Miquelon-Langlade is the larger and less populated of the two communes making up the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, located to the south of Newfoundland in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, it consists of three geological islands: Langlade and Le Cap, connected with tombolos. The communal seat is the settlement of Miquelon, on the northern tip, where the entire island's permanent population of 623 is located. Miquelon Airport provides flights to nearby Saint-Pierre. Located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Newfoundland's Burin Peninsula, Miquelon-Langlade covers a total land area of 205 km2, it is made up of three geologically distinct islands bound together by tombolos — long strips of sand dune — Le Cap in the north, Miquelon in the centre and Langlade in the south. On the south of the Miquelon Island is a large lagoon known as the Grand Barachois, host to a large population of seals and other wildlife. Miquelon is a well known destination for bird watching. An 8 mi long tombolo sandspit called La Dune connects Langlade.
In the eighteenth century it was still possible to sail a boat between Miquelon and Langlade, but by the end of that century La Dune had closed in to form an isthmus between the islands. Located at 3 mi west of Saint Pierre Island, Langlade is an ancient peneplain drained by numerous short rivers, including the Belle, the largest, which flows to the northwest; the coast of Langlade is lined except to the northwest. Köppen–Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as subarctic. Summers are mild, it receives precipitation all year. The name Miquelon is of Basque origin and means "Michael", as several fishermen with this name were established in the island. In 1579, the names Micquetõ, Micquelle appeared for the first time in Martin de Hoyarçabal's navigational pilot; the name evolved over time into Miclon and Miquelon. The capital of the commune, Miquelon, is located on the north, along a tombolo that connects the separate island of Le Cap with the northwestern part of Miquelon Island.
It lies north of a barachois and has constructed a small harbour protected with breakwaters along the eastern side of the isthmus. Miquelon is home to the Miquelon Airport; the Centre Médical de Miquelon has some medical care facilities for residents, but other facilities are available on Saint Pierre Island as well as in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador; the population of Miquelon-Langlade is of Basque and Acadian ancestry. The population of Miquelon-Langlade was 623 at the 2011 Census. Miquelon can be reached by boat or by plane from Saint-Pierre and is served by Miquelon Airport, located adjacent to the settlement of Miquelon; the airport is served by Air Saint-Pierre to Saint Pierre Airport and Canada. There is a school facility on Ecole du socle de Miquelon, it houses the private contracted nursery school / preschool Soeur Hilarion, the public elementary school Les Quatre Temps, the public junior high school Collège de Miquelon. As of the 2014-2015 school year the junior high school had 25 students.
The government high school / sixth-form programmes serving Miquelon are at Lycée-Collège d'État Émile Letournel on Saint-Pierre island. Saint-Pierre Le Phare: Association of Tourism Professionals Local Airline Air Saint-Pierre 2012 French Presidential Election
Saint Pierre Island
Saint Pierre Island is one of the three main islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. It contains the town of Saint-Pierre, which lies on the island's east coast and is the main population centre of the island group. Several smaller islands lie off the coast of Saint Pierre, notably L'Île-aux-Marins and L'Île-aux-Vainqueurs, both to the east, Grand Colombier, which lies off Saint Pierre's northernmost point. Saint Pierre and its neighboring islands form the Saint-Pierre commune, one of two communes in Saint Pierre and Miquelon; the island is accessible by ferry from Newfoundland and has immigrations control for the country of France
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is the only part of New France that remains under French control, with an area of 242 square kilometres and a population of 6,080 at the January 2011 census; the islands are situated at the entrance of Fortune Bay, which extends into the southwestern coast of Newfoundland, near the Grand Banks. They are 3,819 kilometres from Brest, the nearest point in Metropolitan France, 25 kilometres from the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland. Saint-Pierre is French for the patron saint of fishermen; the present name of Miquelon was first noted in the form of Micquelle in the Basque sailor Martin de Hoyarçabal's navigational pilot for Newfoundland. It has been claimed. Therefore, from Mikelon it may have been written in the French way with a q instead of a k. Though the Basque Country is divided between Spain and France, most Basques live on the south side of the border and speak Spanish, Miquelon may have been influenced by the Spanish name Miguelón, an augmentative form of Miguel meaning "big Michael".
The adjoined island's name of "Langlade" is said to be an adaptation of l'île à l'Anglais. Portuguese João Álvares Fagundes landed on the islands on 21 October 1520 and named the St. Pierre island group the'Eleven Thousand Virgins', as the day marked the feast day of St. Ursula and her virgin companions, they were made a French possession in 1536 by Jacques Cartier on behalf of the King of France. Though frequented by Mi'kmaq people and Basque and Breton fishermen, the islands were not permanently settled until the end of the 17th century: four permanent inhabitants were counted in 1670, 22 in 1691. In 1670, during Jean Talon's tenure as Intendant of New France, a French officer annexed the islands when he found a dozen French fishermen camped there; the British Royal Navy soon began pillaging their camps and ships. By the early 1700s, the islands were again uninhabited, were ceded to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht which ended the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which put an end to the Seven Years' War, France ceded all its North American possessions, but Saint-Pierre and Miquelon were returned to France.
France maintained fishing rights on the coasts of Newfoundland. With France being allied with the Americans during the American Revolutionary War, Britain invaded and razed the colony in 1778, sending the entire population of 2,000 back to France. In 1793, the British landed in Saint-Pierre and, the following year, expelled the French population, tried to install British settlers; the British colony was in turn sacked by French troops in 1796. The Treaty of Amiens of 1802 returned the islands to France, but Britain reoccupied them when hostilities recommenced the next year; the Treaty of Paris gave them back to France, though Britain occupied them yet again during the Hundred Days War. France reclaimed the uninhabited islands in which all structures and buildings had been destroyed or fallen into disrepair; the islands were resettled in 1816. The settlers were Basques and Normans, who were joined by various other elements from the nearby island of Newfoundland. Only around the middle of the century did increased fishing bring a certain prosperity to the little colony.
During the early 1910s, the colony suffered as a result of unprofitable fisheries, large numbers of its people emigrated to Nova Scotia and Quebec. The draft imposed on all male inhabitants of conscript age after the beginning of World War I crippled the fisheries, which could not be processed by the older people and the women and children. About 400 men from the colony served in the French military during World War I, 25% of whom died; the increase in the adoption of steam trawlers in the fisheries contributed to the reduction in employment opportunities. Smuggling had always been an important economic activity in the islands, but it became prominent in the 1920s with the institution of prohibition in the United States. In 1931, the archipelago was reported to have imported 1,815,271 US gallons of whisky from Canada in 12 months, most of it to be smuggled into the United States; the end of prohibition in 1933 plunged the islands into economic depression. During World War II, despite opposition from Canada and the United States, Charles de Gaulle seized the archipelago from Vichy France, to which the local government had pledged its allegiance.
In a referendum the following day, the population endorsed the takeover by Free France. After the 1958 French constitutional referendum, Saint Pierre and Miquelon was given the option of becoming integrated with France, becoming a self-governing state within the French Community, or preserving the status of overseas territory. Since March 2003, Saint Pierre and Miquelon has been an overseas collectivity with a special status; the archipelago became an overseas territory in 1946 an overseas department in 1976, before acquiring the status of territorial collectivity in 1985. The archipelago has two communes: Miquelon-Langlade. A third commune, Isle-aux-Marins, existed until 1945, when it was absorbed by the municipality of Saint-Pierre; the in
Miquelon known as Grande Miquelon, is one of the islands of the archipelago of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an Overseas collectivity of France located in the Atlantic Ocean, 22 kilometres south of the coast of Newfoundland. Miquelon is situated between Le Cap Island to Langlade Island to the south; the name Miquelon purportedly derived from a Basque nickname for "Michael". In 1579, the names Micquetõ and Micquelle appeared for the first time in French Basque mariner Martin de Hoyarçabal's maritime pilot; the name evolved over time into Miclon and Miquelon. Miquelon's coastline includes numerous sand and pebbles beaches enclosing lagoons, as well as high rocky cliffs standing up to 25 metres on the east coast, its geology consists of metamorphosed post-Ordovician volcanic rocks rhyolites with breccias and basalts. On the south of the Miquelon Island is a large lagoon known as the Grand Barachois, host to a large population of seals and other wildlife. Miquelon is a well known destination for bird watching.
Miquelon is connected to Le Cap by a tombolo 3 kilometres long and in places less than 100 metres wide. To the south, Miquelon is connected to Langlade Island by a sandy isthmus that formed in the 18th century, 12 kilometres in length from 100 metres to 6 metres wide; the island of Saint Pierre Island is across a treacherous and foggy 6 kilometres strait that fishermen named "The Mouth of Hell", the site of more than 600 shipwrecks. The climate is typical of the North Atlantic and the Labrador Current, with frequent storms and winds that exceed 60 kilometres per hour for nearly six months of the year; the summers are foggy. The average annual temperature is 5.5 °C. Miquelon includes the commune of Miquelon-Langlade, with a population of 626 in 2012. Miquelon Airport serves the population via turboprop or small jet aircraft; the majority of the residents live in the town called Miquelon, located in the north of the island near La Cap. The residents are citizens of France. History of Saint Pierre and Miquelon List of islands of France List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean Official website
Geography of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon is a French overseas collectivity in the Western Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere. It consists of an island archipelago off the coast of Newfoundland near North America; the collectivity shares a maritime boundary with Canada. Saint Pierre and Miquelon is situated south of Newfoundland in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the North Atlantic Ocean, its distance north-south from Newfoundland is 60 kilometres. The islands are closer to the long Burin Peninsula, situated just 25 kilometres to the east. In addition, Green Island, which belongs to Newfoundland, is located about halfway between the southern part of Miquelon-Langlade and Newfoundland at 46°52′44″N 56°05′21″W, only 10 kilometres from both Langlade and St. Pierre. Saint Pierre and Miquelon is an archipelago of eight islands, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon-Langlade being the major ones. Collectively the area of the islands is 242 km², about the size of Brooklyn in New York City; the total coastline is 120 km. The territory include the surrounding fishing areas in the North Atlantic Ocean.
The island of Saint-Pierre is surrounded to the south-east by smaller dependencies, Petit Colombier, Île aux Marins, Île aux Pigeons and Île aux Vainqueurs, Grand Colombier to the north. These islands have all been inhabited at another; the settlement of Saint Pierre on Saint Pierre Island is the largest settlement in Saint Pierre and Miquelon. St. Pierre is separated from Miquelon-Langlade by a 6 kilometres strait with fierce currents. Fishermen call this section of ocean "The Mouth of Hell"; the waters around these islands are treacherous, there have been over 600 shipwrecks along the coasts of the islands. The island of Miquelon-Langlade consists of three separate islands Miquelon, Langlade and Le Cap. In the 18th century, an isthmus of sand called La Dune was formed between Miquelon and Langlade; the isthmus was reinforced by hand with sand and Quaternary deposits to what is now a 13-kilometre sand dune. Along the isthmus, there are over 500 wrecked ships. What was the island Miquelon is now called Grande Miquelon while Petite Miquelon refers to Langlade.
The settlement of Miquelon lies at the junction of the northwest corner of Miquelon Island and Le Cap. The climate is damp and windy and winters are harsh and long; the spring and early summer are cool. Late summer and early fall are sunny. Seals and other wildlife can be found in the Grand Barachois lagoon of Miquelon; every spring, whales migrating to Greenland are visible off the coasts of St Pierre. Trilobite fossils have been found on Langlade. There were a number of stone pillars off the island coasts called "L'anse aux Soldats" that have been eroded away and disappeared in the 1970s. Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles territorial sea: 12 nautical miles Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog. Geography - note: vegetation scanty Canada–France Maritime Boundary Case List of airports in Saint Pierre and Miquelon List of cities in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon List of islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon List of rivers of Saint Pierre and Miquelon Appalachian Mountains#Overview "Saint Pierre and Miquelon" CIA Factbook 2016
Île aux Chevaux
Île aux Chevaux is an island in Saint Pierre and Miquelon, a French territory off the southern coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Île aux Chevaux is in the north end of the Grand Barachois, a lagoon between the islands of Le Cap and Miquelon, fewer than 100 meters off the southern shores of the latter. Geography of Saint Pierre and Miquelon List of Saint Pierre and Miquelon-related topics