Lesotho the Kingdom of Lesotho, is an enclaved country–the only one in the world outside of the Italian peninsula–within the border of South Africa. It has a population of around 2 million, its capital and largest city is Maseru. Lesotho was the British Crown Colony of Basutoland, but it declared independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966, it is now a sovereign state, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community. The name Lesotho translates to "the land of the people who speak Sesotho"; the original inhabitants of the area now known as Lesotho were the San people. Examples of their rock art can be found in the mountains throughout the area; the present Lesotho called Basutoland, emerged as a single polity under King Moshoeshoe I in 1822. Moshoeshoe, a son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bakoteli lineage, formed his own clan and became a chief around 1804. Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain, joining with former adversaries in resistance against the Lifaqane associated with the reign of Shaka Zulu from 1818 to 1828.
Subsequent evolution of the state hinged on conflicts between British and Dutch colonists leaving the Cape Colony following its seizure from the French-allied Dutch by the British in 1795, subsequently associated with the Orange River Sovereignty and subsequent Orange Free State. Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset, Eugène Casalis and Constant Gosselin from the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, placed at Morija, developed orthography and printed works in the Sesotho language between 1837 and 1855. Casalis, acting as translator and providing advice on foreign affairs, helped to set up diplomatic channels and acquire guns for use against the encroaching Europeans and the Griqua people. Trekboers from the Cape Colony arrived on the western borders of Basutoland and claimed land rights, beginning with Jan de Winnaar, who settled in the Matlakeng area in May–June 1838; as more Boers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers north of the Caledon, claiming that it had been abandoned by the Sotho people.
Moshoeshoe subsequently signed a treaty with the British Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir George Thomas Napier, that annexed the Orange River Sovereignty that many Boers had settled. These outraged Boers were suppressed in a brief skirmish in 1848. In 1851 a British force was defeated by the Basotho army at Kolonyama, touching off an embarrassing war for the British. After repelling another British attack in 1852, Moshoeshoe sent an appeal to the British commander that settled the dispute diplomatically defeated the Batlokoa in 1853. In 1854 the British pulled out of the region, in 1858 Moshoeshoe fought a series of wars with the Boers in the Free State–Basotho War, losing a great portion of the western lowlands; the last war in 1867 ended when Moshoeshoe appealed to Queen Victoria, who agreed to make Basutoland a British protectorate in 1868. In 1869, the British signed a treaty at Aliwal North with the Boers that defined the boundaries of Basutoland, Lesotho, which by ceding the western territories reduced Moshoeshoe's Kingdom to half its previous size.
Following the cession in 1869, the British transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in Thaba Bosiu to a police camp on the northwest border, until administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony in 1871. Moshoeshoe died on 11 March 1870, marking the end of the traditional era and the beginning of the colonial era, he was buried at Thaba Bosiu. In the early years of British rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated to other territories, forcibly annexed, much to the chagrin of the Basotho; this led to the Gun War in 1881. In 1884, Basutoland was restored to its status as a protectorate, with Maseru again its capital, but remained under direct rule by a governor, though effective internal power was wielded by traditional chiefs. Basutoland gained its independence from Britain and became the Kingdom of Lesotho in 1966. In January 1970, the ruling Basotho National Party lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36.
Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan refused to cede power to the Basotho Congress Party, declared himself Tona Kholo, imprisoned the BCP leadership. BCP began a rebellion and received training in Libya for its Lesotho Liberation Army under the pretense of being Azanian People's Liberation Army soldiers of the Pan Africanist Congress. Deprived of arms and supplies by the Sibeko faction of the PAC in 1978, the 178-strong LLA was rescued from their Tanzanian base by the financial assistance of a Maoist PAC officer, but they launched the guerrilla war with only a handful of old weapons; the main force was defeated in northern Lesotho, guerrillas launched sporadic but ineffectual attacks. The campaign was compromised when BCP's leader, Ntsu Mokhehle, went to Pretoria. In the early 1980s, several Basotho who sympathised with the exiled BCP were threatened with death and attacked by the government of Leabua Jonathan. On 4 September 1981, the family of Benjamin Masilo was attacked. In the attack his 3-year-old grandson lost his life.
Four days Edgar Mahlomola Motuba, the editor of the popular newspaper Leselinyana la Lesotho, was abducted from his home together with two friends and murdered. The BNP ruled from 1966 until January 1970. What ensued was a de facto government led by Dr. Leab
Mbuji-Mayi serves as the capital city of Kasai-Oriental Province in the south-central Democratic Republic of Congo. It is the third largest city in the country, following the capital Kinshasa and second largest city Lubumbashi but ahead of Kisangani and Kananga, though the exact population is not known. Estimates ranged from a 2010 CIA World Factbook estimated population of 1,480,000 to as many as 3,500,000 estimated by the United Nations in 2008. Mbuji-Mayi lies in Luba country on the Sankuru River; the name Mbuji-Mayi comes from the local language and translates as "Goat-Water," a name deriving from the great number of goats in the region and the city's location on the Sankuru, making it a prime watering spot. Despite its large population, the city remains remote, having little connection to surrounding provinces or to Kinshasa and Lubumbashi. Air travel is provided through the Mbuji Mayi Airport; the region where the city of Mbuji-Mayi now stands was once a cluster of villages on land owned by the Bakwanga clan.
Diamonds were first discovered in the area as early as 1907, but the true value of the find was not recognised until 1913. Following the discovery, a mining camp designed to house miners and company officials of the Societé minière de Bakwanga was developed in the area; the young city, known at the time as Bakwanga, grew but around strict planning by MIBA, which divided the community into labor camps, mining areas and living quarters. The city's growth was not explosive, planning was done with the needs of the mining company in mind, not the development of the region as a general population centre. In fact, fearing theft of the company's diamond resources, the MIBA discouraged building in the region and monitored who went in and out of the region; every person in the region needed a permit allowing them to be there, registration at a command post that monitored the population, which made indefinite residence in the area impossible to establish. There was limited economic activity besides the company-run mining, with limited agriculture, the city's population remained low, at 39,830 by the late 1950s.
As the city grew and more infrastructure needs required investment in roads, public works and hospitals. While several primary schools were developed for workers, until independence, there was no higher education available for the native population; the area around Mbuji-Mayi is one of the richest sources of mineral wealth in the world. In the 1950s, it was estimated that the Mbuji-Mayi area had the world's most important industrial diamond deposits, containing at least 300 million karats of diamonds; the city was constructed on top of the diamond deposits, while the city's reputation as a company town under tight control of Belgian economic interests meant it was neat and orderly, it meant that the city's buildings and homes, including those of top MIBA executives, were sometimes demolished to access the diamonds. In the earlier years, most of the diamonds mined in the area came from one large MIBA-controlled mine on the city's outskirts, but diamonds could be found in the area's streams and waterways, making it possible for anyone to collect them.
As of 1963, Mbuji-Mayi-based MIBA was the source of 80 percent of the world's industrial diamonds and 57 percent of all diamonds. Mbuji-Mayi grew upon Congolese independence in 1960 with the immigration of members of the Luba ethnic group from different parts of the country. Shortly after independence, Albert Kalonji, a Luba tribal chief, declared himself ruler of the secessionist Mining State of South Kasai on Aug. 8, 1960 and established the city, still known as Bakwanga, as his capital. In April 1961, Kalonji declared himself as emperor of the region in a traditional tribal ceremony and returned to Bakwanga, where he was "carried through crowds of chanting and cheering Balubas," and dancing continued outside his royal palace there for four days; the celebrating was short-lived, as the central government Armée Nationale Congolaise troops took control of the town and arrested Kalonji, by December 1961. After an escape from the jail in which he was being held, he re-established his government.
A second assault on the independent state was launched in the summer of 1962, with ANC government troops fighting poorly armed tribesmen outside of the city. Kalonji was captured again, on 4 October 1962, when ANC forces retook Bakwanga ending the region's independence. Soon after the end of the secession, Bakwanga was renamed Mbuji-Mayi after the local river in an attempt to signify a Luba intra-ethnicity reconciliation. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Zaïre and Mobutu paid little attention to Mbuji-Mayi, offering no money to build roads, schools or hospitals. In the political vacuum, MIBA stepped in. In the place of the federal government, MIBA invested in the region by repairing roads, paying soldiers and supplying water and electricity to the city from its own power station; the company set up a social fund of $5 to $6 million a year 8 percent of its annual budget. This money went to fund a new university; the investments and ita position as largest employer made Jonas Mukamba Kadiata Nzemba the chief executive officer of MIBA one of the most powerful men in the region, the de facto governor of Mbuji-Mayi.
Nzemba, appointed by Mobutu in 1986, was considered one of the more powerful players in Mobutu's political party, the Mouvement Populaire pour le Revolution, but he called himself a "brother" of Étienne Tshisekedi, a popular local political figure and Mobutu's most significant political opposition. Nzemba is credited with creating the Conference pour le Developpement Economique de Kasai
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Golden Jubilee Diamond
The Golden Jubilee Diamond, a 545.67 carat brown diamond, is the largest cut and faceted diamond in the world. It outweighs the Cullinan I by 15.37 carats. The Golden Jubilee Diamond was discovered in the Premier Mine, the origin of the Cullinan diamond and other notables such as the Taylor–Burton and the Centenary. Cullinan I known as the Great Star of Africa, had held the title of the largest cut and faceted diamond since 1908. First known as the "Unnamed Brown", the Golden Jubilee Diamond was cut from a large brown diamond of 755.5 carats, found in the prolific blue ground of the Premier Mine in South Africa in 1985. Until 1990, the diamond remained unknown to the outside world, requiring two years work to bring it to its current state. A large surface and deep cracks from the interior, as well as several inclusions, meant that cutting and polishing the big diamond presented challenges. De Beers considered this as an opportunity to test new cutting technologies; the same technology used in cutting the future Golden Jubilee diamond was used in the cutting of the Centenary Diamond, a smaller flawless and colorless rough diamond.
Gabriel Tolkowsky was hired by De Beers to cut the diamond and so he could test special tools and cutting methods that were being developed for use on the colourless D-colour Centenary. Because of its cracks and inclusions, it was decided by De Beers and Gabriel Tolkowsky to construct an underground room, free from vibration before work could begin on the diamond. In 1990, after two years of work, the stone was finished, reduced in total from 755.50 carats, to 545.65 carats. Gabi Tolkowsky described the cut as a “Fire-Rose cushion shape.” The unnamed diamond was brought to Thailand by the Thai Diamond Manufacturers Association to be exhibited in the Thai Board of Investment Exhibition in Laem Chabang and was selected to herald De Beer's centennial celebrations in 1988. The Golden Jubilee was purchased from De Beers by a group of Thai business people led by Henry Ho in 1995, it was arranged for the diamond to be given to King Bhumibol as a gift from the people to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the King’s ascent to the throne.
The diamond was named the Golden Jubilee, was received by the King’s daughter, Princess Matia Chakri Sirindhom, on his behalf in 2000. The diamond is now on display in the Royal Museum at Pimammek Golden Temple Throne Hall in Bangkok as part of the crown jewels; the diamond was brought to Pope John Paul II in the Vatican to receive a papal blessing. It was blessed by the Buddhist Supreme Patriarch of Thailand and the Islamic Chularatchamontri; the diamond was named by King Bhumibol Adulyadej and given to him in honour of his 50th coronation anniversary. It was planned to mount the Golden Jubilee in the royal sceptre. A subsequent plan was to mount it in a royal seal; the Golden Jubilee Diamond has been exhibited at Henry Ho's 59-story Jewelry Trade Center in Bangkok, the Central Department Store in Lat Phrao, internationally in Basel, Borsheims in Omaha, Nebraska, USA, Gleims Jewelers in Palo Alto, California. USA, it is now located in the Grand Palace as part of the Crown jewels. The value of the Golden Jubilee diamond is believed to range between $4 and $12 million USD.
If sold at auction, it is that this stone would fetch a higher price
The Premier Mine is an underground diamond mine owned by Petra Diamonds in the town of Cullinan, 40 kilometres east of Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Established in 1902, it was renamed the Cullinan Diamond Mine in November 2003 in celebration of its centenary; the mine rose to prominence in 1905, when the Cullinan Diamond – the largest rough diamond of gem quality found – was discovered there. The mine has produced over 750 stones that are greater than 100 carats and more than a quarter of all the world's diamonds that are greater than 400 carats, it is the only significant source of blue diamonds in the world. The Cullinan Diamond is the largest rough gem-quality diamond found, at 3,106.75 carats. It was found by Frederick Wells, surface manager of the Premier Diamond Mining Company in Cullinan, South Africa, on 25 January 1905; the stone was named after the owner of the diamond mine. There have been various other notable diamonds; these include: The Premier Rose – 353 carats rough The Niarchos – 426 carats rough The De Beers Centenary – 275 carats rough Golden Jubilee Diamond – 755 carats rough Taylor-Burton Diamond – 69 carats polishedThe Cullinan Heritage—507 carats rough—was recovered from the same mine.
In February 2010, it was sold for USD 35.3 million. Until now, this is the highest price on record for a rough diamond. In May 2008, a sparkling shield-shaped 101.27-carat diamond mined from the Premier Mine sold for more than US$6.2 million at Christie's in Hong Kong. Cut from a 460 carats rough, the shield-shaped gem boasts 92 brilliant facets. While internally flawless, the stone has a slight imperfection on the surface, imperceptible to the human eye, the auction house said, it is the largest colourless diamond to appear on the auction market in the last 18 years, Christie's said. Only three diamonds of more than 100 carats have appeared at auction. All were sold in Geneva. Naming rights were granted to the new owner. In September 2009, a 507-carat diamond was found, is ranked as one of the 20 biggest high quality diamonds discovered. Petra Diamonds sold it for $35.3 million on 26 February 2010, breaking a record as the highest price paid for a rough diamond. On 18 April 2013 a 25.5-carat blue rough diamond was recovered by Petra Diamonds at its Cullinan mine.
According to experts it could be worth more than $10m. The find; the mine is famed for its production of blue diamonds. A similar 26.6-carat blue rough diamond recovered by Petra in May 2009 was cut into a near perfect stone and fetched just under $10m at Sotheby's. Another deep-blue diamond from Cullinan was auctioned for $10.8m last year and set a world record for the value per carat. On 21 January 2014, Petra Diamonds announced recovery of a 29.6-carat blue diamond. According to the current CEO, Johan Dippenaar, it is one the "most significant blue diamond" to be recovered by Petra Diamonds. According to Analyst Cailey Barker at broker Numis it "could fetch between $15m and $20m at auction". Decision on what is to be done with the stone will come next week. On 13 June 2014, Petra Diamonds announced that a blue diamond of 122.52 carats was found at the Cullinan mine. The diamond, though not yet appraised, is expected to fetch more than 35 million dollars, the approximate value of the Heritage Diamond found in that mine.
Petra Diamonds says that the diamond will not be put up for auction before their fiscal year ends this month. Cullinan Diamond Mine is a carrot has a surface area of 32 hectares. On 22 November 2007, De Beers, the world's largest diamond producer, sold its historic Cullinan mine to Petra Diamonds Cullinan Consortium, a consortium led by Petra Diamonds. Diamond Mines of South Africa, Premier Diamond mine overview + images by A. R. Williams former general manager of De Beers. De Beers sells South African Cullinan Diamond Mine Official website
Harry Winston was an American jeweler. He donated the Hope Diamond to the Smithsonian Institution in 1958 after owning it for a decade, he traded the Portuguese Diamond to the Smithsonian in 1963. Winston founded the Harry Winston Inc. in New York City in 1932. He had been called by many as the "King of Diamonds". Winston's father Jacob started a small jewelry business after he and his mother immigrated to the United States from Ukraine. While growing up, he worked in his father's shop; when he was twelve years old, he recognized a two-carat emerald in a pawn shop, bought it for 25 cents, sold it two days for $800. Winston started his business in 1920 and opened his first store in New York City in 1932. Winston's jewelry empire began in 1926, with his acquisition of Arabella Huntington's jewelry collection, for $1.2 million. The wife of railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington, Arabella amassed one of the world's most prestigious collections of jewelry from Parisian jewelers such as Cartier; when Winston bought the collection after her death, the designs of the jewelry in the collection were quite old fashioned.
Winston redesigned the jewelry into more contemporary styles and showcased his unique skill at jewelry crafting. According to the Huntington museum, "He boasted that Arabella's famous necklace of pearls now adorned the necks of at least two dozen women around the world."When he died, Winston left the company to his two sons and Bruce, who entered into a decade-long battle over the control of the company. In 2000, Ronald along with new business partner, Fenway Partners, bought Bruce out from the company for $54.1 million. Winston was among the most noted jewelers in the world, well-known to the general public. In the 1953 musical film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, the song "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" includes the spoken interjection "Talk to me, Harry Winston, tell me all about it!" The Lauren Weisberger comic novel, Chasing Harry Winston, was published in May 2008. In 2015, Harry Winston, Inc. operated 39 salons and numerous retail affiliates in locations such as New York, Beverly Hills, Las Vegas, Honolulu, Bal Harbour, Costa Mesa, other countries around the world.
Reference: The Arcots, first 33.70 and 23.65 carats, recut by Winston to 31.01 and 18.85 carats, respectively. The stones were thought to be a match, but when Winston bought them, removed them from their settings and discovered they were not, he decided to recut them to improve their clarity and brilliance. Both were either colorless or near-colorless, antique pear-shaped brilliants; the Anastasia, three emerald cuts weighing 42.95, 30.90 and 22.88 carats, all D color and Flawless clarity. Cut from a rough crystal weighing 307.30 carats Winston had purchased in 1972, largest gem named after Anastasia Nikolaevna, daughter of Czar Nicholas II. The Ashoka a 42.47 carats, modified elongated cushion brilliant. Purchased by Winston from a Chinese dealer in 1947. Stone was recut in 1977 from its original weight of 42.47 carats before it was sold again as a ring. The Blue Heart, a 30.82 carats, heart-shaped brilliant. After the cut was made, Cartier sold it to the Unzue family of Argentina in 1910, it reappeared in Paris in 1953 where it was purchased by an important European titled family purchased by Harry Winston in 1959.
Winston mounted it in a ring and sold it to Marjorie Merriweather Post, who donated it to the Smithsonian Institution. The Briolette of India, a 90.38 carats, briolette cut. The Cornflower Blue, 31.93 carats pear brilliant. The larger stone was sold in 1969 as the pendant for a diamond necklace. Winston repurchased it two years then sold it to a Middle Eastern client; the round brilliant was set as a ring and sold in 1969. In 1987 the pear brilliant was auctioned in Switzerland; the Countess Széchényi, a 62.05 carats, D color, pear-shaped brilliant. Purchased by Winston in 1959 from namesake and recut to a flawless 59.38 carats. Sold to an American industrialist in 1966; the Crown of Charlemagne, a 37.05 carats, sky blue, Old European cut brilliant. The Deal Sweetener, a 45.31 carats diamond plus four smaller stones, D color and Flawless, emerald cut. In 1974 Winston bought a large parcel of diamonds worth $24,500,000—at that time the largest individual sale of diamonds in history. Harry Oppenheimer, head of De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. arranged the transaction.
When Winston asked Oppenheimer, "How about a little something to sweeten the deal?" Harry Oppenheimer pulled a 181 carats rough diamond out of his pocket and rolled it across the table. Winston picked up the stone and said "Thanks." It was cut into the largest being named the Deal Sweetener. Other gems cut from the crystal: An emerald cut of 24.67 carats, plus three pear shapes of 10.80, 4.19 and 1.45 carats, respectively. All were sold that same year; the Deepdene, a 104.52 carats, antique cushion brilliant. Purchased by Winston in 1954 from Cary W. Bok sold the following year to Mrs. Eleanor Loder of Canada. Resurfaced in 1971 and put up for auction at Christie's in