Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs: their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. In the case of oral languages, phonetics has three basic areas of study: Articulatory phonetics: the study of the organs of speech and their use in producing speech sounds by the speaker. Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener. Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener; the first known phonetic studies were carried out as early as the 6th century BCE by Sanskrit grammarians. The Hindu scholar Pāṇini is among the most well known of these early investigators, whose four part grammar, written around 350 BCE, is influential in modern linguistics and still represents "the most complete generative grammar of any language yet written".
His grammar formed the basis of modern linguistics and described a number of important phonetic principles. Pāṇini provided an account of the phonetics of voicing, describing resonance as being produced either by tone, when vocal folds are closed, or noise, when vocal folds are open; the phonetic principles in the grammar are considered "primitives" in that they are the basis for his theoretical analysis rather than the objects of theoretical analysis themselves, the principles can be inferred from his system of phonology. Advancements in phonetics after Pāṇini and his contemporaries were limited until the modern era, save some limited investigations by Greek and Roman grammarians. In the millenia between Indic grammarians and modern phonetics the focus of phonetics shifted from the difference between spoken and written language, the driving force behind Pāṇini's account, began to focus on the physical properties of speech alone. Sustained interest in phonetics began again around 1800 CE with the term "phonetics" being first used in the present sense in 1841.
With new developments in medicine and the development of audio and visual recording devices, phonetic insights were able to use and review new and more detailed data. This early period of modern phonetics included the development of an influential phonetic alphabet based on articulatory positions by Alexander Melville Bell. Known as visible speech, it gained prominency as a tool in the oral education of deaf children. Speech sounds are produced by the modification of an airstream exhaled from the lungs; the respiratory organs used to create and modify airflow are divided into three regions: the vocal tract, the larynx, the subglottal system. The airstream can be either ingressive. In pulmonic sounds, the airstream is produced by the lungs in the subglottal system and passes through the larynx and vocal tract. Glottalic sounds use. Clicks or lingual ingressive sounds create an airstream using the tongue. Articulations take place in particular parts of the mouth, they are described by the part of the mouth that constricts airflow and by what part of the mouth that constriction occurs.
In most languages constrictions are made with tongue. Constrictions made by the lips are called labials; the tongue can make constrictions with many different parts, broadly classified into coronal and dorsal places of articulation. Coronal articulations are made with either the tip or blade of the tongue, while dorsal articulations are made with the back of the tongue; these divisions are not sufficient for describing all speech sounds. For example, in English the sounds and are both voiceless coronal fricatives, but they are produced in different places of the mouth. Additionally, that difference in place can result in a difference of meaning like in "sack" and "shack". To account for this, articulations are further divided based upon the area of the mouth in which the constriction occurs. Articulations involving the lips can be made in three different ways: with both lips, with one lip and the teeth, with the tongue and the upper lip. Depending on the definition used, some or all of these kinds of articulations may be categorized into the class of labial articulations.
Ladefoged and Maddieson propose that linguolabial articulations be considered coronals rather than labials, but make clear this grouping, like all groupings of articulations, is equivocable and not cleanly divided. Linguolabials are included in this section as labials given their use of the lips as a place of articulation. Bilabial consonants are made with both lips. In producing these sounds the lower lip moves farthest to meet the upper lip, which moves down though in some cases the force from air moving through the aperature may cause the lips to separate faster than they can come together. Unlike most other articulations, both articulators are made from soft tissue, so bilabial stops are more to be produced with incomplete closures than articulations involving hard surfaces like the teeth or palate. Bilabial stops are unusual in that an articulator in the upper section of the vocal tract moves downwards, as the upper lip shows some active downward movement. Labiodental consonants are made by the lower lip rising to the upper teeth.
Labiodental consonants are most fricatives while labiodental nasals are typologically common. There is debate as to
In language, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition. A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers. However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes occurs in other languages such as English. A simple sentence consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb, independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses are those. Subordinate clauses are those that would be incomplete if they were alone. A primary division for the discussion of clauses is the distinction between main clauses and subordinate clauses. A main clause can stand alone, i.e. it can constitute a complete sentence by itself. A subordinate clause, in contrast, is reliant on the appearance of a main clause. A second major distinction concerns the difference between non-finite clauses.
A finite clause contains a structurally central finite verb, whereas the structurally central word of a non-finite clause is a non-finite verb. Traditional grammar focuses on finite clauses, the awareness of non-finite clauses having arisen much in connection with the modern study of syntax; the discussion here focuses on finite clauses, although some aspects of non-finite clauses are considered further below. Clauses can be classified according to a distinctive trait, a prominent characteristic of their syntactic form; the position of the finite verb is one major trait used for classification, the appearance of a specific type of focusing word is another. These two criteria overlap to an extent, which means that no single aspect of syntactic form is always decisive in determining how the clause functions. There are, strong tendencies. Standard SV-clauses are the norm in English, they are declarative. The pig has not yet been fed. - Declarative clause, standard SV order I've been hungry for two hours.
- Declarative clause, standard SV order...that I've been hungry for two hours. - Declarative clause, standard SV order, but functioning as a subordinate clause due to the appearance of the subordinator thatDeclarative clauses like these are by far the most occurring type of clause in any language. They can be viewed as other clause types being derived from them. Standard SV-clauses can be interrogative or exclamative, given the appropriate intonation contour and/or the appearance of a question word, e.g. a. The pig has not yet been fed? - Rising intonation on fed makes the clause a yes/no-question.b. The pig has not yet been fed! - Spoken forcefully, this clause is exclamative.c. You've been hungry for how long? - Appearance of interrogative word how and rising intonation make the clause a constituent questionExamples like these demonstrate that how a clause functions cannot be known based on a single distinctive syntactic criterion. SV-clauses are declarative, but intonation and/or the appearance of a question word can render them interrogative or exclamative.
Verb first clauses in English play one of three roles: 1. They express a yes/no-question via subject–auxiliary inversion, 2, they express a condition as an embedded clause, or 3. They express a command via e.g. a. He must stop laughing. - Standard declarative SV-clause b. Should he stop laughing? - Yes/no-question expressed by verb first order c. Had he stopped laughing... - Condition expressed by verb first order d. Stop laughing! - Imperative formed with verb first ordera. They have done the job. - Standard declarative SV-clause b. Have they done the job? - Yes/no-question expressed by verb first order c. Had they done the job... - Condition expressed by verb first order d. Do the job! - Imperative formed with verb first orderMost verb first clauses are main clauses. Verb first conditional clauses, must be classified as embedded clauses because they cannot stand alone. Wh-clauses contain a wh-word. Wh-words serve to help express a constituent question, they are prevalent, though, as relative pronouns, in which case they serve to introduce a relative clause and are not part of a question.
The wh-word focuses a particular constituent and most of the time, it appears in clause-initial position. The following examples illustrate standard interrogative wh-clauses; the b-sentences are direct questions, the c-sentences contain the corresponding indirect questions: a. Sam likes the meat. - Standard declarative SV-clause b. Who likes the meat? - Matrix interrogative wh-clause focusing on the subject c. They asked. - Embedded interrogative wh-clause focusing on the subjecta. Larry sent Susan to the store. - Standard declarative SV-clause b. Whom did Larry send to the store? - Matrix interrogative wh-clause focusing on the object, subject-auxiliary inversion present c. We know. - Embedded wh-clause focusing on the object, subject-auxiliary inversion absenta. Larry sent Susan to the store. - Standard declarative SV-clause b. Where did Larry send Susan? - Matrix interrogative wh-clause focusing on the ob
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning. This contrasts with a morpheme, the smallest unit of meaning but will not stand on its own. A word may consist of a single morpheme, or several, whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word. A complex word will include a root and one or more affixes, or more than one root in a compound. Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases and sentences; the term word may refer to a spoken word or to a written word, or sometimes to the abstract concept behind either. Spoken words are made up of units of sound called phonemes, written words of symbols called graphemes, such as the letters of the English alphabet; the difficulty of deciphering a word depends on the language. Dictionaries categorize a language's lexicon into lemmas; these can be taken as an indication of what constitutes a "word" in the opinion of the writers of that language.
The most appropriate means of measuring the length of a word is by counting its syllables or morphemes. When a word has multiple definitions or multiple senses, it may result in confusion in a debate or discussion. Leonard Bloomfield introduced the concept of "Minimal Free Forms" in 1926. Words are thought of as the smallest meaningful unit of speech; this correlates phonemes to lexemes. However, some written words are not minimal free forms; some semanticists have put forward a theory of so-called semantic primitives or semantic primes, indefinable words representing fundamental concepts that are intuitively meaningful. According to this theory, semantic primes serve as the basis for describing the meaning, without circularity, of other words and their associated conceptual denotations. In the Minimalist school of theoretical syntax, words are construed as "bundles" of linguistic features that are united into a structure with form and meaning. For example, the word "koalas" has semantic features, category features, number features, phonological features, etc.
The task of defining what constitutes a "word" involves determining where one word ends and another word begins—in other words, identifying word boundaries. There are several ways to determine where the word boundaries of spoken language should be placed: Potential pause: A speaker is told to repeat a given sentence allowing for pauses; the speaker will tend to insert pauses at the word boundaries. However, this method is not foolproof: the speaker could break up polysyllabic words, or fail to separate two or more linked words. Indivisibility: A speaker is told to say a sentence out loud, is told to say the sentence again with extra words added to it. Thus, I have lived in this village for ten years might become My family and I have lived in this little village for about ten or so years; these extra words will tend to be added in the word boundaries of the original sentence. However, some languages have infixes; some have separable affixes. Phonetic boundaries: Some languages have particular rules of pronunciation that make it easy to spot where a word boundary should be.
For example, in a language that stresses the last syllable of a word, a word boundary is to fall after each stressed syllable. Another example can be seen in a language that has vowel harmony: the vowels within a given word share the same quality, so a word boundary is to occur whenever the vowel quality changes. Not all languages have such convenient phonetic rules, those that do present the occasional exceptions. Orthographic boundaries: See below. In languages with a literary tradition, there is interrelation between orthography and the question of what is considered a single word. Word separators are common in modern orthography of languages using alphabetic scripts, but these are a modern development. In English orthography, compound expressions may contain spaces. For example, ice cream, air raid shelter and get up each are considered to consist of more than one word. Not all languages delimit words expressly. Mandarin Chinese is a analytic language, making it unnecessary to delimit words orthographically.
However, there are many multiple-morpheme compounds in Mandarin, as well as a variety of bound morphemes that make it difficult to determine what constitutes a word. Sometimes, languages which are close grammatically will consider the same order of words in different ways. For example, reflexive verbs in the French infinitive are separate from their respective particle, e.g. se laver, whereas in Portuguese they are hyphenated, e.g. lavar-se, in Spanish they are joined, e.g. lavarse. Japanese uses orthographic cues to delim
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain. Humans can only hear sound waves as distinct pitches when the frequency lies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound waves above 20 kHz is not perceptible by humans. Sound waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound. Different animal species have varying hearing ranges. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases and solids including vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an acoustical engineer. An audio engineer, on the other hand, is concerned with the recording, manipulation and reproduction of sound. Applications of acoustics are found in all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, speech, underwater acoustics, vibration.
Sound is defined as " Oscillation in pressure, particle displacement, particle velocity, etc. propagated in a medium with internal forces, or the superposition of such propagated oscillation. Auditory sensation evoked by the oscillation described in." Sound can be viewed as a wave motion in air or other elastic media. In this case, sound is a stimulus. Sound can be viewed as an excitation of the hearing mechanism that results in the perception of sound. In this case, sound is a sensation. Sound can propagate through a medium such as air and solids as longitudinal waves and as a transverse wave in solids; the sound waves are generated by a sound source, such as the vibrating diaphragm of a stereo speaker. The sound source creates vibrations in the surrounding medium; as the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave. At a fixed distance from the source, the pressure and displacement of the medium vary in time.
At an instant in time, the pressure and displacement vary in space. Note that the particles of the medium do not travel with the sound wave; this is intuitively obvious for a solid, the same is true for liquids and gases. During propagation, waves can be refracted, or attenuated by the medium; the behavior of sound propagation is affected by three things: A complex relationship between the density and pressure of the medium. This relationship, affected by temperature, determines the speed of sound within the medium. Motion of the medium itself. If the medium is moving, this movement may increase or decrease the absolute speed of the sound wave depending on the direction of the movement. For example, sound moving through wind will have its speed of propagation increased by the speed of the wind if the sound and wind are moving in the same direction. If the sound and wind are moving in opposite directions, the speed of the sound wave will be decreased by the speed of the wind; the viscosity of the medium.
Medium viscosity determines the rate. For many media, such as air or water, attenuation due to viscosity is negligible; when sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical properties, it may be refracted. The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound can travel through all forms of matter: gases, liquids and plasmas; the matter that supports the sound is called the medium. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Sound is transmitted through gases and liquids as longitudinal waves called compression waves, it requires a medium to propagate. Through solids, however, it can be transmitted as transverse waves. Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation. Sound waves may be "viewed" using parabolic objects that produce sound; the energy carried by an oscillating sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression or lateral displacement strain of the matter, the kinetic energy of the displacement velocity of particles of the medium.
Although there are many complexities relating to the transmission of sounds, at the point of reception, sound is dividable into two simple elements: pressure and time. These fundamental elements form the basis of all sound waves, they can be used to describe, in every sound we hear. In order to understand the sound more a complex wave such as the one shown in a blue background on the right of this text, is separated into its component parts, which are a combination of various sound wave frequencies. Sound waves are simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves, which are characterized by these generic properties: Frequency, or its inverse, wavelength Amplitude, sound pressure or Intensity Speed of sound DirectionSound, perceptible by humans has frequencies from abou
Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses phonetic combinations of a limited set of articulated and individualized vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words, using those words in their semantic character as words in the lexicon of a language according to the syntactic constraints that govern lexical words' function in a sentence. In speaking, speakers perform many different intentional speech acts, e.g. informing, asking, persuading and can use enunciation, degrees of loudness and other non-representational or paralinguistic aspects of vocalization to convey meaning. In their speech speakers unintentionally communicate many aspects of their social position such as sex, place of origin, physical states, psychic states, physico-psychic states, education or experience, the like. Although people ordinarily use speech in dealing with other persons, when people swear they do not always mean to communicate anything to anyone, sometimes in expressing urgent emotions or desires they use speech as a quasi-magical cause, as when they encourage a player in a game to do or warn them not to do something.
There are many situations in which people engage in solitary speech. People talk to themselves sometimes in acts that are a development of what some psychologists have maintained is the use in thinking of silent speech in an interior monologue to vivify and organize cognition, sometimes in the momentary adoption of a dual persona as self addressing self as though addressing another person. Solo speech can be used to memorize or to test one's memorization of things, in prayer or in meditation. Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, what different areas of the human brain, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area, underlie speech. Speech is the subject of study for linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, computer science, speech pathology and acoustics.
Speech compares with written language, which may differ in its vocabulary and phonetics from the spoken language, a situation called diglossia. The evolutionary origins of speech are subject to much debate and speculation. While animals communicate using vocalizations, trained apes such as Washoe and Kanzi can use simple sign language, no animals' vocalizations are articulated phonemically and syntactically, do not constitute speech. Speech production is a multi-step process. Production involves the selection of appropriate words and the appropriate form of those words from the lexicon and morphology, the organization of those words through the syntax; the phonetic properties of the words are retrieved and the sentence is uttered through the articulations associated with those phonetic properties. In linguistics, articulation refers to how the tongue, jaw, vocal cords, other speech organs used to produce sounds are used to make sounds. Speech sounds are categorized by manner of place of articulation.
Place of articulation refers to. Manner of articulation refers to the manner in which the speech organs interact, such as how the air is restricted, what form of airstream is used, whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating, whether the nasal cavity is opened to the airstream; the concept is used for the production of consonants, but can be used for vowels in qualities such as voicing and nasalization. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners of articulation, therefore several homorganic consonants. Normal human speech is pulmonic, produced with pressure from the lungs, which creates phonation in the glottis in the larynx, modified by the vocal tract and mouth into different vowels and consonants; however humans can pronounce words without the use of the lungs and glottis in alaryngeal speech, of which there are three types: esophageal speech, pharyngeal speech and buccal speech. Speech production is a complex activity, as a consequence errors are common in children. Speech errors come in many forms and are used to provide evidence to support hypotheses about the nature of speech.
As a result, speech errors are used in the construction of models for language production and child language acquisition. For example, the fact that children make the error of over-regularizing the -ed past tense suffix in English shows that the regular forms are acquired earlier. Speech errors associated with certain kinds of aphasia have been used to map certain components of speech onto the brain and see the relation between different aspects of production: for example, the difficulty of expressive aphasia patients in producing regular past-tense verbs, but not irregulars like'sing-sang' has been used to demonstrate that regular inflected forms of a word are not individually stored in the lexicon, but produced from affixation of the base form. Speech perception re
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words carrying a special idiomatic meaning. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy. A phrase appears within a clause, but it is possible for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it. There are types of phrases like noun phrase, prepositional phrase and noun phrase The phrase coming up means an events is occurring within quite soon. Eg Christmas is coming up, in a few days. There is a difference between the common use of the term phrase and its technical use in linguistics. In common usage, a phrase is a group of words with some special idiomatic meaning or other significance, such as "all rights reserved", "economical with the truth", "kick the bucket", the like, it may be a saying or proverb, a fixed expression, a figure of speech, etc.. In grammatical analysis in theories of syntax, a phrase is any group of words, or sometimes a single word, which plays a particular role within the grammatical structure of a sentence.
It does not have to have any special meaning or significance, or exist anywhere outside of the sentence being analyzed, but it must function there as a complete grammatical unit. For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phrase, or a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence. Theorists of syntax differ in what they regard as a phrase; this means that some expressions that may be called phrases in everyday language are not phrases in the technical sense. For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with may be referred to in common language as a phrase but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, the complement of the preposition with. In grammatical analysis, most phrases contain a key word that identifies the type and linguistic features of the phrase; the syntactic category of the head is used to name the category of the phrase.
The remaining words in a phrase are called the dependents of the head. In the following phrases the head-word, or head, is bolded: too — Adverb phrase. For instance, the subordinator phrase: before that happened — Subordinator phrase, but this phrase, "before that happened", is more classified in other grammars, including traditional English grammars, as a subordinate clause. Most theories of syntax view most phrases as having a head, but some non-headed phrases are acknowledged. A phrase lacking a head is known as exocentric, phrases with heads are endocentric; some modern theories of syntax introduce certain functional categories in which the head of a phrase is some functional word or item, which may be covert, that is, it may be a theoretical construct that need not appear explicitly in the sentence. For example, in some theories, a phrase such as the man is taken to have the determiner the as its head, rather than the noun man – it is classed as a determiner phrase, rather than a noun phrase.
When a noun is used in a sentence without an explicit determiner, a null determiner may be posited. For full discussion, see Determiner phrase. Another type is the inflectional phrase, where a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional covert head, supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject, for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase, where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element. Further examples of such proposed categories include topic phrase and focus phrase, which are assumed to be headed by elements that encode the need for a constituent of the sentence to be marked as the topic or as the focus. See the Generative approaches section of the latter article for details. Many theories of syntax and grammar illustrate sentence structure using phrase'trees', which provide schematics of how the words in a sentence are grouped and relate to each other.
Trees show the words, and, at times, clauses that make up sentences. Any word combination that corresponds to a complete subtree can be seen as a phrase. There are competing principles for constructing trees.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words and suffixes. Morphology looks at parts of speech and stress, the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, the classification of languages based on their use of words, lexicology, the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary. While words, along with clitics, are accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases. Speakers of English, a fusional language, recognize these relations from their innate knowledge of English's rules of word formation.
They infer intuitively. By contrast, Classical Chinese has little morphology, using exclusively unbound morphemes and depending on word order to convey meaning; these are understood as grammars. The rules understood by a speaker reflect specific patterns or regularities in the way words are formed from smaller units in the language they are using, how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages. Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills. Studies have indicated that the presence of modification in phonology and orthography makes morphologically complex words harder to understand and that the absence of modification between a base word and its origin makes morphologically complex words easier to understand. Morphologically complex words are easier to comprehend.
Polysynthetic languages, such as Chukchi, have words composed of many morphemes. The Chukchi word "təmeyŋəlevtpəγtərkən", for example, meaning "I have a fierce headache", is composed of eight morphemes t-ə-meyŋ-ə-levt-pəγt-ə-rkən that may be glossed; the morphology of such languages allows for each consonant and vowel to be understood as morphemes, while the grammar of the language indicates the usage and understanding of each morpheme. The discipline that deals with the sound changes occurring within morphemes is morphophonology; the history of morphological analysis dates back to the ancient Indian linguist Pāṇini, who formulated the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the text Aṣṭādhyāyī by using a constituency grammar. The Greco-Roman grammatical tradition engaged in morphological analysis. Studies in Arabic morphology, conducted by Marāḥ al-arwāḥ and Aḥmad b. ‘alī Mas‘ūd, date back to at least 1200 CE. The linguistic term "morphology" was coined by August Schleicher in 1859; the term "word" has no well-defined meaning.
Instead, two related terms are used in morphology: word-form. A lexeme is a set of inflected word-forms, represented with the citation form in small capitals. For instance, the lexeme eat contains the word-forms eat, eats and ate. Eat and eats are thus considered. Eat and Eater, on the other hand, are different lexemes. Thus, there are three rather different notions of ‘word’. Here are examples from other languages of the failure of a single phonological word to coincide with a single morphological word form. In Latin, one way to express the concept of'NOUN-PHRASE1 and NOUN-PHRASE2' is to suffix'-que' to the second noun phrase: "apples oranges-and", as it were. An extreme level of this theoretical quandary posed by some phonological words is provided by the Kwak'wala language. In Kwak'wala, as in a great many other languages, meaning relations between nouns, including possession and "semantic case", are formulated by affixes instead of by independent "words"; the three-word English phrase, "with his club", where'with' identifies its dependent noun phrase as an instrument and'his' denotes a possession relation, would consist of two words or just one word in many languages.
Unlike most languages, Kwak'wala semantic affixes phonologically attach not to the lexeme they pertain to semantically, but to the preceding lexeme. Consider the following example:kwixʔid-i-da bəgwanəmai-χ-a q'asa-s-isi t'alwagwayu Morpheme by morpheme translation: kwixʔid-i-da = clubbed-PIVOT-DETERMINERbəgwanəma-χ-a = man-ACCUSATIVE-DETERMINERq'asa-s-is = otter-INSTRUMENTAL-3SG-POSSESSIVEt'alwagwayu = club"the man clubbed the otter with his club."That is, to the speaker of Kwak'wala, the sentence does not contain the "words"'him-the-otter' or'with-his-club' Instead, the markers -i-da, referring to "man", attaches not to the noun bəgwanəma but to the verb.