List of landslides
This list of landslides is a list of notable landslides and mudflows divided into sections by date and type. This list is very incomplete as there is no central catalogue for landslides, although some for individual countries/areas do exist. Volumes of landslides are recorded in the scientific literature using cubic kilometres (km3) for the largest and millions of cubic metres (normally given the non-standard shortening of MCM) for most events.
|21–22 Ma||Southwest Utah, USA||Markagunt gravity slide||37.7N||112.83W||~1700–2000 km3|||
|48 Ma||Heart Mountain, Wyoming||Heart Mountain slide||~2000 km3||Mostly eroded now|||
|Late Pleistocene||British Columbia||Cheekye Fan||~0.15 km3||Collapse of the western flank of Mount Garibaldi|||
|≈ 10,000 BCE||Saidmarreh, Iran||Saidmarreh landslide||33N||47.65E||20 km3|||
|10,000 BP||Switzerland||Flims Rockslide||9 km3|||
|~2800 BCE||Zion Canyon, Utah, United States||0.286 km3||Landslide created the currently level floor of Zion Canyon inside Zion National Park.|||
|~1920 BCE||Jishi Gorge, Qinghai Province, China||0.040–0.080 km3||Landslide dammed the Yellow River, breach of dam may have caused the Great Flood|||
|≈ 200 BCE||North Island, New Zealand||2.2 km3||Dammed Lake Waikaremoana|||
|ca. 1.0 Ma||off northeastern Oahu||Nu'uanu Slide||7,500 km3||Massive debris field: 25,000 km2|||
|Less than 2.6 Ma||off South Africa||Agulhas Slide||20,000 km3||The largest so far described|||
|ca. 170,000 BP||off North Island, New Zealand||Ruatoria debris avalanche||3,000 km3|||
|ca. 8,000 BP||Norwegian Sea||Storegga Slide||64.87||1.3||3,500 km3||Triggered a large tsunami that swept over the Shetland and Orkney Islands|||
|18 Nov 1929||Grand Banks of Newfoundland||1929 Grand Banks earthquake||44.54||−56.01||200 km3||Broke 12 submarine communications cables, while the tsunami killed 28 people on the Burin Peninsula.|
Pre-20th-century historic landslides
|25 Nov 1248||Mont Granier, France||45.46||5.93||1000+||Destroyed five villages.|
|About 1560||Ozette, Washington||Ozette Indian Village Archeological Site||48.17||-124.73||Partially buried the village at Ozette|||
|1100 - 1760||North Bonneville, Washington||Bridge of the Gods (land bridge)||45.66||-121.94||Possibly linked to the 1700 Cascadia earthquake|||
|2 Sep 1806||Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland||Goldau Rockslide||47.05||8.55||40 MCM||457||Destroyed four villages and caused a tsunami in Lake Lauerz|||
|24 Dec 1839||Lyme Regis, Dorset||The Undercliff||One of a series of slumps|
|1855–1856||British Columbia||Collapse of The Barrier||30 MCM|||
|1881||Qiaojia County, Yunnan, China||Shigaodi Landslide||530 MCM||Formed dam on Jinsha River|||
|19 Sep 1889||Cap Diamant, Quebec||Québec rockslide||46.485||−71.21||>40|||
|29 Apr 1903||Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada||Frank Slide||49.59||−114.39||30 MCM||~70|||
|18 Feb 1911||Usoy, Tajikistan||Usoi Dam||2 km3||54||Triggered by M 7.4 earthquake. The rockslide dammed the Murgab River, impounding 65-km- long Lake Sarez, which presently still exists.|||
|1914||Neuquén and Mendoza, Argentina||Rio Barrancas & Rio Colorado debris flow||2 MCM||190–300||Two small towns were devastated, and numerous ranches and farms destroyed along a 60-km- long valley. Length of flow: 300 km|||
|19 May 1919||Kelud, East Java, Indonesia||Kelut Lahars||5110||Lahars caused 5,110 deaths, and destroyed or damaged 104 villages. Length 185 km.|||
|16 Dec 1920||Haiyuan County, Ningxia, China||1920 Haiyuan earthquake||>100,000||Loess flows and landslides over an area of 50,000 km². Failures in loess caused extreme fissuring, landslide dams, and buried villages.|||
|1920||Veracruz, Mexico||Rio Huitzilapan debris flows||est. 600–870||Debris flows destroyed village of Barranca Grande, and were 40 to 65 m deep. Debris flows extended >40 km. Triggered by M~6.5 earthquake.|||
|1921||Almaty, Kazakhstan||Alma-Ata Debris Flows||~500||A debris flow in the Valley of Alma-Atinka River destroyed the town of Alma-Ata.|||
|26 Mar 1924||Amalfi Coast, Italy||~100||A series of major landslides after 18 hours of heavy rain|||
|23 Jun 1925||Gros Ventre Wilderness, Wyoming||Gros Ventre landslide||43.62||110.55||38 MCM||6 (when the dam failed in 1927)||Blocked the Gros Ventre River, forming a 70-metre-high (230 ft) dam|||
|9 Mar 1929||Arthur's Pass, South Island||The Falling Mountain landslide||−42.89||171.68||66 MCM||Very rapid rock avalanche triggered by the 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake|||
|25 Aug 1933||Diexi, Mao County, Sichuan, China||1933 Diexi earthquake||150 MCM||~3100||The largest landslide formed a 255-metre-high (837 ft) landslide dam on the Min River. This landslide killed all but one of the 577 people in the town of Deixi. The dam then overtopped, causing a flood and 2,500 deaths.|||
|5 Jul 1938||Kwansai, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan||~1000||Many landslides occurred on the slopes of Mount Rokko, 130,000 homes damaged or destroyed by landslides and floods.|||
|13 Dec 1941||Huaraz, Ancash, Peru||Huaraz debris flow||>10 MCM||4,000–6,000||Caused by rupture of a moraine dam impounding a lake, temporarily dammed the Santa River, after 2 days that failed and the flood swept down the valley to the coast.|||
|16 Aug 1945||Mantaro Valley, Peru||Kuntur Sinqa rockslide||5.5 MCM||none from landslide||The rockslide formed a 100-metre-high (330 ft) dam at Rio Mantaro, which failed after 73 days, causing a flood.|||
|19 Dec 1945||Alcalá del Júcar, Albacete, Spain||16||Worst rockfall to hit the municipality in the 20th century|||
|18 Sep 1948||Assam, India||Guwahati landslide||~500||Triggered by heavy rain|||
|10 Jul 1949||Gharm Oblast, Tajikistan||Khait landslide, Yasman valley flowslide||39.17||70.90||75 MCM
~4,000(7,200 for all the landslides)
|Triggered by the 1949 Khait earthquake, largest of several landslides|||
|1953||Wakayama Prefecture, Japan||Arida River landslides||1,046||Multiple slides due to typhoon. Many landslide dams were formed and subsequently failed in the Arid-Kawa valley.|||
|1953||Minamiyamashiro, Sōraku District, Kyoto, Japan||Minamiyamashiro landslides||336 dead or missing||5,122 homes were destroyed or badly damaged by landslides and floods.|||
|12 Jul 1954||Media Luna, Colombia||Santa Elena landslide||>100||Mudflow triggered by heavy rain|||
|26 Oct 1954||Salerno, Amalfi Coast||≈ 300||504 mm rain fell in 16 hours, causing soil slides & debris flows|||
|1958||Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan||Kanogawa landslides||1,094||19,754 homes were destroyed or badly damaged.|||
|8 Jul 1958||Lituya Bay, Alaska, United States||1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami||30 MCM||2||Caused by M 7.5 earthquake, the landslide caused a 524m-high megatsunami in Lituya Bay.|||
|22 May 1960||Riñihue Lake, Chile||Riñihuazo||−39.84||−72.29||≈ 40 MCM||A series of landslides triggered by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, blocked outflow of Riñihue Lake, causing it to rise more than 20 metres, actions taken to lower the water level prevented repeat of a disastrous flood after the great 1575 earthquake.|||
|10 Jan 1962||Ranrahirca, Peru||1962 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche||−9.12||−77.6||13 MCM||4,000 – 5,000||An avalanche of ice and rock triggered by collapse of part of a hanging glacier|||
|9 Oct 1963||Longarone, Italy||Vajont landslide||46.27||12.33||270 MCM||≈ 2,000||Landslide caused by heavy rains and drawdown of the Vajont Dam reservoir. Casualties and damage caused by tsunami generated by landslide into reservoir.|||
|27 Mar 1964||Seward, Alaska, United States||1964 Alaska earthquake||211 MCM at Seward, 9.6 MCM at Turnagain Heights||106 from tsunami caused by Seward landslide||M 9.2 earthquake caused submarine landslide at Seward, and large landslides in Anchorage|||
|9 Jan 1965||British Columbia||Hope Slide||49.40||121.26||48 MCM||4||Triggered by a small earthquake|||
|28 Mar 1965||El Cobre, Chile||El Cobre landslide||>200||Shaking from a magnitude 7.1 earthquake caused failure of two tailings dams at the El Soldado copper mine, the resulting flow destroyed the town of El Cobre.|||
|1965||Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan, China||Pufu Landslide||450 MCM||Created a dam on the Pufuguo Stream, which later failed|||
|21 Oct 1966||Aberfan, Wales||Aberfan disaster||51.69||3.35||144||Collapse of an unstable colliery spoil-tip built over a series of springs, was triggered by heavy rain, killing nearly half the children at the village school.|
|18 Feb 1967||Laranjeiras, Rio de Janeiro||−22.97||−43.20||110||Worst single event in a series of landslides caused by very heavy rain in the area around Rio de Janeiro in the summers of 1966 and 1967. A high-velocity debris avalanche struck three buildings, two of them apartment buildings. The preceding rainfall fell at up to 100 mm per hour.|||
|18 Mar 1967||Caraguatatuba, Brazil||−23.85||−46.63||7.6 MCM||120||Followed heavy rain, 420 mm /24 h|||
|9 Jul 1967||Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan||34.25||132.57||159||Heavy rain from Typhoon Billie caused flooding and many landslides, destroying 352 buildings and damaging 551 roads|||
|18 Aug 1968||Hida River, Gero, Japan||35.45||137.05||740 MCM (official estimated)||104||Triggered by a rainstorm, this debris flow swept two buses off the road, where they were stopped because of an earlier landslide|||
|3–5 Oct 1968||Darjeeling, India||'thousands'||Floods caused by rainfall of 500–1,000 mm, triggered many landslides, a 60-kilometre-long (37 mi) highway was cut in 92 places|||
|19–20 Aug 1969||Nelson County, Virginia, United States||150 (includes deaths from flooding)||Remnants of Hurricane Camille gave at least 710 mm of rain in about 8 hours, triggering numerous debris flows|||
|31 May 1970||Yungay, Peru||1970 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche||−9.12||−77.6||50–100 MCM||>22,000||Triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake, the mass travelled 14.5 km at an average velocity of about 300 km/h and buried Yungay|||
|18 Mar 1971||Chungar, Peru||Chungar avalanche and tsunami||−11.12||−76.53||0.1 MCM||400–600||A rock avalanche from a limestone outcrop fell into Yanawayin Lake causing a wave that devastated a mining camp|||
|4 May 1971||Saint-Jean-Vianney, Quebec, Canada||Saint-Jean-Vianney landslide||48.47||−71.22||6.9 MCM||31||This slide occurred in quick clay following heavy rain, destroying 41 homes|||
|6 Jul 1972||Amakusa, Japan||Amakusa disaster||115||Multiple slope failures caused by heavy rainfall|||
|12–13 Jul 1972||Obara, Shikoku, Japan||Obara landslides||64||218 mm of rain in 5 hours triggered many landslides|||
|Apr 1974||Junín Region, Peru||Mayunmarca Landslide||1.0 to 1.6 km3||450||Rockslide dammed Río Mantaro. Slide velocity estimated at 120–140 km/hr|||
|22 Jul 1975||Mount Meager massif, British Columbia, Canada||Devastation Glacier landslide||0.013 km3||4||Triggered by the collapse of a glacially debuttressed slope, descended Devastation Creek.|||
|30 Nov 1977||Tuve, Gothenburg, Sweden||Tuve landslide||57.75||11.94||3–4 MCM||9||The most severe landslide in the modern history of Sweden, triggered by heavy rain|||
|29 Apr 1978||Rissa, Norway||Rissa landslide||63.55||9.94||5–6 MCM||1||Quick clay flowed suddenly into Botn lake, causing a small tsunami on the opposite shore|||
|8 Aug 1979||Abbotsford, Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand||1979 Abbotsford landslip||−45.897||170.435||5 MCM||0||Heavy rain triggered a landslide on an unstable slope, made worse by sand quarrying at the base of the slope, destroying 69 houses|||
|18 May 1980||Mount St. Helens, Washington, United States||1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens||46.200278||−122.186667||2.9 km3||57||The largest landslide in recorded history. Unplugged the volcanic vent, triggering the eruption. Deaths were from both the landslide and the eruption.|||
|Apr 1983||Thistle, Utah, United States||Thistle, Utah landslide||40.00||-111.50||~15 MCM||0||Costliest landslide in United States history; damage estimated at $200–400 million (1983 dollars). Landslide formed lake over 160 feet (49 m) deep before draining.|||
|5 Oct 1985||Portugués Urbano district, Ponce, Puerto Rico||Mameyes landslide||129||120 houses destroyed, greatest death toll in North American history from a single landslide.|||
|13 Nov 1985||Armero, Tolima Department, Colombia||Armero tragedy||−5.03||−74.88||23,000||A minor eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano caused melting of its ice cap. This released a series of lahars, volcanic mudflows, that traveled at speeds of up to 50 km/h down the slopes of the volcano. These lahars swiftly moved into valleys, merging to form larger flows, one of which destroyed the town of Armero.|||
|28 Jul 1987||Valtellina, Lombardy, Italian Alps||Val Pola landslide||34 MCM||29||Triggered by rapid erosion at the base of a mountain slope, created a wave that travelled 2.7 km upstream|||
|3–5 Jun 1993||Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England||Holbeck Hall Hotel landslide||~0.5 MCM||0||Classic rotational failure along sea cliffs, resulting court case set important precedent in English law|||
|21 Oct 1993||Pantai Remis, Perak, Malaysia||Pantai Remis landslide||0||Slope failure of an open pit tin mine near the sea resulted in forming a new cove measuring approximately 0.5 by 0.5 km.|
|4 Mar 1995||La Conchita, California, United States||La Conchita Landslide of 1995||1.3 MCM||0|||
|30 Jul 1997||Thredbo, New South Wales, Australia||1997 Thredbo landslide||18||A leaking water pipe caused a slope failure that destroyed a ski lodge|||
|1998–1999||Kelso, Washington, United States||Aldercrest-Banyon Landslide||0||Slow-moving landslide which resulted in the condemnation of 137 houses, and $40 million in damage.|||
|14–16 Dec 1999||Vargas, Venezuela||Vargas tragedy||30,000||Caused by a heavy storm that deposited 911 mm of rain in a few days|||
|12 Jul 2000||Mumbai, India||2000 Mumbai landslide||19.09||72.90||78||Caused by land erosion following heavy rains and flooding|||
21st century landslides
|9 Nov 2001||Amboori, Kerala, India||40||Supposedly worst landslide in Kerala state's history.|||
|26 Mar 2004||Mount Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi, Indonesia||200–300 MCM||32||Landslide caused by collapse of caldera wall|||
|10 Jan 2005||La Conchita, California, United States||2005 La Conchita landslide||200,000 m3||10||Remobilization of colluvium from 1995 slide into a debris flow.|||
|17 Feb 2006||Southern Leyte, Philippines||2006 Southern Leyte mudslide||15 MCM||1126||Rock-debris avalanche triggered by ten-day period of heavy rain|||
|11 Jun 2007||Chittagong, Bangladesh||2007 Chittagong mudslides||123||Series of landslides caused by illegal hillside cutting and monsoon rains|||
|6 Sep 2008||Cairo, Egypt||2008 Cairo landslide||119||Rockfall from cliffs, individual boulders up to 70 tonnes|||
|9 Aug 2009||Siaolin Village, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||Siaolin mudslide||30–45 MCM||439–600||Resulted from Typhoon Morakot.|||
|4 Jan 2010||Attabad, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan||Hunza Valley landslide||30 MCM||20||Formed Attabad Lake by damming Hunza River, blocked Karakoram Highway|||
|20 Feb 2010||Madeira Island, Portugal||2010 Madeira floods and mudslides||42|||
|1 Mar 2010||Bududa District, Uganda||2010 Ugandan landslide||100–300|||
|10 May 2010||Saint-Jude, Quebec||4|||
|23 May 2010||Jiang Zhidong Jiangxi, China||2010 Jiangxi derailment||0||The landslide was caused by previous days of heavy rain and flooding in the region.|||
|6 Aug 2010||Mount Meager, British Columbia, Canada||Meager landslide||48.5 MCM||0||Comparable in volume to the 1965 Hope Slide|||
|8 Aug 2010||Gansu, China||2010 Gansu mudslide||1,287|||
|8 Oct 2011||Iron County, Utah, United States||37.63°N||112.94°W||4 MCY||0||Covered 1,300 feet of Utah State Route 14.|||
|10 Apr 2013||Salt Lake City, Utah, United States||Bingham Canyon Mine landslide||40.523°N||112.151°W||55 MCM||0||Possibly the largest historic, non-volcanic, terrestrial landslide in North America.|||
|16 Jun 2013||Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, India||2013 North India floods||5,700|
|13 Dec 2013||Rockville, Utah, United States||Several hundred tons||2||Single boulder crushed a two-storey home with residents inside.|||
|22 Mar 2014||Oso, Washington, United States||2014 Oso mudslide||48.283°N||121.847°W||10 MCM (early estimate)||43||49 structures destroyed or affected|||
|2 May 2014||Argo District, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan||2014 Badakhshan mudslides||350–500 reported||4,000 people displaced|||
As of 4 May 2014
|25 May 2014||Mesa County, Colorado, United States||2014 West Salt Creek landslide||39°10′07″N||107°50′54″W||3|
|30 Jul 2014||Malin, Ambegaon taluka, Pune district, Maharashtra, India||2014 Malin landslide||19°9′40″N||73°41′18″E||136||100+ missing|||
|2 Aug 2014||Sunkoshi, Sindhupalchok District, Nepal||2014 Sunkoshi blockage||5.5 MCM||156+|||
|20 Aug 2014||Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan||2014 Hiroshima landslides||74||Deadliest landslides in Japan in 42 years|||
|29 Oct 2014||Badulla District, Sri Lanka||2014 Badulla landslide||16+||192 missing and presumed dead|||
|13 Dec 2014||Jemblung village, Java, Indonesia||2014 Indonesia landslide||93||23 missing|||
|23 Apr 2015||Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan||2015 Badakhshan landslides||52|
|28 Apr 2015||Salvador, Bahia, Brazil||2015 Bahia landslide||14|
|18 May 2015||Salgar, Antioquia Department Colombia||2015 Colombian landslide||83||30+ missing|||
As of 20 May 2015[update]
|1 October 2015||El Cambray Dos, Guatemala Department, Guatemala||2015 Guatemala landslide||280||70 missing.|
|13 November 2015||Lidong Village, Zhejiang, China||38|||
|2 April 2017||Mocoa, Colombia||2017 Mocoa landslide||1°9′00″N||76°38′51″W||329+||70 missing, third-deadliest weather-related disaster in Colombian history.|||
|12 June 2017||Rangamati, Chittagong and Bandarban, Bangladesh||2017 Bangladesh landslides||22°38′00″N||92°12′00″E||152||Worst landslides in Bangladesh's history.|||
|14 August 2017||Freetown, Sierra Leone||2017 Sierra Leone mudslides||8°29′N,||13°14′W||1,141+||Triggered by a particularly wet rainy season|||
|9 January 2018||California, United States||2018 South California landslides||20||Occurred several months after a series of major wildfires devastated nearby areas, causing deforestation and increasing the risk of a landslide.|||
- Hacker, D.; Biek, R.; Rowley, P. (2014), "Catastrophic emplacement of the gigantic Markagunt gravity slide, southwest Utah (USA): Implications for hazards associated with sector collapse of volcanic fields", Geology, 42 (11): 943–946, Bibcode:2014Geo....42..943H, doi:10.1130/g35896.1
- "Frequently Asked Questions: What was the biggest landslide in the world?". United States Geological Survey. February 24, 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- Beutner, E.; Gerbi, G. (2005), "Catastrophic emplacement of the Heart Mountain block slide, Wyoming and Montana, USA", GSA Bulletin, 117 (5–6): 724–735, Bibcode:2005GSAB..117..724B, doi:10.1130/b25451.1
- "Garibaldi volcanic belt: Garibaldi Lake volcanic field". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geological Survey of Canada. 2009-04-01. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
- Shoaei, Z.; Ghayoumian, J. (1998), "Seimareh landslide, the largest complex slide in the world", Eighth International Congress of the International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment, Proceedings, Vols 1–5: 1337–1342
- Pollet, Nicolas; Roger Cojean; Réjean Couture; Jean-Luc Schneider; Alexander L. Strom; Claire Voirin; Patrick Wassmer (2005). "A slab-on-slab model for the Flims rockslide (Swiss Alps)". Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 42 (2): 587–600. doi:10.1139/t04-122.
- "How a Huge Landslide Shaped Zion National Park". Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- Wu, Qinglong; et al. (5 August 2016). "Outburst flood at 1920 BCE supports historicity of China's Great Flood and the Xia dynasty". Science. 353 (6299): 579–582. Bibcode:2016Sci...353..579W. doi:10.1126/science.aaf0842. PMID 27493183.
- Schuster, Robert L.; Lynn M. Highland (December 8–10, 2003). "Impact of Landslides and Innovative Landslide-Mitigation Measures on the Natural Environment" (PDF). Proceedings International Conference on Slope Engineering. Hong Kong, China.
- "A worldwide perspective on landslide dams". Usoi landslide dam and Lake Sarez : An assessment of hazard and risk in the Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan (PDF). New York, US: UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). 2000. ISBN 978-92-1-132022-0.
- Walter sullivan (1991). "Sea Floor Holds Story Of Hawaiian Isles Doom". New York Times.
- Dingle, R.V. (1977). "The anatomy of a large submarine slump on a sheared continental margin (SE Africa)". Journal of the Geological Society of London. 134 (3): 293–310. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.134.3.0293.
- Collot, J-Y.; Lewis, K.; Lamarche, G.; Lallemand, S. (2001). "The giant Ruatoria debris avalanche on the northern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand: Result of oblique seamount subduction". Journal of Geophysical Research. 106 (B9): 19,271–19,297. Bibcode:2001JGR...10619271C. doi:10.1029/2001JB900004. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
- Bondevik, Stein; Dawson, Sue; Dawson, Alastair; Lohne, Øystein (5 August 2003). "Record-breaking Height for 8000-Year-Old Tsunami in the North Atlantic" (PDF). Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 84 (31): 289, 293. Bibcode:2003EOSTr..84..289B. doi:10.1029/2003EO310001. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
- Steury, Tim. "The Home of My Family: Ozette, the Makahs, and Doc Daugherty". Washington State Magazine. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Ozette Archaeological Site". Makah Cultural and Research Center. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- Topinka, Lyn. "Bonneville Landslide, Red Bluff Landslide, and the Cascade Landslide Complex, Columbia River Gorge, Washington". ColumbiaRiverImages. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- The 1806 Goldau landslide Bull Angew Geol 2006; 11(2):3–12. English abstract Archived
- "Where do landslides occur?". www.empr.gov.bc.ca. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Li, Tianchi (1996). Landslide Hazard Mapping and Management in China (PDF). Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development. ISBN 978-92-9115-466-1.
- "SOS! Canadian Disasters". Library and Archives Canada. 14 Feb 2006.
- Benko, B.; Stead D. (1998). "The Frank slide: a reexamination of the failure mechanism". Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 35 (2): 299–311. doi:10.1139/cgj-35-2-299. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- Highland, Lynn (9 September 2010). "Worldwide Overview of Large Landslides of the 20th and 21st Centuries". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- Esposito, E.; Porfido S.; Violante C.; Alaia F. "Disasater induced by historical floods in a selected coastal area (southern Italy)" (PDF). Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Costa, J.E.; Schuster R.L. (1988). "The formation and failure of natural dams". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 100 (7): 1054–1068. Bibcode:1988GSAB..100.1054C. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1054:TFAFON>2.3.CO;2. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- Korup, O.; Crozier, M. (2002). "Landslide types and geomorphic impact on river channels, Southern Alps, New Zealand". In Rybář J.; Stemberk J.; Wagner P. Landslides: proceedings of the First European Conference on Landslides, Prague, Czech Republic, June 24–26, 2002. Taylor & Francis. pp. 234–236. ISBN 978-90-5809-393-6.
- "The Landslides in Hyogo Prefecture that accompanied the Heavy Rain of July 5, 1938". ERI. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Schuster, R.L.; Salcedo, D.A.; Valenzuela, L. (2002). "Overview of catastrophic landslides of South America in the twentieth century". In Evans S.G.; Degraff J.V. Catastrophic landslides: Effects, Occurrence, and Mechanisms. Reviews in Engineering Geology. 15. Geological Society of America. pp. 1–34. ISBN 978-0-8137-4115-4.
- De La Torre. "La Catástrophe del día de nochebuena del año 1803 en Alcalá del Júcar" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Petley, D.N.; Bulmer M.H. "The application of Earth observation technologies for landslide danger mitigation" (PDF). Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- Evans, S.G.; Roberts N.J.; Ischuck A.; Delaney K.B.; Morozova G.S.; Tutubalina O. (20 November 2009). "Landslides triggered by the 1949 Khait earthquake, Tajikistan, and associated loss of life". Engineering Geology. 109 (3–4): 195–212. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.08.007.
- Aristizábal, Edier; Yokota, Shuichiro (2006). "Geomorphología aplicada a la ocurrencia de deslizamientos en el valle de Aburra". Dyna (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Colombia. 73 (149): 5–16. ISSN 0012-7353. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- Calcaterra, D.; Parise M.; Palma B. (2003). "Combining historical and geological data for the assessment of the landslide hazard: a case study from Campania, Italy" (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 3: 3–16. doi:10.5194/nhess-3-3-2003.
- Pararas-Carayannis, George (1999). "The Mega-Tsunami of July 9, 1958 in Lituya Bay, Alaska, Analysis of Mechanism".
- Genevois, R.; Ghirotti M. (2005). "The 1963 Vaiont Landslide" (PDF). Giornale di Geologia Applicata. 1: 41–52. doi:10.1474/GGA.2005-01.0-05.0005 (inactive 2018-02-27). Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- Evans, S.G.; Couture R. (2002). "The 1965 Hope Slide, British Columbia; catastrophic failure of a sagging rock slope". GSA Conference abstracts h. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- Rudolph, T.; Coldewey, W.G. (2008). "Implications of Earthquakes on the Stability of Tailings Dams" (PDF). Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- Kanji, M.A.; Massad F.; Cruz P.T. (2003). "Debris flows in areas of residual soils: occurrence and characteristics" (PDF). Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- McLuckie, B.F. (1977). "Italy, Japan and the United States effects of centralization on disaster responses 1964–1969". Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- Takahashi, T. (2007). "Preface". Debris flow: mechanics, prediction and countermeasures. Balkema-Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences. Routledge. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-415-43552-9.
- Bhandari, R.K. "The Indian Landslide Scenario, Strategic Issues and Action Points" (PDF). Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- Nath, S.K.; Roy D.; Thingbaijam K.K.S. (10 April 2008). "Disaster mitigation and management for West Bengal, India – An appraisal" (PDF). Current Science. 94 (7): 858–864. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- Morgan, P.A.; Iovine, G.; Chirico, P.; Wieczorek G.F. (1970). Inventory of debris flows and floods in the Lovingston and Horseshoe Mountain, Va, 7.5' quadrangles, from the August 19/20, 1969, storm in Nelson County, Virginia. Open-File Report. 99-518. United States Geological Survey.
- "Yungay – Sismo Alud Del 31.05.1970" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2010-09-17. Retrieved 2010-11-22.
- Plafker, George; Eyzaguirre, V. Z. (1 January 1979). "7: Rock Avalanche and Wave at Chungar, Peru". In Barry Voight (ed.). Engineering Sites: Rockslides and Avalanches (1 ed.). Elsevier. pp. 269–279. ISBN 978-0-444-59801-1.
- "Glissement de terrain à Saint-Jean-Vianney – Les Archives de Radio-Canada". CBC News.
- Tavenas, F.; Chagnon, J.-Y.; La Rochelle, P. (1971). "The Saint-Jean-Vianney Landslide: Observations and Eyewitnesses Accounts". Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 8 (3): 463–478. doi:10.1139/t71-048. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- Tarutani N.; Majtan S.; Morita K.; Omura H. (2000). "Spatial distribution patterns of rapid shallow landslides in Amakusa Island" (PDF). pp. 317–323. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Tobe, H.; Chigira, M. (2006). "Causes of Shallow Landslides of Weathered Granitic Rocks — From the View Point of Weathering Styles and Petrologic Textures". Disaster Mitigation of Debris Flows, Slope Failures and Landslides (PDF). Tokyo: Universal Academy Press. pp. 493–501.
- Chigira, M. (2001). "Micro-sheeting of granite and its relationship with landsliding specifically after the heavy rainstorm in June 1999, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan". Engineering Geology. 59 (3–4): 219–231. doi:10.1016/S0013-7952(00)00075-2.
- Schuster, Robert L.; Lynn M. Highland. Castaneda Martinez, Jorge E.; Olarte Montero, Juan, eds. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Landslides in the Western Hemisphere". Open-File Report 01-0276. Cartagena, Colombia: U.S. Geological Survey.
- "Where do landslides occur?". Government of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- Evans, S. G (2006). "The geomorphic impact of catastrophic glacier ice loss in mountain regions". American Geophysical Union. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 11: H11B–1247. Bibcode:2006AGUFM.H11B1247E.
- "Landslides and gullies". Geological Survey of Sweden. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- BFI | Film & TV Database | The Rissa Landslide (1981)
- "New Zealand disasters", Christchurch City Libraries website. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
- Milligan, Mark (May 2005). "Thistle Landslide Revisited, Utah County, Utah". Survey Notes. Utah Geological Survey. 37 (2).
- Highland, Lynn M.; Robert L. Schuster. "Significant Landslide Events in the United States" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey.
- Jibson, R. W. (1986). "Evaluation of landslide hazards resulting from the 5–8 October 1985 storm in Puerto Rico". Open File Report 86-26. U.S. Geological Survey
- Govi, M.; Gullà, G.; Nicoletti, P.G. (2002). "Val Pola rock avalanche of July 28, 1987, in Valtellina (Central Italian Alps)". In Evans S.G.; Degraff J.V. Catastrophic landslides: effects, occ urrence, and mechanisms. Reviews in Engineering Geology. 15. Geological Society of America. pp. 71–89. ISBN 978-0-8137-4115-4.
- Holbeck Hall Hotel Ltd and Another v. Scarborough Borough Council (Court of Appeal (Civil Division) QBENF 98/0902/A2 22 February 2000). Text
- "Holbeck Hall landslide, Scarborough". British Geological Society Natural Environment Research Council. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- Jibson, Randall (2005). "Landslide Hazards at La Conchita, California". Open-File Report 2005-1067. U.S. Geological Survey.
- NSW Fire Brigades. "1997 Thredbo landslide". Retrieved 22 July 2010.
- Rogers, J. David. "Aldercrest-Banyon Landslide Kelso, Washington (1998–99)". University of Missouri, Rolla. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- Wieczorek GF, Larsen MC, Eaton LS, Morgan BA, Blair JL (2 December 2002). "Debris-flow and flooding hazards associated with the December 1999 storm in coastal Venezuela and strategies for mitigation". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "Mumbai is vulnerable to landslides: RTI activist". Sakal Media Group. Sakal Times. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Kuriakose, S.L.; Sankar, G.; Muraleedharan, C (2008). "History of landslide susceptibility and a chorology of landslide prone areas in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India". Environmental Geology. 57 (7): 1553–1568. Bibcode:2009EnGeo..57.1553K. doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1431-9.
- "Landslide wipes out several Catholic families in south India". EWTN news. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- Hasnawir; H. Omura; T. Kubota. "Landslide Disaster at Mt. Bawakaraeng Caldera, South Sulawesi, Indonesia" (PDF). Kyushu Journal of Forest Research. 59 (2006.3): 269–272. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "Countermeasures for two big disasters by ISDM project". International Sabo Association. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- Tsuchiya, Satoshi; K. Sasahara; S. Shuin; S. Ozono (2009). "The large-scale landslide on the flank of caldera in South Sulawesi, Indonesia". Landslides. 6 (1): 83–88. doi:10.1007/s10346-009-0143-x.
- Evans, S.G.; Guthrie, R.H.; Roberts, N.J.; Bishop, N.F. (2007). "The disastrous 17 February 2006 rockslide-debris avalanche on Leyte Island, Philippines: a catastrophic landslide in tropical mountain terrain" (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 7: 89–101. doi:10.5194/nhess-7-89-2007.
- Roy, Pinaki (12 June 2007). "Mindless hill-cutting caused mudslide". The Daily Star.
- "Death toll now 123 in Ctg mudslides". The Daily Star. 14 June 2007.
- "Deadly rockslide hits Cairo homes". BBC news. 6 September 2008.
- Petley, David (27 September 2009). "Photos and text from a visit to the Shiaolin landslide in Taiwan". Dave's Landslide Blog.
- "Up to 600 dead in mudslide-devastated village in Taiwan". Japan Today. 14 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- Tsou, Chingying; Chigira, Masahiro (23–28 May 2010). Shiaolin landslide induced by the 2009 Typhoon Morakot, Taiwan (PDF). Makuhari, Chiba, Japan: Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Landslide Lake in Northwest Pakistan". NASA Earth Observatory. 18 March 2010.
- Petley, David (4 March 2010). "The Landslide at Attabad in Hunza, Gilgit/Baltistan: Current situation and hazard management needs" (PDF). National Disaster Management Agency (Pakistan).
- "Madeira: Número de mortos aumentou para 42", Público (in Portuguese), 26 February 2010, archived from the original on 11 June 2010
- "Large Landslide in Uganda". NASA Earth Observatory. 13 March 2010.
- "Family of 4 found dead in Quebec landslide". CBC News. May 11, 2010.
- Yang, Fang (23 May 2010). "Passenger train derails in east China, at least 10 dead, 55 injured". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Three killed in China train accident". Press TV. 23 May 2010. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "China derailment 'kills several'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 23 May 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Guthrie, R. H.; Friele, P.; Allstadt, K.; Roberts, N.; Evans, S. G.; Delaney, K. B.; Roche, D.; Clague, J. J.; Jakob, M. (2012). "The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Copernicus Publications. 12: 1277, 1282. Bibcode:2012NHESS..12.1277G. doi:10.5194/nhess-12-1277-2012.
- "Large landslide in Gansu Zhouqu August 7". August 19, 2010. Archived from the original on February 25, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- "Another large landslide closes highway near Cedar City, Utah". Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- Dave (2013-04-26). "An update on the Bingham Canyon mine landslide". Blogs.agu.org. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Dave (2013-04-30). "Analysing the Bingham Canyon mine landslide part 1: the landslide source area". Blogs.agu.org. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Dave (2013-05-17). "Was the Bingham Canyon landslide the largest historic non-volcanic landslip in North America?". Blogs.agu.org. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Massive boulders kill two, flattens house in southern Utah". Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- Snohomish County Medical Examiner's Office (July 23, 2014). "Snohomish County Medical Examiner's Office Media Update". Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- "Oso landslide body officially identified". KING5.com. Associated Press. 23 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Afghan landslide survivor search abandoned". Al-Jazeera. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Staff (31 July 2014). "Pune landslide toll hits 25, likely to rise further: Rajnath Singh to visit today". Firstpost. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Before and After the Sunkosi Landslide". Earth Observatory. NASA. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- "広島土砂災害、死者５０人に １６０７人が避難". Asahi Shimbun. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Japan landslides kill 32 in Hiroshima prefecture". BBC News. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Sri Lanka landslide: '100 feared dead'". BBC. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Sri Lanka landslide: hopes fade of finding survivors". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Indonesia landslide: 20 dead and dozens still missing". BBC News. 14 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Indonesia rescuers use earth-movers in landslide rescue as toll rises to 32". Reuters. 14 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Colombia landslide 'tears down everything in its path', killing dozens". ABC News (Australia). AFP. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "China landslide deaths rise to 38 – Yahoo7". Au.news.yahoo.com. 2015-11-19. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- Podlaha, Adam; Bowen, Steve; Darbinyan, Claire; Lörinc, Michal. "Global Catastrophe Recap - April 2017" (PDF). Aon Benfield Analytics. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Rima Paul and Zarir Hussain (14 June 2017). "Landslide, floods kill 156 in Bangladesh, India; toll could rise". Reuters. Dhaka/Guwahati. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- "At Least 68 Dead in Rain-Triggered Landslides in Bangladesh". The New York Times. Dhaka. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "At least 68 killed in landslides in Bangladesh". CTV News. Dhaka. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- ALAM, JULHAS (13 June 2017). "Rain-triggered landslides kill at least 68 in Bangladesh". The News Tribune. Dhaka. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- PTI (14 June 2017). "Bangladesh landslide toll reaches 152". The Financial Express (Bangladesh). Dhaka. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- "Death toll of mudslide disaster in Sierra Leone rises to 499". Daily Mail. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "Here are all the people who died in the California mudslide". USA TODAY. January 14, 2018.
- "13 dead in Southern California as rain triggers mudslides". The San Francisco Gate. January 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-10.