The Norse–Gaels were a people of mixed Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture. They emerged in the Viking Age, when Vikings who settled in Ireland and in Scotland adopted Gaelic culture and intermarried with Gaels; the Norse–Gaels dominated much of the Irish Sea and Scottish Sea regions from the 9th to 12th centuries. They founded the Kingdom of the Isles, the Kingdom of Dublin, the Lordship of Galloway, ruled the Kingdom of York for a time; the most powerful Norse–Gaelic dynasty were the Uí Ímair or House of Ivar. Over time, the Norse–Gaels became more Gaelicized and disappeared as a distinct group. However, they left a lasting influence in the Isle of Man and Outer Hebrides, where most placenames are of Norse–Gaelic origin. Several Scottish clans have Norse–Gaelic roots, such as Clan MacDonald, Clan MacDougall, Clan Ruaidhrí, Clan Morrison and Clan MacLeod; the elite mercenary warriors known as the gallowglass emerged from these Norse–Gaelic clans and became an important part of Irish warfare.
The Viking longship influenced the Gaelic birlinn or longa fada, which were used extensively until the 17th century. Norse–Gaelic surnames survive today and include MacIvor, MacAskill, MacAuley and Lawley; the meaning of Gall-Goídil is "foreigner Gaels" or "foreign Gaels" and although it can in theory mean any Gael of foreign origin, it was always used of Gaels with some kind of Norse identity. This term is subject to a large range of variations depending on chronological and geographical differences in the Gaelic language, e.g. Gall Gaidel, Gall Gaidhel, Gall Gaidheal, Gall Gaedil, Gall Gaedhil, Gall Gaedhel, Gall Goidel, Gall Ghaedheil etc; the modern term in Irish is Gall-Ghaeil or Gall-Ghaedheil, while the Scottish Gaelic is Gall-Ghàidheil. The Norse–Gaels called themselves Ostmen or Austmen, meaning East-men, a name preserved in a corrupted form in the Dublin area known as Oxmantown which comes from Austmanna-tún. In contrast, they called Gaels Vestmenn; the Norse–Gaels are sometimes called the Norse-Irish and Norse-Scots.
The Norse–Gaels originated in Viking colonies of Ireland and Scotland, the descendants of intermarriage between Norse immigrants and the Gaels. As early as the 9th century, many colonists intermarried with native Gaels and adopted the Gaelic language as well as many Gaelic customs. Many left their original worship of Norse gods and converted to Christianity, this contributed to the Gaelicisation. Gaelicised Scandinavians dominated the region of the Irish Sea until the Norman era of the 12th century, they founded long-lasting kingdoms, such as the Kingdoms of Man and Galloway, as well as taking control of the Norse colony at York. The Norse are first recorded in Ireland in 795. Sporadic raids continued until 832, after which they began to build fortified settlements throughout the country. Norse raids continued throughout the 10th century; the Norse established independent kingdoms in Dublin, Wexford and Limerick. These kingdoms did not survive the subsequent Norman invasions, but the towns continued to grow and prosper.
The term Ostmen was used between the 12th and 14th centuries by the English in Ireland to refer to Norse–Gaelic people living in Ireland. Meaning "the men from the east", the term came from the Old Norse word austr or "east"; the Ostmen were regarded as a separate group from the English and Irish and were accorded privileges and rights to which the Irish were not entitled. They lived in distinct localities, it was once thought that their settlement had been established by Norse–Gaels, forced out of Dublin by the English but this is now known not to be the case. Other groups of Ostmen lived in Waterford. Many were merchants or lived a rural lifestyle, pursuing fishing, craft-working and cattle raising, their roles in Ireland's economy made them valuable subjects and the English Crown granted them special legal protections. These fell out of use as the Ostmen assimilated into the English settler community throughout the 13th and 14th centuries; the Lords of the Isles, whose sway lasted until the 16th century, as well as many other Gaelic rulers of Scotland and Ireland, traced their descent from Norse–Gaels settlements in northwest Scotland, concentrated in the Hebrides.
The Hebrides are to this day known in Scottish Gaelic as Innse Gall, "the islands of foreigners". It is recorded in the Landnámabók that there were culdees in Iceland before the Norse; this appears to tie in with comments of Dicuil and is given further weight by recent archaeological discoveries. The settlement of Iceland and the Faroe Islands by the Norse would have included many Norse–Gael settlers, as well as slaves and servants, they were called Vestmen, the name is retained in Vestmanna in the Faroes and the Vestmannaeyjar off the Icelandic mainland. A number of Icelandic personal names are of Gaelic origin, including Njál, Brján, Kjartan and Kormakr. Patreksfjörður, an Icelandic village, was named after Saint Patrick. A number of placenames named after the papar exist on Iceland and the Faroes. According to so
Dyfnwal ab Owain
Dyfnwal ab Owain was a tenth-century King of Strathclyde. He was a son of Owain ap Dyfnwal, King of Strathclyde, seems to have been a member of the royal dynasty of Strathclyde. At some point in the ninth- or tenth century, the Kingdom of Strathclyde expanded southwards; as a result of this extension far beyond the valley of the River Clyde, the realm became known as the Kingdom of Cumbria. By 927, the kingdom seems to have reached as far south as the River Eamont. Dyfnwal appears to have reigned between the 970s, he is first attested in the 940s, when he is recorded associated with the ecclesiast Cathróe on the latter's journey to Continental Europe. At the midpoint of the decade, the Cumbrian kingdom was ravaged by the forces of Edmund, King of the English. Two of Dyfnwal's sons are said to have been blinded by the English, which could indicate that Dyfnwal had broken a pledge to his southern counterpart. One possibility is; the latter is recorded to have handed over control of the Cumbrian realm to Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, King of Alba.
How much authority the Scots enjoyed over the Cumbrian realm is uncertain. In 971, the reigning Cuilén mac Illuilb, King of Alba was slain by Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal. At some point after this act, Cuilén's eventual successor, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim, King of Alba, is recorded to have penetrated deep into Cumbrian territory as a retaliatory act; the following year, the reigning Edgar, King of the English held a remarkable assembly at Chester which numerous northern kings seem to have attended. Both Dyfnwal and his son, Máel Coluim, appear to have attended this assembly; the latter is styled King of the Cumbrians in the context of this meeting, which might indicate that Dyfnwal had abdicated the throne. Dyfnwal is recorded to have died in 975 whilst undertaking a pilgrimage to Rome. Quite when he gave up the throne is unknown. One possibility is. Another possibility is that the apparent retaliatory raid by Cináed marked the end of Dyfnwal's kingship, it is possible that he held on to power until 973 or 975.
In any event, Máel Coluim appears to have been succeeded by another son of Dyfnwal named Owain, recorded to have died in 1015. The Owain Foel, King of Strathclyde, attested in 1018, may well be a grandson of Dyfnwal. Dyfnwal is the eponym of Dunmail Raise in England, Cardonald, Dundonald/Dundonald Castle in Scotland. For hundreds of years until the late ninth century, the power centre of the Kingdom of Al Clud was the fortress of Al Clud. In 870, this British stronghold was seized by Irish-based Scandinavians, after which the centre of the realm seems to have relocated further up the River Clyde, the kingdom itself began to bear the name of the valley of the River Clyde, Ystrad Clud; the kingdom's new capital may have been situated in the vicinity of Partick. and Govan which straddle the River Clyde, The realm's new hinterland appears to have encompassed the valley and the region of modern Renfrewshire, which may explain this change in terminology. At some point after the loss of Al Clud, the Kingdom of Strathclyde appears to have undergone a period of expansion.
Although the precise chronology is uncertain, by 927 the southern frontier appears to have reached the River Eamont, close to Penrith. The catalyst for this southern extension may have been the dramatic decline of the Kingdom of Northumbria at the hands of conquering Scandinavians, the expansion may have been facilitated by cooperation between the Britons and the insular Scandinavians in the late ninth- or early tenth century. Over time, the Kingdom of Strathclyde came to be known as the Kingdom of Cumbria reflecting its expansion far beyond the Clyde valley. Dyfnwal was a son of King of Strathclyde; the names of the latter and of his apparent descendants suggest that they were indeed members of the royal kindred of Strathclyde. Sons of Dyfnwal seem to include Rhydderch, Máel Coluim, Owain; the name of Dyfnwal's son Máel Coluim is Gaelic, may be evidence of a marriage alliance between his family and the neighbouring royal Alpínid dynasty of the Scottish Kingdom of Alba. Dyfnwal's father is attested in 934.
Although Dyfnwal's father may well be identical to the Cumbrian monarch recorded to have fought at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937, the sources that note this king fail to identify him by name. Dyfnwal's own reign, may have stretched from about the 930s to the 970s. Dyfnwal is attested by the tenth-century Life of St Cathróe, which appears indicate that he was established as king by at least the 940s. According to this source, when Cathróe left the realm of Custantín mac Áeda, King of Alba at about this time, he was granted safe passage through the lands of the Cumbrians by Dyfnwal because the two men were related. Dyfnwal thereupon had Cathróe escorted through his kingdom to the frontier of the Scandinavian-controlled Northumbrian territory; the Life of St Cathróe locates this southern frontier to the civitas of Loida. One possibility is. If correct, this could indicate that the Cumbrian realm stretched towards this settlement, would further evince the general southward expansion of the kingdom.
Another possibility is that Loida refers to Leath Ward in Cumberland, or to a settlement in the Lowther valley, not from where the River Eamont flows. The Life of St Cathróe identifies Cathróe's parents as Bania. Whilst the former's name is Gaelic, the latter's name could be either Gaelic or British, Cathróe's own name could be either Pictish or British; the fact that Cathróe is stated to have been rela
Rhun ab Arthgal
Rhun ab Arthgal was a ninth-century King of Strathclyde. He is the only known son of King of Alt Clut. In 870, during the latter's reign, the fortress of Alt Clut was captured by Vikings, after which the Arthgal and his family may have been amongst the mass of prisoners taken back to Ireland. Two years Arthgal is recorded to have been slain at the behest of Causantín mac Cináeda, King of the Picts; the circumstances surrounding this regicide are unknown. The fact that Rhun seems to have been Causantín's brother-in-law could account for Causantín's interference in the kingship of Alt Clut; the Viking's destruction of the capital fortress of the Kingdom of Alt Clut appears to have brought about a reorientation of the kingdom towards the valley of the River Clyde. In consequence, the realm came to be known as the Kingdom of Strathclyde. Either Rhun or his father could have been the first kings of Strathclyde. In the years following the fall of Alt Clut, Rhun's realm may have endured periods of Pictish and Viking overlordship.
Despite his kinship with the Pictish king, there is reason to suspect that the two clashed at some point. It is unknown when he died. One possibility is that he fell with Causantín, who seems to have been killed warring against the Vikings in 876. Rhun's son, Eochaid, is recorded to have succeeded Causantín's successor, Áed mac Cináeda, King of the Picts, after 878. Whether Eochaid's succession reflects the end of Eochaid's reign and life is unknown. Rhun's patrilineal ancestry is evidenced by a pedigree preserved within a collection of tenth-century Welsh genealogical material known as the Harleian genealogies. According to this source, Rhun was a son of Arthgal ap Dyfnwal, King of Alt Clut, descended from a long line of kings of Alt Clut. Rhun is Arthgal's only known son. In about 849, the ninth- to twelfth-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports that Britons burned Dunblane, an ecclesiastical centre seated on the southern Pictish border; this attack took place during the reign of Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts, may have been overseen by either Arthgal or his father, Dyfnwal ap Rhydderch.
The razing of Dunblane could be evidence that the Kingdom of Alt Clut was in the process of extending its authority at the expense of the Pictish regime. If so, the British kings would appear to have seized upon the chaos wrought by contemporaneous Viking attacks upon the Picts. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, Rhun was married to a daughter of Cináed; this alliance may have been contracted between the Britons and Picts as a way of repairing international relations following the attack on Dunblane in 849. Rhun is the last listed king in the Harleian pedigree; this could indicate that the genealogy was compiled during his floruit—perhaps at the time of his marriage to his Alpínid wife, or upon the outset of his reign as king. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, a product of the marriage was a son named Eochaid; the twelfth-century Prophecy of Berchán describes Eochaid as "the son of the woman from Dún Guaire". The fact that ninth-century Historia Brittonum identifies Bamburgh as Din Guoaroy could indicate that Dún Guaire too refers to Bamburgh.
Another possibility is that Dún Guaire refers to one of two similarly-named sites in the Hebrides, In any event, the association of Rhun's wife with the fort could be evidence that she had been married. In 870, during the reign of Rhun's father, the fortress of Alt Clut was captured and destroyed by the insular Scandinavian kings Amlaíb and Ímar, following a naval blockade of four months. In the following year, the twelfth-century Chronicon Scotorum, the fifteenth- to sixteenth-century Annals of Ulster, the eleventh-century Fragmentary Annals of Ireland reveal that Amlaíb and Ímar returned to Ireland with a fleet of two hundred ships, a mass of captives composed of English and Picts; the exportation of these people to Ireland is attested by Annales Xantenses, a ninth-century German source. The captives could have been meant for ransom, or may have been intended for the Dublin slave market, it is possible that his family were amongst those imprisoned. Arthgal died in 872; the Annals of Ulster, Chronicon Scotorum reveal that he was slain at the behest of Causantín mac Cináeda, King of the Picts.
If Rhun succeeded Arthgal -- as seems -- it is uncertain. Although the circumstances surrounding Arthgal's assassination are unknown, the familial relationship between Causantín and Rhun could be evidence that Arthgal's demise was orchestrated to allow Rhun gain the throne. One possibility is that Rhun had been exiled from his father's realm, had been living in exile at the Pictish royal court when his father's realm was overcome by Amlaíb and Ímar; this could mean. Conversely, if there was no strife between Rhun and Arthgal, Causantín's actions against the latter may have been carried out in the context of an intrusive and aggressive neighbour. Arthgal's elimination may have been carried out in the context of an attempt by Causantín to capitalise upon the political turmoil wrought by the Viking onslaught. Another possibility is that, following the conquest of Alt Clut, Arthgal ruled as a puppet king under Amlaíb and Ímar; the Vikings utilised royal puppets in the conquered kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia.
If so, it could explain Causantín's role in Arthgal's demise, could explain why his brother-in-law succeeded to the throne. In any event, Arthgal's elimination at Causantín's instigation would appear to have removed the latter of neighbouring adversary, would have increase
Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal
Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal was an eminent tenth-century Cumbrian who slew Cuilén mac Illuilb, King of Alba in 971. Rhydderch was a son of Dyfnwal ab Owain, King of Strathclyde, could have ruled as King of Strathclyde. Rhydderch appears on record in about 971, when he is said to have killed Cuilén mac Illuilb, King of Alba, a man said to have abducted and raped Rhydderch's daughter. Following Cuilén's death, the Cumbrian Kingdom of Strathclyde endured an invasion by Cuilén's successor, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim, King of Alba; this Scottish attack could have been a retaliatory raid for Rhydderch's actions, may have been undertaken in the context of restoring Scottish authority over the Cumbrian realm. If Rhydderch ruled as king it must have been before 973, when Dyfnwal's son, Máel Coluim, is accorded the title king. Rhydderch flourished during the reign of King of Alba; the latter's undisputed reign as King of Alba seems to have spanned from 966 to 971, appears to have been uneventful. Cuilén's death in 971 is noted by several sources.
According to the ninth- to twelfth-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, he and his brother, were killed by Britons. The fifteenth- to sixteenth-century Annals of Ulster reports that Cuilén fell in battle against Britons, whilst the twelfth-century Chronicon Scotorum specifies that Britons killed him within a burning house; the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba locates Cuilén's fall to "Ybandonia". Although this might refer to Abington in South Lanarkshire, a more location may be preserved by the twelfth- to thirteenth-century Chronicle of Melrose; this source states that Cuilén was killed at "Loinas", a placename which seems to refer to either Lothian or the Lennox, both plausible locations for an outbreak of hostilities between Scots and Britons. In any event, the account of Cuilén's demise preserved by the twelfth-century Prophecy of Berchán is somewhat different. According to this source, Cuilén met his end whilst "seeking a foreign land", which could indicate that he was attempting to lift taxes from the Cumbrians.
The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba identifies Cuilén's killer as Rhydderch, describing him as the son of a man named Dyfnwal, further reports that Rhydderch slew Cuilén for the sake of his own daughter. The thirteenth-century Verse Chronicle, the Chronicle of Melrose, the fourteenth-century Chronica gentis Scotorum identify Cuilén's killer as Rhydderch, the father of an abducted daughter raped by the king. There is reason to suspect that Rhydderch was a son of King of Strathclyde. Although there is no specific evidence that Rhydderch was himself a king, the fact that Cuilén was involved with his daughter, coupled with the fact that his warband was evidently strong enough to overcome that of Cuilén, suggests that Rhydderch must have been a man of eminent standing. At about the time of Cuilén's demise, a granddaughter of Dyfnwal could well have been in her teens or twenties, it is possible that the recorded events refer to a visit by the King of Alba to the court of the King of Strathclyde; such a visit may have taken place in the context of Cuilén exercising his lordship over the Britons.
His dramatic death suggests that the Scots overstepped the bounds of hospitality, could indicate that Rhydderch was compelled to fire his own hall. Such killings are not unknown in Icelandic and Irish sources; the Lothian placename of West Linton appears as Lyntun Ruderic in the twelfth century. The fact that the place name seems to refer to a man named Rhydderch could indicate that this was the place where Cuilén and Eochaid met their end. Another possible scenario concerns the record of Cuilén's father's seizure of Edinburgh preserved by the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, a conquest which would have included at least part of Lothian; the records that appear to locate Cuilén's fall to Lothian, could indicate that he was in the midst of exercising overlordship of this debatable land when Rhydderch seized the chance to exact revenge upon the abductor of his daughter. Rhydderch is not heard of again. Cuilén was succeeded by a fellow member of the Alpínid dynasty. One of Cináed's first acts as King of Alba was evidently an invasion of the Kingdom of Strathclyde.
This campaign could well have been a retaliatory response to Cuilén's killing, carried out in the context of crushing a British affront to Scottish authority. Whatever the case, Cináed's invasion ended in defeat, a fact which coupled with Cuilén's killing reveals that the Cumbrian realm was indeed a power to be reckoned with. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, Cináed constructed some sort of fortification on the River Forth at the strategically located Fords of Frew near Stirling. One possibility is that this engineering project was undertaken in the context of limiting Cumbrian incursions. Whilst it is conceivable that Rhydderch could have succeeded Dyfnwal by the time of Cuilén's fall, another possibility is that Dyfnwal was still the king, that Cináed's strike into Cumbrian territory was the last conflict of Dyfnwal's reign. In fact, Dyfnwal's son Máel Coluim seems to have taken up the Cumbrian kingship by 973, as evidenced by the latter's act of apparent submission to Edgar, King of the English that year.
This could indicate that, if Rhydderch was indeed a son of Dyfnwal, he was either either dead or unable to reign as king by 973. Rhydderch's name appears in many variations in surviving sources. Whilst some of these names appear to be forms of Rhydderch, an established British name, others are forms of Amdarch, an otherwise unknown name that may be the result of te
Adomnán or Adamnán of Iona known as Eunan, was an abbot of Iona Abbey, statesman, canon jurist, saint. He was the author of the most important book on the life of his cousin St Columba and the promulgator of the Law of Adomnán or "Law of Innocents". Adomnán was born a relative on his father's side of Columba, he was the son of Rónán mac Tinne by Ronat, a woman from the Northern Uí Néill lineage known as the Cenél nÉnda. Adomnán's birthplace was a town in County Donegal in Ulster; some of Adomnán's childhood anecdotes seem to confirm at least an upbringing in this area. It is thought that Adomnán may have begun his monastic career at a Columban monastery called Druim Tuamma, but any Columban foundation in northern Ireland or Dál Riata is a possibility, although Durrow is a stronger possibility than most, he joined the Columban familia around the year 640. Some modern commentators believe that he could not have come to Iona until sometime after the year 669, the year of the accession of Fáilbe mac Pípáin, the first abbot of whom Adomnán gives any information.
However, Richard Sharpe argues that he came to Iona during the abbacy of Ségéne. Whenever or wherever Adomnán received his education, Adomnán attained a level of learning rare in Early Medieval Northern Europe, it has been suggested by Alfred Smyth that Adomnán spent some years teaching and studying at Durrow, while this is not accepted by all scholars, it remains a strong possibility. In 679, Adomnán became the ninth abbot of Iona after Columba. Abbot Adomnán enjoyed a friendship with King Aldfrith of Northumbria. In 684, Aldfrith had been staying with Adomnán in Iona. In 686, after the death of Aldfrith's brother King Ecgfrith of Northumbria and Aldfrith's succession to the kingship, Adomnán was in the Kingdom of Northumbria on the request of King Fínsnechta Fledach of Brega in order to gain the freedom of sixty Gaels, captured in a Northumbrian raid two years before. Adomnán, in keeping with Ionan tradition, made several more trips to the lands of the English during his abbacy, including one the following year.
It is sometimes thought, after the account given by Bede, that it was during his visits to Northumbria, under the influence of Abbot Ceolfrith, that Adomnán decided to adopt the Roman dating of Easter, agreed some years before at the Synod of Whitby. Bede implies that this led to a schism at Iona, whereby Adomnán became alienated from the Iona brethren and went to Ireland to convince the Irish of the Roman dating. Jeffrey Wetherill sees Adomnán's long absences from Iona as having led to something of an undermining of his authority, it is clear that Adomnán did adopt that Roman dating, moreover did argue the case for it in Ireland. It is believed that in 697, Adomnán promulgated the Cáin Adomnáin, meaning the "Canons" or "Law of Adomnán"; the Cáin Adomnáin was promulgated amongst a gathering of Irish, Dál Riatan and Pictish notables at the Synod of Birr. It is a set of laws designed, among other things, to guarantee the safety and immunity of various types of non-combatants in warfare. For this reason it is known as the "Law of Innocents".
Adomnán's most important work, the one for which he is best known, is the Vita Columbae, a hagiography of Iona's founder, Saint Columba written between 697 and 700. The format borrows to some extent from Sulpicius Severus' Life of Saint Martin of Tours. Adomnán adapted traditional forms of Christian biography to group stories about Columba thematically rather than chronologically, present Columba as comparable to a hero in Gaelic mythology. Wetherill suggests that one of the motivations for writing the Vita was to offer Columba as a model for the monks, thereby improve Adomnán's standing as abbot; the biography is by far the most important surviving work written in early medieval Scotland, is a vital source for our knowledge of the Picts, as well as a great insight into the life of Iona and the early medieval Gaelic monk. However, the Vita was not his only work. Adomnán wrote the treatise De Locis Sanctis, an account of the great Christian holy places and centres of pilgrimage. Adomnán got much of his information from a Frankish bishop called Arculf, who had visited the Egypt, Rome and the Holy Land, visited Iona afterwards.
Adomnán gave a copy to the scholar-king Aldfrith of Northumbria. Attributed to him is a good deal of Gaelic poetry, including a celebration of the Pictish King Bridei's victory over the Northumbrians at the Battle of Dun Nechtain. Adomnán died in 704, became a saint in Scottish and Irish tradition, as well as one of the most important figures in either Scottish or Irish history, his death and feast day are commemorated on 23 September. Along with St. Columba, he is joint patron of the Diocese of Raphoe, which encompasses the bulk of County Donegal in the north west of Ireland; the Cathedral of St. Eunan and St. Columba, the Catholic cathedral in that diocese, is in Letterkenny. In his native Donegal, the saint has given his name to several institutions and buildings including: The Cathedral of St. Eunan and St Columba in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.
Stirlingshire or the County of Stirling is a historic county and registration county of Scotland. Its county town is Stirling, it borders Perthshire to the north and West Lothian to the east, Lanarkshire to the south, Dunbartonshire to the south-west. The County Council of Stirling was granted a coat of arms by Lord Lyon King of Arms on 29 September 1890; the design of the arms commemorated the Scottish victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in the county. On the silver saltire on blue of St Andrew was placed the rampant red lion from the royal arms of Scotland. Around this were placed two caltraps and two spur-rowels recalling the use of the weapons against the English cavalry. On the abolition of the Local Government council in 1975, the arms were regranted to the Local Government Stirling District Council, they were regranted a second time in 1996 to the present Local Government Stirling Council, with the addition of supporters. In 1130, one of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland, was created a Royal burgh by King David I.
On 11 September 1297, the forces of Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeated the combined English forces of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, Hugh de Cressingham near Stirling, on the River Forth, at the Battle of Stirling Bridge during the First War of Scottish Independence. On 22 July 1298 the Battle of Falkirk saw the defeat of William Wallace by King Edward I of England. On 24 June 1314 the Battle of Bannockburn at Bannockburn, was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence, it was one of the decisive battles of the First War of Scottish Independence. On 11 June 1488 the Battle of Sauchieburn was fought at the side of Sauchie Burn, a stream about two miles south of Stirling, Scotland; the battle was fought between the followers of King James III of Scotland and a large group of rebellious Scottish nobles including Alexander Home, 1st Lord Home, nominally led by the king's 15-year-old son, Prince James, Duke of Rothesay. In 1645 the Covenanter army under General William Baillie formed near Banton for their engagement with the Royalist forces under the command of Montrose at the Battle of Kilsyth, Kilsyth, on August 15, 1645.
The Battle of Falkirk Muir on 17 January 1746 saw the Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart defeat a government army commanded by Lieutenant General Henry Hawley. In 2001, according to the website of the General Register Office for Scotland, there were 871 civil parishes. List of civil parishes in Scotland Civil parishes are still used for some statistical purposes, separate census figures are published for them; as their areas have been unchanged since the 19th century this allows for comparison of population figures over an extended period of time. Following the boundary changes caused by the Local Government Act 1889, Stirlingshire contained the following civil parishes: The Royal Burgh of Stirling The Burgh of Bridge of Allan The Burgh of Denny and Dunipace The Burgh of Falkirk The Burgh of Grangemouth The Burgh of Kilsyth In 1930 Falkirk and Stirling became large burghs, taking over some of the duties of the county council; the remaining four burghs became "small burghs", with limited powers.
Some Stirlingshire towns listed in the Registers of Land Register Counties. Until the 1890s the county had two small exclaves: part of the parish of Logie, surrounded by Perthshire, the parish of Alva, locally in Clackmannanshire; the Perthshire part of Logie was added to Stirlingshire. In 1894 parish Local Government councils were established for the civil parishes, replacing the previous parochial boards; the Local Government parish councils were in turn superseded by Local Government district councils in 1930. In 1930 the parishes ceased to be used for local government purposes, the landward area of the county was divided into eight Local Government districts; these Local Government districts were abolished in 1975. County of Stirling Central No.1 County of Stirling Central No.2 County of Stirling Eastern No.1 County of Stirling Eastern No.2 County of Stirling Eastern No.3 County of Stirling Western No.1 County of Stirling Western No.2 County of Stirling Western No.3 In 1975 most of Stirlingshire was included in the Local Government Central Region, with Kilsyth and surrounding area becoming part of the Local Government Strathclyde Region.
Since 1996 the area has been part of the Local Government council areas of: Stirling East Dunbartonshire Falkirk North Lanarkshire Following the Act of Union, Stirlingshire returned members to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1708. The Royal Burgh of Stirling formed part of the Stirling burghs constituency along with burghs in Fife and Perthshire; the Burgh of Falkirk formed part of Falkirk Burghs, along with burghs in Lanarkshire and Linlithgowshire. The remainder of the county returned a single member as the parliamentary county of Stirlingshire; the detached parish of Alva was annexed to the constituency of Clackmannanshire and Kinross by the Representation of the People Act 1832. In 1918 seats in the House of Commons were redistribu