Economy of El Salvador
Compared to other developing countries, El Salvador has experienced low rates of GDP growth. Rates have not risen above the low single digits in nearly two decades – part of broader environment of macroeconomic instability which the integration of the US dollar has done little to improve. One problem that the Salvadoran economy faces is the inequality in the distribution of income. In 2011, El Salvador had a Gini Coefficient of.485, which although similar to that of the United States, leaves 37.8% of the population below the poverty line, due to lower aggregate income. The richest 10% of the population receives 15 times the income of the poorest 40%; as of 3 November 2014, the IMF reports official reserve assets to be $3.192B. Foreign currency reserves are $2.675B. Securities are $2.577B with total currency and deposits at $94.9M. Securities with other national central banks are $81.10M. Securities with banks headquartered outside the reporting country $13.80M. SDRs are at $245.5M. Gold reserves reported at $271.4M with volume in millions of fine Troy ounces at $200k.
Other reserve assets are financial derivatives valued at $2.7M. Having this hard currency buffer to work with, the Salvadoran Government undertook a monetary integration plan beginning 1 January 2001, by which the U. S. dollar became legal tender alongside the colón, all formal accounting was undertaken in U. S. dollars. This way, the government has formally limited its possibility of implementing open market monetary policies to influence short term variables in the economy. Since 2004, the colón stopped circulating and is now never used in the country for any type of transaction. S. dollars. In general, people were unhappy with the shift from the colón to the U. S. dollar, because wages are still the same but the price of everything increased. Some economists claim this rise in prices would have been caused by inflation regardless had the shift not been made; some economists contend that now, according to Gresham's Law, a reversion to the colón would be disastrous to the economy. Some banks however claim that they still do some transactions en colones, keeping this change from being unconstitutional.
The change to the dollar precipitated a trend toward lower interest rates in El Salvador, helping many to secure credit in order to buy a house or a car. Fiscal policy has been one of the biggest challenges for the Salvadoran government; the 1992 peace accords committed the government to heavy expenditures for transition programs and social services. The stability adjustment programs initiated by President Cristiani's administration committed the government to the privatization of banks, the pension system and telephone companies; the total privatization of the pension system has implied a serious burden for the public finances, because the newly created private Pension Association Funds did not absorb coverage of retired pensioners covered in the old system. As a result, in July 2017, the Government of El Salvador wanted to take $500 millions from the privatized pension system to cover retired pensioners from the old not privatized system, but the Supreme Court of El Salvador declared this move unconstitutional.
The government lost the revenues from contributors and absorbed the costs of coverage of retired pensioners. This has been the main source of fiscal imbalance. ARENA governments have financed this deficit with the emission of bonds, something the leftist party FMLN has opposed. Debates surrounding the emission of bonds have stalled the approval of the national budget for many months on several occasions, reason for which in 2006 the government will finance the deficit by reducing expenditure in other posts; the emission of bonds and the approval of a loans need a qualified majority in the parliament. If the deficit is not financed through a loan it is enough with a simple majority to approve the budget; this would facilitate an otherwise long process in Salvadoran politics. Despite such challenges to keep public finances in balance, El Salvador still has one of the lowest tax burdens in the American continent. Many specialists claim that it is impossible to advance significant development programs with such a little public sector.
The government has focused on improving the collection of its current revenues with a focus on indirect taxes. Leftist politicians criticize such a structure since indirect taxes affect everyone alike, whereas direct taxes can be weighed according to levels of income and are therefore fairer taxes. However, some basic goods are exempt from the indirect taxes. A 10% value-added tax, implemented in September 1992, was raised to 13% in July 1995; the VAT is the biggest source of revenue, accounting for about 52.3% of total tax revenues in 2004. Remittances from Salvadorans working in the United States sent to family members are a major source of foreign income and offset the substantial trade deficit of around $2.9 billion. Remittances have increased in the last decade and reached an all-time high of $2.9 billion in 2005—approximately 17.1% of gross national product. As of April 2004, net international reserves stood at $1.9 billion. In recent years inflation has fallen to single digit levels, total exports have grown
History of Honduras
Honduras was occupied by many indigenous peoples when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. The western-central part of Honduras was inhabited by the Lencas, the central north coast by the Tol, the area east and west of Trujillo by the Pech, the Maya and Sumo; these autonomous groups maintained commercial relationships with each other and with other populations as distant as Panama and Mexico. Archaeologists have demonstrated. An important part of that prehistory was the Mayan presence around the city of Copán in western Honduras near the Guatemalan border. Copán was a major Maya city that began to flourish around 150 A. D. but reached its height in the Late Classic. It has left behind stelae; the ancient kingdom, named Xukpi, existed from the 5th century to the early 9th century, had antecedents going back to at least the 2nd century. The Mayan civilization began a marked decline in population in the 9th century, but there is evidence of people still living in and around the city until at least 1200.
By the time the Spanish came to Honduras, the once great city-state of Copán was overrun by the jungle, the surviving Ch’orti’ were isolated from their Choltian linguistic peers to the west. The non-Maya Lencas were dominant in western Honduras. Honduras was first sighted by Europeans when Christopher Columbus arrived at the Bay Islands on 30 July 1502 on his fourth voyage. On 14 August 1502 Columbus landed on the mainland near modern Trujillo. Columbus named the country Honduras for the deep waters off its coast. In January 1524, Hernán Cortés directed captain Cristóbal de Olid to establish a colony in Honduras. Olid sailed with several ships and over 400 soldiers and colonists to Cuba to pick up supplies Cortés had arranged for him. There Governor Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar convinced him to claim the colony he was to found as his own. Olid sailed to the coast of Honduras and came ashore east of Puerto Caballos at Triunfo de la Cruz where he settled and declared himself governor. Cortés got word of Olid's insurrection however, sent his cousin Francisco de las Casas with several ships to Honduras to remove Olid and claim the area for Cortés.
Las Casas, lost most of his fleet in a series of storms along the coast of Belize and Honduras. His ships limped into the bay at Triunfo; when Las Casas arrived at Olid's headquarters, a large part of Olid's army was inland, dealing with another threat from a party of Spaniards under Gil González Dávila. Olid decided to launch an attack with two caravels. Las Casas sent boarding parties to capture Olid's ships. Under the circumstances, Olid proposed a truce. Las Casas agreed, did not land his forces. During the night, a fierce storm destroyed about a third of his men were lost; the remainder were taken prisoner after two days of no food. After being forced to swear loyalty to Olid, they were released, but Las Casas was kept prisoner, soon joined by González, captured by Olid's inland force. The Spanish record two different stories about what happened next. Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, writing in the 17th century, said that Olid's soldiers rose up and murdered him. Bernal Diaz del Castillo, in his Verdadera Historia de la Conquista de Nueva España, says that Las Casas captured Olid and beheaded him at Naco.
In the meantime Cortés marched overland from Mexico to Honduras, arriving in 1525. Cortés ordered the founding of two cities, Nuestra Señora de la Navidad, near modern Puerto Cortés and Trujillo, named Las Casas governor. However, both Las Casas and Cortés sailed back to Mexico before the end of 1525, where Las Casas was arrested and returned to Spain as a prisoner by Estrada and Alboronoz. Las Casas returnef to Mexico in 1527, returned again to Spain with Cortés in 1528. On 25 April 1526, before going back to Mexico, Cortes appointed Hernando de Saavedra governor of Honduras with instructions to treat the indigenous people well. On 26 October 1526, Diego López de Salcedo was appointed by the emperor as governor of Honduras, replacing Saavedra; the next decade was marked by clashes between the personal ambitions of the rulers and conquerors, which hindered the installation of good government. The Spanish colonists rebelled against their leaders, the indigenous people rebelled against the Spanish and against the abuses they imposed.
Salcedo, seeking to enrich himself clashed with Pedro Arias Dávila, governor of Castilla del Oro, who wanted Honduras as part of his domains. In 1528, Salcedo arrested Pedarias and forced him to cede part of his Honduran domain, but Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor rejected that outcome. After the death of Salcedo in 1530, settlers became arbiters of power. Governors removed. In this situation, the settlers asked Pedro de Alvarado to end the anarchy. With the arrival of Alvarado in 1536, chaos decreased, the region was under authority. In 1537 Francisco de Montejo was appointed governor, he set aside the division of territory made by Alvarado on arriving in Honduras. One of his principal captains, Alonso de Cáceres, quelled the indigenous revolt led by the cacique Lempira in 1537 and 1538. In 1539 Alvarado and Montejo disagreed over, governor, which caught the attention of the Council of India. Montejo went to Chiapas, Alvarado became governor of Honduras. During the period leading up to the conquest of Honduras by Pedro de Alvarado, many indigenous people along the north coast of Honduras were captured and taken as slaves to work on Spain's Caribbean plantations.
It wasn't until Alvarado defeated the indigenous resistance headed by Çocamba near Ticamaya that the Spanish began to conquer the country in 1536. Al
Honduras the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. In the past, it was sometimes referred to as "Spanish Honduras" to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became modern-day Belize; the republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea. Honduras was home to several important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, before the Spanish invaded in the sixteenth century; the Spanish introduced Roman Catholicism and the now predominant Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with the indigenous culture. Honduras became independent in 1821 and has since been a republic, although it has endured much social strife and political instability, remains one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1960, the northern part of what was the Mosquito Coast was transferred from Nicaragua to Honduras by the International Court of Justice.
The nation's economy is agricultural, making it vulnerable to natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch in 1998. The lower class is agriculturally based while wealth is concentrated in the country's urban centers. Honduras has a Human Development Index of 0.625, classifying it as a nation with medium development. When the Index is adjusted for income inequality, its Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index is 0.443. Honduran society is predominantly Mestizo; the nation had a high political stability until its 2009 coup and again with the 2017 presidential election. Honduras has high levels of sexual violence. Honduras has a population exceeding 9 million, its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone, as reflected in the area's demographics and culture. Honduras is known for its rich natural resources, including minerals, tropical fruit, sugar cane, as well as for its growing textiles industry, which serves the international market; the literal meaning of the term "Honduras" is "depths" in Spanish.
The name could either refer to the bay of Trujillo as an anchorage, fondura in the Leonese dialect of Spanish, or to Columbus's alleged quote that "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras". It was not until the end of the 16th century. Prior to 1580, Honduras referred to only the eastern part of the province, Higueras referred to the western part. Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the political dialogue in 2009 that took place in Honduras as opposed to Costa Rica. Hondurans are referred to as Catracho or Catracha in Spanish; the word was coined by Nicaraguans and derives from the last name of the Spanish Honduran General Florencio Xatruch, who in 1857 led Honduran armed forces against an attempted invasion by North American adventurer William Walker. The nickname is considered not derogatory. In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area. In the west, Mayan civilization flourished for hundreds of years; the dominant state within Honduras' borders was in Copán.
Copán fell with the other Lowland centres during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic in the 9th century. The Maya of this civilization survive in western Honduras as the Ch'orti', isolated from their Choltian linguistic peers to the west. Remnants of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the country. Archaeologists have studied sites such as Naco and La Sierra in the Naco Valley, Los Naranjos on Lake Yojoa, Yarumela in the Comayagua Valley, La Ceiba and Salitron Viejo, Selin Farm and Cuyamel in the Aguan valley, Cerro Palenque, Curruste, Despoloncal in the lower Ulua river valley, many others. On his fourth and the final voyage to the New World in 1502, Christopher Columbus landed near the modern town of Trujillo, near Guaimoreto Lagoon, becoming the first European to visit the Bay Islands on the coast of Honduras. On 30 July 1502, Columbus sent his brother Bartholomew to explore the islands and Bartholomew encountered a Mayan trading vessel from Yucatán, carrying well-dressed Maya and a rich cargo.
Bartholomew's men stole the cargo they wanted and kidnapped the ship's elderly captain to serve as an interpreter in the first recorded encounter between the Spanish and the Maya. In March 1524, Gil González Dávila became the first Spaniard to enter Honduras as a conquistador. Followed by Hernán Cortés, who had brought forces down from Mexico. Much of the conquest took place in the following two decades, first by groups loyal to Cristóbal de Olid, by those loyal to Francisco de Montejo but most by those following Alvarado. In addition to Spanish resources, the conquerors relied on armed forces from Mexico—Tlaxcalans and Mexica armies of thousands who remained garrisoned in the region. Resistance to conquest was led in particular by Lempira. Many regions in the north of Honduras never fell to the Spanish, notably the Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest, Honduras became part of Spain's vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala. Trujillo and Gracias were the first city-capitals.
The Spanish ruled the region for three centuries. Honduras was organized as a province of the Kingdom of Guatemala and the capital was fixed, first at Trujillo on the Atlantic coast, at Comayagua, final
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, mathematics and astronomical system. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador; this region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture and the earliest villages; the Preclassic period saw the establishment of the first complex societies in the Maya region, the cultivation of the staple crops of the Maya diet, including maize, beans and chili peppers. The first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades.
Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC. In the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, the city of Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates; this period saw the Maya civilization develop a large number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, the cities of Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful; the Classic period saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. In the 9th century, there was a widespread political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities, a northward shift of population; the Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, the expansion of the aggressive Kʼicheʼ kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city, in 1697.
Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the "divine king", who acted as a mediator between mortals and the supernatural realm. Kingship was patrilineal, power would pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a closed system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had increased, resulting in the corresponding reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king; the Maya civilization developed sophisticated artforms, the Maya created art using both perishable and non-perishable materials, including wood, obsidian, sculpted stone monuments and finely painted murals. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, surrounded by an irregular sprawl of residential districts. Different parts of a city would be linked by causeways; the principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, structures aligned for astronomical observation.
The Maya elite were literate, developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing, the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, of which only three uncontested examples remain, the rest having been destroyed by the Spanish. There are a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics; the Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars, employed mathematics that included one of the earliest instances of the explicit zero in the world. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice; the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide; the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, cities, monumental architecture and calendrical systems. The set of traits shared by Mesoamerican cultures included astronomical knowledge and human sacrifice, a cosmovision that viewed the world as divided into four divisions aligned with the cardinal directions, each with different attributes, a three-way division of the world into the celestial realm, the earth, the underworld.
By 6000 BC, the early inhabitants of Mesoamerica were experimenting with the domestication of plants, a process that led to the establishment of sedentary agricultural societies. The diverse climate allowed for wide variation in available crops, but all regions of Mesoamerica cultivated the base crops of maize and squashes. All Mesoamerican cultures used Stone Age technology. Mesoamerica lacked draft animals, did not use the wheel, possessed few domesticated animals. Mesoamericans viewed the world as hostile and governed by unpredictable deities; the ritual Mesoamerican ballgame was played. Mesoamerica is linguistically diverse, with most languages falling within a small number of language families—the major families are Mayan, Mixe–Zoquean and Uto-Aztecan.
Economy of Panama
The economy of Panama is a dollarized economy with a history of low inflation. It is based on the services industry weighted toward banking and tourism. Panama's economy is based on a services sector that accounts for nearly 80% of its GDP. Services include the Panama Canal, the Colón Free Trade Zone, container ports, flagship registry and health, other business; the country's industry includes, manufacturing of aircraft spare parts, drinks and textiles. Some exports for Panama are bananas, sugar and clothing. Since the early 16th century, Panama's geographic location has given the country a comparative advantage. Soon after the Spanish arrived, the conquistadors would transport gold and silver from Peru to Spain via the Panama isthmus. Ports on each coast and a trail between them handled much of Spain's colonial trade from which the inhabitants of the port cities prospered; the country has always been dependent on world commerce for its prosperity and imports. Agriculture received little attention until the 20th century, by the 1980s had for most of the population developed beyond indigenous Indian techniques.
Industry developed because the flow of goods from Europe and from North America created a disincentive for local production. Panama has been affected by the cyclical nature of international trade; the economy stagnated in the 18th century. In the mid-19th century, Panama's economy boomed as a result of increased cargo and passengers associated with the California gold rush. A railroad across the isthmus, completed in 1855, prolonged economic growth for about fifteen years until completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States led to a decline of trans-isthmian traffic. France's efforts to construct a canal across the isthmus in the 1880s and efforts by the United States in the early 20th century stimulated the Panamanian economy. In 1903 Panama separated from Colombia and the United States took control of the Panama Canal Zone; the United States completed the canal in 1914, canal traffic expanded by an average of 15% a year between 1915 and 1930. The stimulus was felt in Panama City and Colón, the terminal cities of the canal.
However, the world depression of the 1930s reduced international trade and canal traffic, causing extensive unemployment in the terminal cities and generating a flow of workers to subsistence farming. During World War II, canal traffic did not increase, but the economy boomed as the convoy system and the presence of United States forces, sent to defend the canal, increased foreign spending in the canal cities; the end of the war was followed by an economic depression and another movement of unemployed people into agriculture. The government initiated a modest public works program, instituted price supports for major crops, increased protection for selected agricultural and industrial products; the postwar depression gave way to rapid economic expansion between 1950 and 1970, when GDP increased by an average of 6.4% a year, one of the highest sustained growth rates in the world. All sectors contributed to the growth. Agricultural output rose, boosted by greater fishing activities, the development of high-value fruit and vegetable production, the rapid growth of banana exports after disease-resistant trees were planted.
Commerce evolved into a sophisticated wholesale and retail system. Banking and the export of services to the Canal Zone grew rapidly. Most an increase in world trade provided a major stimulus to use of the canal and to the economy. In the 1970s and 1980s, Panama's growth fluctuated with the vagaries of the world economy. After 1973, economic expansion slowed as the result of a number of international and domestic factors. Real GDP growth averaged 3.5% a year between 1973 and 1979. In the early 1980s, the economy rebounded with GDP growth rates of 15.4% in 1980, 4.2% in 1981, 5.6% in 1982. The acute recession in Latin America after 1982, wreaked havoc on Panama's economy. GDP growth in 1983 was a mere 0.4%. This period coincided with the rise to power of General Manuel Noriega during which Panama became indebted, by 1986 owing SDR284m to the IMF alone, 278% of their quota; this led to the IMF imposing an adjustment program supported by an IMF stand-by arrangement in 1985–87 whilst the economy recovered somewhat.
In 1985 Panama experienced economic recovery with 4.1% GDP growth. The corresponding figure for 1986 was estimated to be 2.8%. The United States started to pursue Noriega for fostering a narco-state in Panama, culminating in sanctions that froze Panama's assets in the United States. Economic turmoil in the country included a general strike and the banking system closing down for two months. Panama made a token payment the day before the IMF meeting in November 1988, but the situation did not resolve until 1989. Presidential elections in May 1989 were condemned by the international community as fraudulent and the IMF began to become impatient with Panama's increasing arrears which had now reached SDR121m; the United States and Germany forced through a resolution on 30 June 1989 declaring Panama ineligible for further support from the IMF. The situation was resolved by the US invasion of Panama in December 1989 which forced the surrender of Noriega. SDR181.5m was still owed to the IMF in April 1990.
After taking offic
Anglican Church in Central America
The Anglican Church in Central America is a province of the Anglican Communion, covering five sees in Central America. Four of the five dioceses of the Iglesia Anglicana de la Región Central de America were founded by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Anglicanism was introduced by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel when England administered two colonies in Central America, British Honduras and Miskitia. In years, immigrants brought the Anglican Church with them; this first period is called the time of the chaplaincies. Bishop William C. Frey was consecrated as the first missionary bishop of the Diocese of Guatemala in 1967. By 2008, the Anglican Church in Central America had voted to consecrate women bishops although none of have been consecrated as of yet. By 2013, the Diocese of El Salvador offered ministries on behalf in support of LGBT members. Julio Murray, bishop of Panama, was elected in April 2018 as primate, he will succeed Sturdie Downs, bishop of Nicaragua in August 2018 when his installation service is expected to take place.
Downs was elected in late 2014 to serve a four-year term of office as primate. Today, there are over 35,000 Anglicans out of an estimated population of 30.1 million. The polity of the Iglesia Anglicana de la Región Central de América is Episcopalian church governance, the same as other Anglican churches; the church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses. There are 5 of these, each headed by a bishop: The Diocese of Costa Rica The Diocese of El Salvador The Diocese of Guatemala The Diocese of Nicaragua The Diocese of PanamáSome countries of Central America are part of other Anglican churches: The Anglican Diocese of Belize is part of the Church in the Province of the West Indies The Episcopal Diocese of Honduras is part of Province 9 of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America The Iglesia Anglicana de la Región Central de América embraces three orders of ministry: deacon and bishop; the Spanish-language version of the Episcopal Church's 1979 Book of Common Prayer is used.
The center of the Iglesia Anglicana de la Región Central de América's teaching is the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The basic teachings of the church, or catechism, includes: Jesus Christ is human and God, he was resurrected from the dead. Jesus provides the way of eternal life for those; the Old and New Testaments of the Bible were written by people "under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit". The Apocrypha are additional books that are used in Christian worship, but not for the formation of doctrine; the two great and necessary sacraments are Holy Baptism and Holy Eucharist Other sacramental rites are confirmation, marriage, reconciliation of a penitent, unction. Belief in heaven and Jesus' return in glory. Unlike many other Anglican churches, the Iglesia Anglicana de la Región Central de América is not a member of the ecumenical World Council of Churches. Within the province, the dioceses represent a diversity of opinions on social issues. Regarding gender equality, the province has dioceses, including the Episcopal Church of Costa Rica, that recognize women in ordained ministry.
In 2012, the Episcopal Church in Nicaragua ordained two women as priests. In 2003, the Primate, or Presiding Bishop, of the Anglican Church in Central America attended the consecration of Bishop Gene Robinson, the first gay and partnered bishop in the Anglican Communion; the Diocese of El Salvador formed a ministry for LGBT people in the country. In 2014, the Episcopal Church of Costa Rica, a diocese of the province, has taken steps to welcome LGBT members. In 2014, the diocese in El Salvador continued to offer a space for LGBT members to "freely express themselves." The Diocese of Guatemala elected the Rev Silvestre Enrique Romero as bishop coadjutor in 2017. The Rev Romero, prior to being elected bishop, served in The Episcopal Church and offered to bless same-sex unions as priest-in-charge. Cornelius Wilson, Bishop of Costa Rica Neill, Stephen. Anglicanism. Oxford University Press. Diocesis de El Salvador Website Iglesia Episcopal De Panama at the Wayback Machine
El Salvador the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador; as of 2016, the country had a population of 6.34 million. El Salvador was for centuries inhabited by several Mesoamerican nations the Cuzcatlecs, as well as the Lenca and Maya. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City; however the Viceroyalty of Mexico had little or no influence in the daily affairs of the Central American isthmus, which would be colonized in 1524. In 1609 the area became the Captaincy General of Guatemala, from which El Salvador was part of until its independence from Spain, which took place in 1821, as part of the First Mexican Empire further seceded, as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, in 1823.
When the Republic dissolved in 1841, El Salvador became a sovereign nation formed a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1895 to 1898. From the late 19th to the mid-20th century, El Salvador endured chronic political and economic instability characterized by coups, a succession of authoritarian rulers. Persistent socioeconomic inequality and civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War, fought between the military-led government and a coalition of left-wing guerrilla groups; the conflict ended with the Chapultepec Peace Accords. This negotiated settlement established a multiparty constitutional republic, which remains in place to this day. El Salvador's economy has been dominated by agriculture, beginning with the indigo plant, the most important crop during the colonial period, followed thereafter by coffee, which by the early 20th century accounted for 90 percent of export earnings. El Salvador has since reduced its dependence on coffee and embarked on diversifying the economy by opening up trade and financial links and expanding the manufacturing sector.
The colón, the official currency of El Salvador since 1892, was replaced by the U. S. dollar in 2001. As of 2010, El Salvador ranks 12th among Latin American countries in terms of the Human Development Index and fourth in Central America due in part to ongoing rapid industrialisation. However, the country continues to struggle with high rates of poverty and crime. Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado named the new province for Jesus Christ – El Salvador; the full name was "Provincia De Nuestro Señor Jesus Cristo, El Salvador Del Mundo", subsequently abbreviated to "El Salvador". Tomayate is a paleontological site located on the banks of the river of the same name in the municipality of Apopa; the site has produced abundant Salvadoran megafauna fossils belonging to the Pleistocene epoch. The paleontological site was discovered accidentally in 2000, in the following year, an excavation by the Museum of Natural History of El Salvador revealed not only several remnants of Cuvieronius, but several other species of vertebrates.
In the Tomayate site, they have recovered at least 19 species of vertebrates, including giant tortoises, Glyptodon, extinct horses, paleo-llamas and a large number of skeletal remains of proboscis genus Cuvieronius. The Tomayate site stands out from most Central American Pleistocene deposits, being more ancient and much richer, which provides valuable information of the Great American Interchange, in which the Central American isthmus landbridge played the title primordial role. At the same time, it is considered the richest vertebrate paleontological site in Central America and one of the largest accumulations of proboscideans in the Americas. Sophisticated civilization in El Salvador dates to its settlement by the indigenous Lenca people; the Lenca were succeeded by the Olmecs, who also disappeared, leaving their monumental architecture in the form of the pyramids still extant in western El Salvador. The Maya arrived and settled in place of the Olmecs, but their numbers were diminished when the Ilopango supervolcano eruption caused a massive Mayan exodus out of what is now El Salvador.
Centuries they themselves were replaced by the Pipil people, Nahua speaking groups who migrated from Mexico in the centuries before the European conquest and occupied the central and western regions. The Pipil were the last indigenous people to arrive in El Salvador, they called their territory Kuskatan, a Pipil word meaning The Place of Precious Jewels, backformed into Classical Nahuatl Cōzcatlān, Hispanicized as Cuzcatlán. The people of El Salvador today are referred to as Salvadoran, while the term Cuzcatleco is used to identify someone of Salvadoran heritage. In pre-Columbian times, the country was inhabited by various other indigenous peoples, including the Lenca, a Chilanga Lencan-speaking group who settled in the eastern highlands. Cuzcatlan was the larger domain until the Spanish conquest. Since El Salvador resided on the eastern edge of the Maya Civilization, the origins of many of El Salvador's ruins are controversial. However, it is agreed that Mayas occupied the areas around Lago de Guija and Cihuatán.
Other ruins such as Tazumal, Joya de Cerén and San Andrés may have been