Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus, Strabos life was characterized by extensive travels. He journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome. Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, especially for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, and stayed there and writing, in 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae and it is not known precisely when Strabos Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around 17 or 18 AD, the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, who is said to have died just recently.
He probably worked on the Geography for many years and revised it steadily, on the presumption that recently means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died. The first of Strabos major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is completely lost. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels. His first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, Strabo was an admirer of Homers poetry, perhaps a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, despite Xenarchuss Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite.
Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items, his philosophy, his knowledge, and his contacts, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a history of people. Although the Geographica was rarely utilized in its antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire. It first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469, the first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice
Battle of Thymbra
The Battle of Thymbra was the decisive battle in the war between Croesus of the Lydian Kingdom and Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus, having pursued Croesus into Lydia following the drawn Battle of Pteria, even though Croesus army was reinforced with many new men, Cyrus utterly defeated it, despite being outnumbered more or less 2,1. This proved decisive, and after the 14-day Siege of Sardis, the city and possibly its king fell, cyruss plan was to catch the Lydian king unprepared for battle, but at Thymbra Croesus had more than twice as many men as Cyrus. The Lydians marched out to meet Cyrus and quickly armed all the reserves there, before their allies were to arrive, according to Xenophon, Cyrus had 196,000 men in total, which was composed of 31,000 to ~70,000 Persians. This consisted of 20,000 infantry which may have included archers and slingers,10,000 elite infantry/ cavalry, all except the archers and slingers are known to have carried small to large shields. The others were,42,000 Arabians and Medians, there were 300 camel cavalry,300 chariots, and 5-6 siege towers, which were known to hold 20 men each.
It all amounted to 1, 000+ men, partly because there was one citizen, and one soldier on each chariot. Xenophon tells us that Croesus had an army of 420,000 men, which was composed of 60,000 Babylonians and this amounted to 300,000 men which included 60,000 cavalry. There were 120,000 Egyptians, plus 300 chariots, the numbers of the battle given by Xenophon, even if untrue, are considered within the realm of possibility, but less than half may have engaged in the actual battle. Cyrus deployed his troops with flanks withdrawn in a square formation, the flanks were covered by chariots and his best infantry and a newly organized camel corps. This improvised camel corps was formed by camels taken from the baggage train, as Cyrus expected, the wings of the Lydian army wheeled inward to envelop this novel formation. As the Lydian flanks swung in, gaps appeared at the hinges of the wheeling wings, disorder was increased by the effective overhead fire of the Persian archers and mobile towers, stationed within the square.
Cyrus gave the order to attack, his flank units smashing into Croesus disorganized wings, not long after the Lydian cavalry lose many soldiers and are forced to retreat. With most of his army intact and the loss of most of the Lydian cavalry, after the cavalry are completely defeated, the Persian army attacks and brings heavy casualties to the Lydian infantry. Most of the infantry soon surrender but Croesus and a part of the infantry retreat and head for the Lydian capital of Sardis. Herodotus gives an account of the battle but does not give any numbers and his account of the battles progress and outcome, confirms that which Xenophon gives later. After the battle all the Lydian lands were annexed by the Persian empire including the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis, the surviving troops holed up in the nearby city of Ephesus and Sardis, which was captured after a short siege. According to the Greek author Herodotus, Cyrus treated Croesus well and with respect after the battle, Siege of Sardis Davis, Paul K.100 Decisive Battles, From Ancient Times to the Present, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, PUBLISHER, ISBN1576070751, URL
Mount Spil, the ancient Mount Sipylus, is a mountain rich in legends and history in Manisa Province, Turkey, in what used to be the heartland of the Lydians and what is now Turkeys Aegean Region. Its summit towers over the city of Manisa as well as over the road between İzmir and Manisa. The Manisa relief, a full faced statue carved into a face is found near Mount Sipylus. It is traditionally identified as Cybele and dated to the late-Hittite or Luwian period in late second millennium BCE, the sculpture is known as Taş Suret in Turkish and sometimes referred to as such in international literature. The mountain was considered a favorite haunt of the mother goddess, according to an old myth the sculpture was carved by Broteas, Tantalus ugly son. Presumably located on or very near the mountain, the ruins were reportedly still visible around in the beginning of the Common Era. The same Tantalus is famed through Greek mythology by the accounts relating that he had cut up his son Pelops and his son Pelops is said to have migrated to the Peloponnese, named after him, and to have founded a kingdom.
Tantalus daughter was the tragic Niobe, who is associated with the Weeping Rock, in ancient times, Mount Sipylus, located in Lydia, rose above the site of Magnesia ad Sipylum, whose existence is traced back as far as the 5th century BCE. Magnesia was located along the Hermus River on the plain below and was the scene of the defeat of Antiochus III the Great by the Romans, the famous Weeping Rock is still widely visited. The mountain as a whole presents an area of forests and beautiful scenery. The mountain is a spot for camping, hiking. The highest point of the pass corresponds to a point very near the boundary between İzmir Province and Manisa Province, to bypass the steep and twisted Sabuncubeli Pass, the Sabuncubeli Tunnel is under construction. The 6,480 metres -long tunnel is expected to be opened end 2016, the Locust Plagues of Mount Sipylus
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
J. B. Bury
John Bagnell Bury, FBA, known as J. B. Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and he objected to the label Byzantinist explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire. He held the position of Erasmus Smiths Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin, Bury was born and raised in Clontibret, County Monaghan, where his father was Rector of the Anglican Church of Ireland. In 1893 he gained a chair in Modern History at Trinity College, in 1898 he was appointed Regius Professor of Greek, at Trinity, a post he held simultaneously with his history professorship. In 1902 he became Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University, at Cambridge, Bury became mentor to the medievalist Sir Steven Runciman, who commented that he had been Burys first, and only, student. At first the reclusive Bury tried to brush him off, when Runciman mentioned that he could read Russian, Bury gave him a stack of Bulgarian articles to edit, Bury was the author of the first truly authoritative biography of Saint Patrick.
Bury remained at Cambridge until his death at the age of 65 in Rome and he is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. He received the honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Glasgow in June 1901, Burys writings, on subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the 19th-century papacy, are at once scholarly and accessible to the layman. His two works on the philosophy of history elucidated the Victorian ideals of progress and rationality which undergirded his more specific histories and he led a revival of Byzantine history, which English-speaking historians, following Edward Gibbon, had largely neglected. He contributed to, and was himself the subject of an article in, with Frank Adcock and S. A. Cook he edited The Cambridge Ancient History, launched in 1919. John Bagnell Burys career shows his evolving thought process and his consideration of the discipline of history as a science, from his inaugural lecture as Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge in 1902 comes his public proclamation of history as a science and not as a branch of literature.
He stated, I may remind you that history is not a branch of literature, Burys final thoughts during his lecture reiterate his previous statement with a cementing sentence that claims. she is herself simply a science, no less and no more. In his book, History of Freedom of Thought he said the following, some people speak as if we were not justified in rejecting a theological doctrine unless we can prove it false. But the burden of proof does not lie upon the rejecter, some minds would be prepared to accept it, if it were reiterated often enough, through the potent force of suggestion. A. Bury at Project Gutenberg Works by or about J. B, Bury at Internet Archive Works by J. B
For the city in Sicily, formerly called Omphale, see Daedalium. In Greek mythology, Omphale was a daughter of Iardanus, either a king of Lydia, Diodorus Siculus provides the first appearance of the Omphale theme in literature, though Aeschylus was aware of the episode. The Greeks did not recognize her as a goddess, the etymological connection with omphalos. The theme, inherently a comic inversion of roles, is not fully illustrated in any surviving text from Classical Greece. Omphale even wore the skin of the Nemean Lion and carried Heracles olive-wood club, unfortunately no full early account survives, to supplement the vase-paintings. But it was during his stay in Lydia that Heracles captured the city of the Itones and enslaved them, killed Syleus who forced passersby to hoe his vineyard and he buried the body of Icarus and took part in the Calydonian Boar Hunt and the Argonautica. After some time, Omphale freed Heracles and took him as her husband and they travelled to the grove of Dionysus and planned to celebrate the rites of Bacchus at dawn.
Hercules slept alone in a bed covered with the clothes of Omphale, the Greek god Pan hoped to have his way with Omphale and crept naked into the bed of Hercules who threw Pan to the floor and laughed. Diodorus Siculus and Ovid in his Heroides mention a son named Lamos, but Bibliotheca gives the name of the son of Heracles and Omphale as Agelaus. Pausanias gives yet another name, mentioning Tyrsenus, son of Heracles by the Lydian woman and this Tyrsenus supposedly first invented the trumpet, and Tyrsenus son Hegeleus taught the Dorians with Temenus how to play the trumpet and first gave to Athena the surname Trumpet. The name Tyrsenus appears elsewhere as a variant of Tyrrhenus, whom many accounts bring from Lydia to settle the Tyrsenoi/Tyrrhenians/Etruscans in Italy, dionysius gives this as an alternate to other versions of Tyrrhenus ancestry. Herodotus refers to a Heraclid dynasty of kings who ruled Lydia, yet were not descended from Omphale, The Heraclides, descended from Heracles. However, Diodorus Siculus relates that when Heracles was still Omphales slave, before Omphale set Heracles free and married him, Heracles fathered a son and this fits, though in Herodotus the son of Heracles and the slave-girl of Iardanus is named Alcaeus.
We know from coins that this Tylon was a native Anatolian god equated with the Greek Heracles, Herodotus asserts that the first of the Heraclids to reign in Sardis was Agron, the son of Ninus, son of Belus, son of Agelaus, son of Heracles. But writers know a Ninus who is the king of Assyria. Their Ninus is the founder and eponym of the city of Ninus, referring to Ninevah, while Belus. An earlier genealogy may have made Agron, as a legendary first king of an ancient dynasty, to be a son of the mythical Ninus, son of Belus, strabo makes Atys father of Lydus, and Tyrrhenus to be one of the descendants of Heracles and Omphale. But all other accounts place Atys and Tyrrhenus brother of Lydus among the kings of Lydia
The Lydians were an Anatolian people living in Lydia, a region in western Anatolia, who spoke the distinctive Lydian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian group. Questions raised regarding their origins, as defined by the language and reaching well into the 2nd millennium BC, continue to be debated by language historians, the Lydian capital was at Sfard or Sardis. Lydian power came to an end with the fall of their capital in events subsequent to the Battle of Halys in 585 BC. Material in the way of historical accounts of themselves found to date is scarce, herodotus states that the Lydians were the first men whom we know who coined and used gold and silver currency. While this specifically refers to coinage in electrum, some think that coinage per se arose in Lydia. This was the practice for girls not born into nobility. Nevertheless, a breakthrough for the understanding of the Lydian language has not occurred yet. Presently available texts begin around the century and extend until the 2nd century BC, which leads one scholar to conclude, Lydians wrote early.
Several expressions on Lydians were in use in ancient Greek and in Latin languages. There are works of visual arts depicting Lydians and/or using as theme subject matters of Lydian history. Lydia Lydia Lydian Treasure Luvian language
Tantalus was a Greek mythological figure, most famous for his eternal punishment in Tartarus. He was made to stand in a pool of water beneath a tree with low branches, with the fruit ever eluding his grasp. He was the father of Pelops and Broteas, and was a son of Zeus, like other heroes in Greek mythology such as Theseus and the Dioskouroi, Tantalus had both a hidden, divine parent and a mortal one. Plato in the Cratylus interprets Tantalos as ταλάντατος talantatos, who has to much from τάλας talas wretched. R. S. P. Beekes has rejected an Indo-European interpretation, there may have been a historical Tantalus – possibly the ruler of an Anatolian city named Tantalís, the city of Tantalus, or of a city named Sipylus. Pausanias reports that there was a port under his name and a sepulchre of him by no means obscure, references to his son as Pelops the Lydian led some scholars to the conclusion that there would be good grounds for believing that he belonged to a primordial house of Lydia. Other versions name his father as Tmolus, the name of a king of Lydia and, like Sipylus, the location of Tantalus mortal mountain-fathers generally placed him in Lydia, and more seldom in Phrygia or Paphlagonia, all in Asia Minor.
Tantalus, through Pelops, was the progenitor of the House of Atreus, Tantalus was the great-grandfather of Agamemnon and Menelaus. The geographer Strabo, quoting earlier sources, states that the wealth of Tantalus was derived from the mines of Phrygia, near Mount Sipylus are archaeological features that have been associated with Tantalus and his house since Antiquity. A more famous monument, a statue carved in rock mentioned by Pausanias is a statue of Cybele. Further afield, based on a similarity between the names Tantalus and Hantili, it has suggested that the name Tantalus may have derived from that of these two Hittite kings. In mythology, Tantalus became one of the inhabitants of Tartarus, the association of Tantalus with the underworld is underscored by the names of his mother Plouto, and grandmother, Chthonia. Tantalus was initially known for having been welcomed to Zeus table in Olympus, there he is said to have misbehaved and stolen ambrosia and nectar to bring it back to his people, and revealed the secrets of the gods.
Most famously, Tantalus offered up his son, Pelops, as a sacrifice and he cut Pelops up, boiled him, and served him up in a banquet for the gods. Clotho, one of the three Fates, ordered by Zeus, brought the boy to life again, rebuilding his shoulder with one wrought of ivory made by Hephaestus, the revived Pelops grew to be an extraordinarily handsome youth. The god Poseidon took him to Mount Olympus to teach him to use chariots, Zeus threw Pelops out of Olympus due to his anger at Tantalus. The Greeks of classical times claimed to be horrified by Tantaluss doings and kinslaying were atrocities, Tantaluss punishment for his act, now a proverbial term for temptation without satisfaction, was to stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches. Whenever he reached for the fruit, the branches raised his intended meal from his grasp, whenever he bent down to get a drink, the water receded before he could get any
Croesus was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years, from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC. Croesus was renowned for his wealth and Pausanias noted that his gifts were preserved at Delphi, the fall of Croesus made a profound impact on the Greeks, providing a fixed point in their calendar. By the fifth century at least, J. A. S, evans has remarked, Croesus had become a figure of myth, who stood outside the conventional restraints of chronology.1, and Ctesias, whose account is an encomium of Cyrus. Croesus is a descendant of Gyges, of the Myrmnadae Clan, born about 595 BC, Croesus received tribute from the Ionian Greeks but was friendlier to the Hellenes than his father had been. Croesus is credited with issuing the first true gold coins with a standardised purity for general circulation, they were quite crude, and were made of electrum, a naturally occurring pale yellow alloy of gold and silver. The composition of these first coins was similar to alluvial deposits found in the silt of the Pactolus river, including some in the British Museum, were made from gold purified by heating with common salt to remove the silver.
King Croesus gold coins follow the first silver coins that had been minted by King Pheidon of Argos around 700 BC, in Greek and Persian cultures the name of Croesus became a synonym for a wealthy man. Croesus wealth remained proverbial beyond classical antiquity, in English, expressions such as rich as Croesus or richer than Croesus are used to great wealth to this day. According to Herodotus, Croesus encountered the Greek sage Solon and showed him his enormous wealth, Solon goes on to explain that Croesus cannot be the happiest man because the fickleness of fortune means that the happiness of a mans life cannot be judged until after his death. The interview is in the nature of a philosophical disquisition on the subject Which man is happy and it is legendary rather than historical. Thus the happiness of Croesus is presented as an exemplum of the fickleness of Tyche. The story was retold and elaborated by Ausonius in The Masque of the Seven Sages, in the Suda. According to Herodotus, Croesus desired to discover which of the well known oracles of his time gave trustworthy omens.
Then on the 100th day the envoys entered the oracle of Delphi in order to ask for the omen, the Pythia answered in verse, I know the sands number, I understand the mute and hear him though he does not speak. The smell has come to my senses of a hard-shelled tortoise Being cooked in bronze together with meat, There is bronze beneath it. The envoys wrote down the answer and returned to Sardis, Croesus read all the answers brought by his envoys from all the oracles. As soon as he read the answer of the Pythia he bowed, because he was persuaded that it was the only real oracle, along with that of Amphiaraus. Indeed, on the specific date Croesus had put pieces of a tortoise and lamb to boil together in a bronze cauldron, Croesus wanted to thank and take on his side the oracle of Delphi
Since Karl Otfried Müllers Die Dorier, I. ch. 3, their rise to dominance has been associated with a Dorian invasion, after the death of Heracles, his children, after many wanderings, found refuge from Eurystheus at Athens. Eurystheus, on his demand for their surrender being refused, attacked Athens and his brothers invaded Peloponnesus, but after a years stay were forced by a pestilence to quit. Desiring to reconquer his paternal inheritance, Hyllus consulted the Delphic oracle, which told him to wait for the third fruit, and enter Peloponnesus by a narrow passage by sea. Accordingly, after three years, Hyllus marched across the isthmus of Corinth to attack Atreus, the successor of Eurystheus and this second attempt was followed by a third under Cleodaeus and a fourth under Aristomachus, both unsuccessful. At last, Temenus and Aristodemus, the sons of Aristomachus and they received the answer that by the third fruit the third generation was meant, and that the narrow passage was not the isthmus of Corinth, but the straits of Rhium.
They accordingly built a fleet at Naupactus, but before they set sail, Aristodemus was struck by lightning and the fleet destroyed, because one of the Heracleidae had slain an Acarnanian soothsayer. The oracle, being consulted by Temenus, bade him offer an expiatory sacrifice and banish the murderer for ten years. On his way back to Naupactus, Temenus fell in with Oxylus, an Aetolian, according to another account, a mule on which Oxylus rode had lost an eye. The Heracleidae repaired their ships, sailed from Naupactus to Antirrhium, a decisive battle was fought with Tisamenus, son of Orestes, the chief ruler in the peninsula, who was defeated and slain. This conquest was traditionally dated eighty years after the Trojan War, the Heracleidae, who thus became practically masters of Peloponnesus, proceeded to distribute its territory among themselves by lot. Argos fell to Temenus, Lacedaemon to Procles and Eurysthenes, the sons of Aristodemus. The Heracleidae ruled in Lacedaemon until 221 BCE, but disappeared much earlier in the other countries and they represent a joint invasion of Peloponnesus by Aetolians and Dorians, the latter having been driven southward from their original northern home under pressure from the Thessalians.
It is noticeable that there is no mention of these Heraclidae or their invasion in Homer or Hesiod, herodotus speaks of poets who had celebrated their deeds, but these were limited to events immediately succeeding the death of Heracles. At Sparta, the Heraclids formed two dynasties ruling jointly, the Agiads and the Eurypontids, at Corinth the Heraclids ruled as the Bacchiadae dynasty before the aristocratic revolution, which brought a Bacchiad aristocracy into power. The Heracleidae are the subject of Euripides play, Heracleidae. As Eurysttheus prepared to attack, an oracle told Demophon that he would win if, macaria volunteered for the sacrifice and a spring was named the Macarian spring in her honor. Bibliotheca ii.8 Diodorus Siculus iv
The Cimmerians are an ancient people, first mentioned in the late 8th century BC in Assyrian records. Likely originating in the Pontic steppe and invading by means of the Caucasus, they probably assaulted Urartu and they were defeated by Assyrian forces under Sargon II in 705 and turned towards Anatolia, conquering Phrygia in 696/5. They reached the height of their power in 652 after taking Sardis, soon after 619, Alyattes of Lydia defeated them. There are no mentions of them in historical sources. The origin of the Cimmerians is unclear and they are mostly supposed to have been related to either Iranian or Thracian speaking groups which migrated under pressure of the Scythian expansion of the 9th to 8th century BC. This association is controversial, or at best conventional, and is not to be taken as a claim that specific artifacts are to be associated with the Cimmerians of the Greek or Assyrian record. The term Thraco-Cimmerian was first introduced by I, sir Henry Layards discoveries in the royal archives at Nineveh and Calah included Assyrian primary records of the Cimmerian invasion.
These records appear to place the Cimmerian homeland, south rather than north of the Black Sea, the first record of the Cimmerians appears in Assyrian annals in the year 714 BC. These describe how a people termed the Gimirri helped the forces of Sargon II to defeat the kingdom of Urartu and their original homeland, called Gamir or Uishdish, seems to have been located within the buffer state of Mannae. The geographer Ptolemy placed the Cimmerian city of Gomara in this region, the Assyrians recorded the migrations of the Cimmerians, as the former peoples king Sargon II was killed in battle against them while driving them from Persia in 705 BC. The Cimmerians were subsequently recorded as having conquered Phrygia in 696–695 BC, in 679 BC, during the reign of Esarhaddon of Assyria, they attacked the Assyrian colonies Cilicia and Tabal under their new ruler Teushpa. Esarhaddon defeated them near Hubushna, and they met defeat at the hands of his successor Ashurbanipal. A people named Kimmerior is described Homers Odyssey as living beyond the Oceanus, in a land of fog and darkness, at the edge of the world, according to Herodotus, the Cimmerians had been expelled from their homeland between the Tyras and Tanais rivers by the Scythians.
Unreconciled to Scythian advances, to burial in their ancestral homeland. The Cimmerian commoners buried the bodies along the river Tyras and fled across the Caucasus, Herodotus names a number of Cimmerian kings, including Tugdamme, and Sandakhshatra. In 654 BC or 652 BC – the exact date is unclear – the Cimmerians attacked the kingdom of Lydia, killing the Lydian king Gyges and causing great destruction to the Lydian capital of Sardis. They returned ten years during the reign of Gyges son Ardys II, the Cimmerian occupation of Lydia was brief, possibly due to an outbreak of plague. They were beaten back by Alyattes II of Lydia and this defeat marked the effective end of Cimmerian power
Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Armenian, Laz and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea.
This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή.
The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.
They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia