540,000 is of mixed European, Moorish and African heritage, predominantly Roman Catholic, reflecting the legacy of Portuguese rule. A sizeable diaspora community exists across the world outnumbering inhabitants on the islands; the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation Cabo Verde would henceforth be used for official purposes, such as at the United Nations in English contexts. Cape Verde is a member of the African Union.
The name of the country stems on the Senegalese coast. In 1444, Portuguese explorers had named that landmark as Cabo Verde, a few years before they discovered the islands. On 24 October 2013, the country's delegation announced at the United Nations that the official name should no longer be translated into other languages. Instead of "Cape Verde", the designation "Republic of Cabo Verde" is to be used. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited; the islands of the Cape Verde archipelago were discovered by Genoese and Portuguese navigators around 1456. According to Portuguese official records, the first discoveries were made by Genoa-born António de Noli, afterwards appointed governor of Cape Verde by Portuguese King Afonso V. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries in the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Gomes, Diogo Dias, Diogo Afonso and the Italian Alvise Cadamosto. In 1462, Portuguese settlers arrived at Santiago and founded a settlement they called Ribeira Grande.
Ribeira Grande was the first permanent European settlement in the tropics. In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the Atlantic slave trade. Pirates attacked the Portuguese settlements. Francis Drake, an English privateer, twice sacked the capital Ribeira Grande in 1585 when it was a part of the Iberian Union. After a French attack in 1712, the town declined in importance relative to nearby Praia, which became the capital in 1770. Decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis. Cape Verde's early prosperity vanished. However, the islands' position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes made Cape Verde an ideal location for re-supplying ships; because of its excellent harbour, the city of Mindelo, located on the island of São Vicente, became an important commercial centre during the 19th century. Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Cape Verde in 1832. With few natural resources and inadequate sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew discontented with the colonial masters, who refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy.
In 1951, Portugal changed Cape Verde's status from a colony to an overseas province in an attempt to blunt growing nationalism. In 1956, Amílcar Cabral and a group of fellow Cape Verdeans and Guineans organised the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, it demanded improvement in economic and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations' independence movement. Moving its headquarters to Conakry, Guinea in 1960, the PAIGC began an armed rebellion against Portugal in 1961. Acts of sabotage grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10,000 Soviet Bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops. By 1972, the PAIGC controlled much of Portuguese Guinea despite the presence of the Portuguese troops, but the organization did not attempt to disrupt Portuguese control in Cape Verde. Portuguese Guinea declared independence in 1973 and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement — led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 — passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in
The Barlavento Islands is the northern island group of the Cape Verde archipelago. It can be divided into two sub-groups: the western islands Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santa Luzia and the islets Branco and Raso are rocky, agricultural islands; the eastern islands Sal and Boa Vista are flat, desert islands with economies once based on salt and now turning to tourism, having more in common with the Sotavento island Maio. Minor islets include Ilhéu de Sal-Rei and Ilhéu do Baluarte off Boa Vista, Ilhéu dos Pássaros off São Vicente and Ilhéu Rabo de Junco off Sal; the total area of the Barlavento Islands is 2,239 km2. Sotavento Islands List of islands of Cape Verde Barlavento Islands article at Britannica Online, accessed on 1 January 2010
Brava, Cape Verde
Brava is an island in Cape Verde, in the Sotavento group. At 62.5 km2, it is the smallest inhabited island of the Cape Verde archipelago, but at the same time the greenest. First settled in the early 16th century, its population grew after Mount Fogo on neighbouring Fogo erupted in 1680. For more than a century, its main industry was whaling, but the island economy is now agricultural. Brava was discovered in 1462 by the Portuguese explorer Diogo Afonso. There is no evidence of human presence on the Cape Verde islands before the arrival of the Portuguese. Around 1620 the population of Brava started with the arrival of settlers from Madeira and the Azores. Settlement of Brava took a rise in 1680 when it received many refugees from the nearby larger island of Fogo after its volcano erupted and covered the island with ash. Frequent pirate attacks forced the population towards the interior of the island, where the town Nova Sintra was founded around 1700. Around 1720, the fungus Roccella tinctoria was discovered, traded as a textile dye.
From the end of the 18th century, whaling ships from North America started hunting whales around the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands. They used the harbours of Brava to stock up on supplies and drinking water, they hired men from Brava as sailors, several of these men from Brava settled around the Massachusetts whaling port of New Bedford. The island of Brava is 10.5 km long and its width is 9.3 km. Its area is 62.51 km2. The whole island is a stratovolcano, it lies in the lee of the enormous Fogo volcano. Volcanic activity on the island has been located along three lines, which all intersect at the crest of ground that forms the highest part of the island. Brava has no documented historical eruptions, but its youthful volcanic morphology and the fact that earthquake swarms still occur indicate the potential for future eruptions. 13% of the island area is forested. North of Brava are several uninhabited islets. Monte Fontainhas is the highest point on the island. Being mountainous this island has a quite diverse climate.
Brava island has moderate tropical climate along the coast and semi-arid mild tropical climate Bsh with balanced temperatures year round in the interior. The average annual temperature on the coast is about 23–25 °C, decreasing to some 17–20 °C in the mountains. There can be remarkably cool weather with warmer wet season starting in June and ending in November with colder dry season starting in December and ending in May. Administratively, the island of Brava is covered by Concelho da Brava; this municipality consists of two freguesias: São João Baptista and Nossa Senhora do Monte. The municipal seat is the city Nova Sintra. Since 2012, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality, its president is Orlando da Luz Vieira Balla; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: The island's main town is Nova Sintra. The island's two parishes São João Baptista and Nossa Senhora do Monte are subdivided into 16 population zones for statistical purposes: In the 1830s, the population was estimated at 8,000.
The economy of the island is based on agriculture and fishing. Main agricultural goods include coffee, potatoes including sweet potatoes, corn and sugar cane. Nova Sintra, a town with a museum, traditional Portuguese architecture, several churches and shops. Fajã de Agua, a small harbour on the West coast with a natural swimming pool. Nossa Senhora do a village in the mountains with a pilgrimage church. Cova Rodela, a village in the mountains with a dragon tree in its main street. There are several football clubs on Boa Vista, organised in the Brava Regional Football Association; the Esperadinha Airport, inaugurated in 1992, was closed in 2004 because of persisting strong winds. The village of Furna has a commercial port, the other port is Fajã de Água, only used for fishing. Ferries to the islands of Fogo and Santiago depart from Furna. On Brava the villages may be reached by "Aluguer" bus. There is no fixed schedule. A few taxis are available as well. Eugénio Tavares, musician. A statue dedicated to Eugénio Tavares is in the main square of Vila Nova Sintra, surrounded by a garden with trees, flowers and other types of plants.
Vinny deMacedo - Massachusetts State Representative & State Senate candidate was born in Brava. Armand d'Avezac. "Brava". Îles de l'Afrique. Paris: Firmin Didot Frères. Pp. 208–210. Câmara Municipal da Brava Brava News - News directly from Brava Brava island - caboverde.com Brava, Cape Verde Islands - University of Massachusetts 1930 Cartographic Map at TV Ciência
Santa Luzia, Cape Verde
Santa Luzia is an island of the Barlavento archipelago in Cape Verde located between São Nicolau and São Vicente, the channel of Santa Luzia separates the island of São Vicente and is 8 km wide. The area is 34.2 km². Like all Cape Verdean islands, it is of volcanic origin; the highest point is Topona. Santa Luzia is 5.3 km wide. Administratively, it is not part of any municipality, but in the public domain of the state of Cape Verde. Together with the islets of Ilhéu Branco and Ilhéu Raso, Santa Luzia is on the tentative list of UNESCO's World Heritage sites. Santa Luzia, Ilhéu Branco and Ilhéu Raso were declared a protected area as Santa Luzia Nature Reserve in 1990. In addition to the islands proper, the nature reserve covers 469 km2 of ocean; the island has never had permanent inhabitants. In the 20th century, a meteorology station was built. Today, fishermen from the nearby islands of São Vicente and Santo Antão fish in the waters around the island. Conus santaluziensis is a species of sea snails found in the waters of Santa Luzia.
Santa Luzia at Protected Areas of Cape Verde website
African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde
The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. Formed to peacefully campaign for independence from Portugal, the party turned to armed conflict in the 1960s and was one of the belligerents in the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence. Towards the end of the war, the party established a Marxist–Leninist one-party state, which remained intact until multi-party democracy was introduced in the early 1990s. Although the party won the first multi-party elections in 1994, it was removed from power in the 1999–2000 elections. However, it returned to office after winning parliamentary elections in 2004 and presidential elections in 2005, since which it has remained the largest party in the National People's Assembly; the PAIGC governed Cape Verde, from its independence in 1975 to 1980. After the military coup in Guinea-Bissau in 1980, the Cape Verdean branch of the PAIGC was converted into a separate party, the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde.
The party was established in Bissau on 19 September 1956 as the African Party of Independence, was based on the Movement for the National Independence of Portuguese Guinea founded in 1954 by Henri Labéry and Amílcar Cabral. The party had six founding members. Rafael Paula Barbosa became its first president, whilst Amílcar Cabral was appointed secretary-general; the Pijiguiti Massacre in 1959 saw Portuguese soldiers opened fire on protesting dockworkers, killing 50. The massacre caused a large segment of the population to swing towards the PAIGC's push for independence, although the Portuguese authorities still considered the movement to be irrelevant, took no serious action in trying to suppress it. However, the massacre convinced the PAIGC leadership to resort to armed struggle against the Portuguese, in September 1959 the party established a new headquarters in Conakry in neighbouring Guinea. In 1961, the PAIGC combined with the Mozambican FRELIMO and Angolan MPLA to establish the Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies, a common party to coordinate the struggles for independence of Portuguese colonies across Africa.
The three groups were represented at international events by the CONCP. Armed struggle against the Portuguese began in March 1962 with an abortive attack by PAIGC guerrillas on Praia. Guerrilla warfare was concentrated to the mainland Guinea, however, as logistical reasons prevented an armed struggle on the Cape Verde islands. On the Cape Verde islands PAIGC worked in a clandestine manner. After being nearly crippled militarily, Amílcar Cabral ordered that sabotage be the PAIGC's main weapon until military strength could be regained. On 23 January 1963 the PAIGC started the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence by attacking a Portuguese garrison in Tite. Frequent attacks in the north took place. In that same month, attacks on police stations in Fulacunda and Buba were carried out not only by the PAIGC but by the FLING. In January 1966, Amílcar Cabral attended the Conferencia Tricontinental Enero in Havana and made a great impression on Fidel Castro; as a result of this, Cuba agreed to supply artillery experts and technicians to assist in the independence struggle.
The head of the Cuban Military Mission was Victor Dreke. In the context of the ongoing Cold War, PAIGC guerrillas received Kalashnikovs from the USSR and recoilless rifles from the People's Republic of China, with all three countries helping train guerilla troops; the first party congress took place at liberated Cassaca in February 1964, in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganized, with a regular army to supplement the guerilla forces. Como Island was the site of a major battle between PAIGC and Portuguese forces, in which the PAIGC took control of the island and resisted fierce counterattacks by the Portuguese, including airstrikes by FAP F-86 Sabres. Following the loss of Como Island, the Portuguese army and the air force began the Operation Tridente, a combined arms operation to retake the island; the PAIGC fought fiercely, the Portuguese took heavy casualties and gained ground slowly. After 71 days of fighting and 851 FAP combat sorties, the island was taken back by the Portuguese.
However, less than two months the PAIGC would retake the island, as the Portuguese operation to capture it had depleted much of their invasion force, leaving the island vulnerable. However, Como Island ceased to be of strategic importance to Portugal following establishment of new PAIGC positions in the south on the Cantanhez and Quitafine Peninsulas. Large numbers of Portuguese troops on these peninsulas were besieged by guerrillas. Throughout the war, the Portuguese handled themselves poorly, it took them a long time to take the PAIGC diverting aircraft and troops based in Guinea to the conflicts in Mozambique and Angola, by the time that the Portuguese government began to realise that the PAIGC was a significant threat to their continued rule over Guinea, it was too late. Little was done to curtail the guerrilla operations. By 1967, the PAIGC had carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army enc
São Vicente, Cape Verde
São Vicente is one of the Barlavento Islands, the northern group within the Cape Verde archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, off the west African coast. It is located between the islands of Santo Antão and Santa Luzia, with the Canal de São Vicente separating it from Santo Antão; the island is rectangular in shape with an area of 226.7 square kilometres. From east to west it from north to south 16.3 kilometres. The island, of volcanic origin, is flat; the last volcanic activity is considered to have taken place in the Pleistocene. Although eroded, some craters still remain, for instance Viana, its highest point is Monte Verde, located in the eastern part with an altitude of 744 metres. Other mountains include Madeiral and Monte Cara. 92.6% of the island population lives in the urban area of Mindelo, on the Porto Grande Bay, a caldera, breached by the ocean. A small islet, Ilhéu dos Pássaros, is less than one nautical mile off the coast of Porto Grande Bay. There are a few intermittent streams, including Ribeira do Ribeira de Julião.
São Vicente has a dry climate. The average annual temperature in Mindelo is 23.6 °C. The island is dry with only 127 mm annual precipitation in Mindelo. Only the higher area of Monte Verde receives more precipitaion. São Vicente was discovered by the Portuguese discoverer Diogo Afonso on 22 January 1462. Due to its lack of water, the island was used only as a cattle pasture; when the Municipality of Santo Antão was established in 1732, the island of São Vicente was part of it. At that time, it did not have permanent inhabitants. In 1793 the area of Porto Grande Bay was settled, it was only in 1838, when a coal depot was established at Porto Grande Bay to supply ships on Atlantic routes, that the population started to grow rapidly. From the beginning of the 20th century the port of Mindelo lost its importance for transatlantic navigation. Causes for this were the shift from coal to oil as fuel for ships, the rise of competing ports like Dakar and the Canary Islands and the lack of investment in port infrastructure.
Administratively, the island of São Vicente is covered by Concelho de São Vicente. This municipality consists of one freguesia, Nossa Senhora da Luz, which covers the whole island; the municipal seat is the city of Mindelo. The freguesia is subdivided into the following settlements: Since 2004, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: Henrique Teixeira de Sousa, in the 1960s Onésimo Silveira, in the late-1990s and the early 2000s Isaura Gomes 2004-2005 and 2008-2011 Augusto Neves In the 1830s, São Vicente had an estimated population of 356. The population of São Vicente in the 2010 census was 76,140, making it the second most populous island of Cape Verde after Santiago; the annual population growth is 1.3%. 92.6% of the population live in urban areas, the highest proportion of all islands. Life expectancy is higher than some other parts of the world; the birth rate is 2.7% and infant mortality rate is 18 per 1000 live births.
The majority of the population is young. The island has 19,923 households, of which there are an average of 3.8 persons per household, lower than Cape Verde's level of 4.2 persons per household. In 2010 15.1% of the households owned an automobile. The economy of the island was always based exclusively on commerce and services. Due to lack of rain, agriculture is at a subsistence level. Fishing has some relevance, but conditions prevent it from being more important, not only for the catch—lobster—but for the associated industries: conserves and salting of fish, naval construction. Porto Grande is the main port of Cape Verde, it has a terminal of containers and refrigeration units that make handling load overflow possible. There is a modern seawater desalination plant, which provides water for public consumption and for naval shipyards. In the industrial sector, the island presents an abundance of manpower though unskilled, resulting from the exodus of inhabitants of other islands to São Vicente.
About 27% of the employed population is unskilled. Qualified employees—company executives, public administrators, managers and directors—make up less than 2% of employees, it is distinguished, however, by a bigger participation of women in decision-making positions than the national average. According to the 2010 census, the island of São Vicente has the largest unemployment rate of the country—14.8%—while the national average is 10.7%. Unemployment affects women more than men; the industrial park of the island—the Industrial Zone of the Lazareto—concentrates diverse types of manufacturing due to foreign investment, in the activities of footwear and fish processing. The National Center of Workmanship of Mindelo supports local craftsmen in the production and commercialization of ceramic parts, articles made of coconut rinds, necklaces of shells and rocks. Many sports are practised in São Vicente, many have spread to the remaining islands; the island is suitable for windsurfing. Cycling, walking trails and
The Sotavento Islands is the southern island group of the Cape Verde archipelago. There are four main islands; the western three islands, Brava and Santiago, are rocky and volcanic agricultural islands, with the longest histories of human habitation. The fourth and easternmost island Maio is a flat desert island whose economy was based on salt, giving it more in common with the Barlavento islands Sal and Boa Vista; the Ilhéus do. The total area of the Sotavento Islands is 1,803 km2. Barlavento Islands List of islands of Cape Verde