John Glover Roberts Jr. is the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States, serving in this role since 2005. Roberts was born in Buffalo, New York, but grew up in northwest Indiana and was educated in a private school, he attended Harvard College and Harvard Law School, where he was a managing editor of the Harvard Law Review. After being admitted to the bar, he served as a law clerk for Judge Henry Friendly and Associate Justice William Rehnquist before taking a position in the Attorney General's office during the Reagan Administration, he went on to serve the Reagan administration and the George H. W. Bush administration in the Department of Justice and the Office of the White House Counsel, before spending 14 years in private law practice. During this time, he argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court. Notably, he represented 19 states in United States v. Microsoft Corp. In 2003, Roberts was appointed as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by George W. Bush.
During his two-year tenure on the D. C. Circuit, Roberts authored 49 opinions, eliciting two dissents from other judges, authoring three dissents of his own. In 2005, Roberts was nominated to be an associate justice of the Supreme Court to succeed the retiring Sandra Day O'Connor; when Rehnquist died before Roberts's confirmation hearings began, Bush instead nominated Roberts to fill the chief justice position. Roberts has authored the majority opinion in many landmark cases, including Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, Shelby County v. Holder, National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, King v. Burwell, he has been described as having a conservative judicial philosophy in his jurisprudence. So, Roberts has shown a willingness to work with the Supreme Court's liberal bloc and since the retirement of Anthony Kennedy in 2018, has come to be regarded as a key swing vote on the Court. John Glover Roberts was born in Buffalo, New York, the son of Rosemary and John Glover "Jack" Roberts Sr..
His father was a plant manager with Bethlehem Steel. His father has Irish and Welsh ancestry and his mother is of Czech descent; when Roberts was in fourth grade, his family moved to Indiana. He grew up with three sisters: Kathy and Berbere. Roberts attended a Roman Catholic grade school in Long Beach. In 1973, he graduated from La Lumiere School, a Roman Catholic boarding school in La Porte, where he was a student and athlete, he studied five years of Latin, some French, was known for his devotion to his studies. He was captain of the football team, was a regional champion in wrestling, he participated in choir and drama, co-edited the school newspaper, served on the athletic council and the executive committee of the student council. After graduating from high school in 1973, Roberts entered Harvard University as a history major. Due to his academic excellence in high school, Roberts entered Harvard with sophomore standing. One of his first papers, "Marxism and Bolshevism: Theory and Practice," won the William Scott Ferguson Prize for most outstanding essay assignment by a sophomore history major.
He graduated in 1976 with membership in Phi Beta Kappa and a B. A. summa cum laude, having written a senior honors thesis entitled "Old and New Liberalism: The British Liberal Party's Approach to the Social Problem, 1906–1914". Roberts planned to pursue a Ph. D. in history and decided to study law instead. He attended Harvard Law School, he graduated in 1979 with a J. D. magna cum laude. After graduating from law school, Roberts clerked for Judge Henry Friendly of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit from 1979 to 1980. From 1980 to 1981, he clerked for Justice William Rehnquist of the U. S. Supreme Court. From 1981 to 1982, he served in the Reagan administration as a special assistant to U. S. Attorney General William French Smith. From 1982 to 1986, Roberts served as associate counsel to the president under White House counsel Fred Fielding. Roberts entered private law practice in Washington, D. C. as an associate at the law firm Hogan & Hartson. As part of Hogan & Hartson's pro bono work, he worked behind the scenes for gay rights advocates, reviewing filings and preparing arguments for the Supreme Court case Romer v. Evans, described in 2005 as "the movement's most important legal victory".
Roberts argued on behalf of the homeless, a case which became one of Roberts' "few appellate losses." Another pro bono matter was a death penalty case in which he represented John Ferguson, convicted of killing eight people in Florida. Roberts left Hogan & Hartson to serve in the George H. W. Bush administration as principal deputy solicitor general, from 1989 to 1993 and as acting solicitor general for the purposes of at least one case when Ken Starr had a conflict. In 1992, George H. W. Bush nominated Roberts to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, but no Senate vote was held, Roberts's nomination expired at the end of the 102nd Congress. Roberts returned to Hogan & Hartson as a partner and became the head of the firm's appellate practice in addition to serving as an adjunct faculty member at the Georgetown University Law Center. During this time, Roberts argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court, he represented 19 states in United States v. Microsoft; those cases include: During the late 1990s, while working for Hogan & Hartson, Roberts served as a member of the steering committee of the Washington
The Warren Court was the period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice. Warren replaced the deceased Fred M. Vinson as Chief Justice in 1953, Warren remained in office until he retired in 1969. Warren was succeeded as Chief Justice by Warren Burger. Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents; the Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, the federal power in dramatic ways. The court was both applauded and criticized for bringing an end to racial segregation in the United States, incorporating the Bill of Rights, ending sanctioned voluntary prayer in public schools; the period is recognized as the highest point in judicial power that has receded since, but with a substantial continuing impact. The Warren Court began when President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Earl Warren, the incumbent governor of California, to replace Fred Vinson as Chief Justice of the United States.
The court began with Warren, Hugo Black, Stanley Forman Reed, Felix Frankfurter, William O. Douglas, Robert H. Jackson, Harold Hitz Burton, Tom C. Clark, Sherman Minton. Jackson died in 1954 and Minton retired in 1956, they were replaced by John Marshall Harlan II and William Brennan. Another vacancy took place when Reed retired in 1957, was replaced by Charles Evans Whittaker, Burton retired in 1958, with Eisenhower appointing Potter Stewart in his place; when Frankfurter and Whittaker retired in 1962, it gave President John F. Kennedy a chance to appoint two new members: Byron White and Arthur Goldberg. However, President Lyndon B. Johnson encouraged Goldberg to resign in 1965 to become Ambassador of the United Nations, nominated Abe Fortas to take his place. Clark retired in 1967, Johnson appointed Thurgood Marshall to the court. Prominent members of the Court during the Warren era besides the Chief Justice included justices: Brennan, Black and Harlan. One of the primary factors in Warren's leadership was his political background, having served two and a half terms as Governor of California and experience as the Republican candidate for vice president in 1948.
Warren brought a strong belief in the remedial power of law. According to historian Bernard Schwartz, Warren's view of the law was pragmatic, seeing it as an instrument for obtaining equity and fairness. Schwartz argues that Warren's approach was most effective "when the political institutions had defaulted on their responsibility to try to address problems such as segregation and reapportionment and cases where the constitutional rights of defendants were abused."A related component of Warren's leadership was his focus on broad ethical principles, rather than narrower interpretative structures. Describing the latter as "conventional reasoning patterns," Professor Mark Tushnet suggests Warren disregarded these in groundbreaking cases such as Brown v. Board of Education, Reynolds v. Sims and Miranda v. Arizona, where such traditional sources of precedent were stacked against him. Tushnet suggests Warren's principles "were philosophical and intuitive, not legal in the conventional technical sense."Warren's leadership was characterized by remarkable consensus on the court in some of the most controversial cases.
These included Brown v. Board of Education, Gideon v. Wainwright, Cooper v. Aaron, which were unanimously decided, as well as Abington School District v. Schempp and Engel v. Vitale, each striking down religious recitations in schools with only one dissent. In an unusual action, the decision in Cooper was signed by all nine justices, with the three new members of the Court adding that they supported and would have joined the Court's decision in Brown v. Board. Fallon says. Many law professors were perplexed sympathetic to the Court's results but skeptical of the soundness of its constitutional reasoning, and some of course were horrified." Professor John Hart Ely in his book Democracy and Distrust famously characterized the Warren Court as a "Carolene Products Court". This referred to the famous Footnote Four in United States v. Carolene Products, in which the Supreme Court had suggested that heightened judicial scrutiny might be appropriate in three types of cases: those where a law was challenged as a deprivation of a enumerated right those where a challenged law made it more difficult to achieve change through normal political processes those where a law impinged on the rights of "discrete and insular minorities"The Warren Court's doctrine can be seen as proceeding aggressively in these general areas: its aggressive reading of the first eight amendments in the Bill of Rights its commitment to unblocking the channels of political change its vigorous protection of the rights of racial minority groupsThe Warren Court, while in many cases taking a broad view of individual rights declined to read the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment broadly, outside of the incorporation context.
The Warren Court's decisions were strongly nationalist in thrust, as the Court read Congress's power under the Commerce Clause quite broadly and expressed an unwillingness to allow constitutional rights to vary from state to state. Professor Rebe
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
United States Supreme Court Building
The Supreme Court Building houses the Supreme Court of the United States. Completed in 1935, it is in Washington, D. C. at 1 First Street, NE, in the block east of the United States Capitol. The building is under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol. On May 4, 1987, the Supreme Court Building was designated a National Historic Landmark; the building is the official residence and workplace of the Supreme Court Justices of the United States. This building was referred to as The Marble Palace by John P. Frank, is located at One First Street within a mile proximity of the Library of Congress, NE Washington; the physical construction of this building began in 1932 and was completed in 1935, however the idea to create this building originated from William Howard Taft in 1912 and was completed under the guidance of Chief Justice Hughes. The building was designed by Cass Gilbert, a well-known architect and friend to Justice Taft; the Supreme Court Building is the official residence and workplace of the Supreme Court Justices of the United States.
The building was referred to as The Marble Palace by John P. Frank. Prior to the establishment of the Federal City, the United States government resided in New York City; the Supreme Court met there in the Merchants Exchange Building. When the capital moved to Philadelphia, the Court moved with it and began meeting in Independence Hall, before settling in Old City Hall at 5th and Chestnut Streets from 1791 until 1800. After the federal government moved to Washington, D. C. the court had no permanent meeting location until 1810. When the architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe had the second U. S. Senate chamber built directly on top of the first US Senate chamber, the Supreme Court took up residence in what is now referred to as the Old Supreme Court Chamber from 1810 through 1860, it remained in the Capitol until 1935, with the exception of a period from 1812 to 1819, during which the Court was absent from W ashington because of the British invasion and the destruction of the Capitol during the War of 1812.
In 1810, the Supreme Court first occupied the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the Capitol. As the Senate expanded, it progressively outgrew its quarters. In 1860, after the new wings of the Capitol for the Senate and the House of Representatives had been completed, the Supreme Court moved to the Old Senate Chamber where it remained until its move to the current Supreme Court building; the physical construction of this building began in 1932 and was completed in 1935, however the idea to create this building originated from Chief Justice William Howard Taft in 1912 and was completed under the guidance of Chief Justice Hughes. In 1929, Chief Justice Taft argued for the Court to have its own headquarters to distance itself from Congress as an independent branch of government, but he did not live to see it built; the court was designed by Cass Gilbert, a well-known architect and friend to Justice Taft, created many other structures in the United States. From 1860 to 1935, the Supreme Court Justices were designated to conduct their work within the cramped space of the old Senate Chamber alongside other federal government employees.
This environment discouraged the Supreme Court Justices from travelling to Washington, so they conducted most of their work from their homes. Before the Supreme Court building was approved, Charles Evans Hughes, an Associate Justice from 1910 to 1914, was vocally outspoken about the poor conditions of the justices's working environment and described the Old Senate Chamber as small and barren. Through the rigorous lobbying efforts of Chief Justice Taft, he was able to secure the funding needed from Congress for a Supreme Court building in 1929. Taft's motivations for a Supreme Court building were fueled by the relationship between the judicial branch and the other branches of government, as well as the drastic differences in his working environment from when he served as President of the United States to when he served as the Chief Supreme Court Justice; as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Taft envisioned the judicial branch of government to embody a persona of independence, therefore saw the Supreme Court building as a means of establishing his vision.
The Supreme Court building would not have been completed without the further commitment of Charles Evans Hughes, who succeeded Taft as Chief Justice in 1930. Chief Justice White was part of the initial resistance to the idea of a Supreme Court building, he argued. Many Justices in addition to Justice White refused to conduct their work within the building, remained in their homes; the familiarity of their work spaces at home discouraged the justices from operating in a new location, they were given funding by Congress to work from their homes. Justices Harlan Stone and Louis Brandeis did not move into the new Supreme Court Building during their service on the court. Brandeis believed that Taft's intentions behind the new building represented a conflict between the judicial branch and the executive and legislative branches of government. Brandeis opposed Taft's efforts to secure a new Supreme Court building by suggesting that a new wing should be added to the capitol to avoid having to work from his home.
A decade after the Supreme Court building was complete, all nine justices occupied an office within its body. This is because the justices that did not favor the new Supreme Court Building were replaced by new justices who were not as familiar with working from home; the main opposition to the crea
Clarence Thomas is an American judge and government official who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He is the most senior associate justice on the Court following the retirement of Anthony Kennedy. Thomas is the second African American to serve on the Court. Among the current members of the Court he is the longest-serving justice, with a tenure of 10,031 days as of April 10, 2019. Thomas grew up in Savannah and was educated at the College of the Holy Cross and at Yale Law School, he was appointed an Assistant Attorney General in Missouri in 1974, subsequently practiced law there in the private sector. In 1979, he became a legislative assistant to Senator John Danforth and in 1981 was appointed Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights at the U. S. Department of Education. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed Thomas Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In 1990, President George H. W. Bush nominated Thomas for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
He served in that role for 16 months, on July 1, 1991, was nominated by Bush to fill Marshall's seat on the United States Supreme Court. Thomas's confirmation hearings were bitter and intensely fought, centering on an accusation that he had sexually harassed attorney Anita Hill, a subordinate at the Department of Education and subsequently at the EEOC. Hill claimed that Thomas had made sexual and romantic overtures to her, despite her rebuffing him and telling him to stop; the U. S. Senate confirmed Thomas by a vote of 52–48. Since joining the court, Thomas has taken a textualist approach, seeking to uphold the original meaning of the United States Constitution and statutes, he is along with fellow justice Neil Gorsuch, an advocate of natural law jurisprudence. Thomas is viewed as the most conservative member of the court. Thomas is known for never speaking during oral arguments. Clarence Thomas was born in 1948 in Pin Point, Georgia, a small, predominantly black community near Savannah founded by freedmen after the American Civil War.
He was the second of three children born to M. C. Thomas, a farm worker, Leola Williams, a domestic worker, they were descendants of American slaves, the family spoke Gullah as a first language. Thomas's earliest known ancestors were slaves named Sandy and Peggy, who were born around the end of the 18th century and owned by wealthy planter Josiah Wilson of Liberty County, Georgia. M. C. left his family. Thomas's mother was sometimes paid only pennies per day, she had difficulty putting food on the table, was forced to rely on charity. After a house fire left them homeless and his younger brother Myers were taken to live with his maternal grandparents in Savannah, Georgia. Thomas was seven when the family moved in with his maternal grandfather, Myers Anderson, Anderson's wife, Christine, in Savannah. Living with his grandparents, Thomas enjoyed amenities such as indoor plumbing and regular meals for the first time in his life, his grandfather, Myers Anderson, had little formal education, but had built a thriving fuel oil business that sold ice.
Thomas calls his grandfather "the greatest man I have known." When Thomas was 10, Anderson started taking the family to help at a farm every day from sunrise to sunset. His grandfather believed in hard self-reliance. Thomas' grandfather impressed upon his grandsons the importance of getting a good education. Raised Catholic, he attended the majority-black St. Pius X high school for two years before transferring to St. John Vianney's Minor Seminary on the Isle of Hope, where he was an honor student and among few black students, he briefly attended Conception Seminary College, a Roman Catholic seminary in Missouri. No-one in Thomas's family had attended college. In a number of interviews, Thomas stated that he left the seminary in the aftermath of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr, he had overheard another student say after the shooting, "Good, I hope the son of a bitch died." He did not think. At a nun's suggestion, Thomas attended the College of the Holy Cross in Massachusetts. While there, Thomas helped.
Once, he walked out after an incident in which black students were punished while white students went undisciplined for committing the same violation. Having spoken the Gullah language as a child, Thomas realized in college that he still sounded unpolished despite having been drilled in grammar at school, he chose to major in English literature "to conquer the language." At Holy Cross, he was a member of Alpha Sigma Nu and the Purple Key Society. Thomas graduated from Holy Cross in 1971 with an A. B. cum laude in English literature. Thomas had a series of deferments from the military draft while in college at Holy Cross. Upon graduation, he was classified as 1-A and received a low lottery number, indicating he might be drafted to serve in Vietnam. Thomas failed his medical exam, due to curvature of the spine, was not drafted. Thomas entered Yale Law School, from which he received a Juris Doctor degree in 1974, graduating towards the middle of his class. Thomas has recollected that his Yale Juris Doctor degr
Brett Michael Kavanaugh is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and as a staff lawyer for various offices of the federal government. Kavanaugh graduated from Yale University. After graduating from Yale Law School, he began his career as a law clerk and a postgraduate fellow working under Judge Ken Starr. After Starr left the D. C. Circuit to take the position as head of the Office of Independent Counsel, Kavanaugh followed and assisted him with various investigations concerning President Bill Clinton, including the drafting of the Starr Report, which urged Clinton's impeachment. After the 2000 U. S. presidential election, he joined the administration as White House Staff Secretary and was a central figure in its efforts to identify and confirm judicial nominees. Kavanaugh was nominated to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit by President Bush in 2003.
His confirmation hearings were contentious. He was confirmed to the D. C. Circuit in May 2006 after a series of negotiations between Democratic and Republican U. S. Senators. A Washington Post analysis found he had the most or second-most conservative voting record on the D. C. Court in every policy area between 2003 and 2018. President Trump nominated Kavanaugh to the U. S. Supreme Court on July 9, 2018, to fill the position vacated by retiring Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy; when Kavanaugh's name was on the short list of Supreme Court nominees and before his nomination, Palo Alto University Professor of Psychology Christine Blasey Ford contacted a Washington Post tip line with accusations that Kavanaugh had sexually assaulted her in the early 1980s while the two were in high school. Two other women accused Kavanaugh of sexual misconduct. Kavanaugh denied all three accusations; the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee held a supplemental hearing over Ford's allegations, after which it voted to advance the confirmation to a full Senate vote.
After delaying the vote for an additional FBI investigation, the Senate confirmed Kavanaugh's nomination by a vote of 50–48 on October 6, 2018. Kavanaugh was born on February 12, 1965, in Washington, D. C. the son of Martha Gamble and Everett Edward Kavanaugh Jr. His father was an attorney and served as the president of the Cosmetic and Fragrance Association for two decades, his mother was a history teacher at Woodson and McKinley high schools in Washington in the 1960s and 1970s. She earned a J. D. degree from Washington College of Law in 1978 and served as a Maryland Circuit Court judge from 1995 to 2001 in Montgomery County. Kavanaugh is of Irish Catholic descent on both sides with his paternal great-grandfather arriving in the late 1800s from Roscommon in Ireland, his maternal Irish lineage goes back to his great-great-grandparents settling in New Jersey. Kavanaugh was raised in Maryland; as a teenager, he attended Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit boys college prep school, where he was two years ahead of future U.
S. Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch, he was a wide receiver and cornerback on the football team. Kavanaugh was friends with classmate Mark Judge, he graduated in 1983. After prep school, Kavanaugh attended Yale University. Several of Kavanaugh's Yale classmates remembered him as a "serious but not showy student" who loved sports basketball, he unsuccessfully tried out for the Yale Bulldogs men's basketball team and played for two years on the junior varsity team. He wrote articles about basketball and other sports for the Yale Daily News, was a member of the fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon, he graduated from Yale in 1987 with a Bachelor of Arts cum laude in history. In October 2018, it was reported that Kavanaugh and Chris Dudley were in a bar fight in September 1985 after Kavanaugh threw ice at a man who looked like Ali Campbell of UB40. Kavanaugh attended Yale Law School, where he lived in a group house with future judge James E. Boasberg, played basketball with professor George L. Priest, was a notes editor for the Yale Law Journal.
He graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1990. Kavanaugh first worked as a law clerk for Judge Walter King Stapleton of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. During Kavanaugh's clerkship, Stapleton wrote the majority opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, in which the Third Circuit upheld many of Pennsylvania's abortion restrictions. George Priest recommended Kavanaugh to Ninth Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski, regarded as a feeder judge. After clerking for Kozinski, Kavanaugh next interviewed for a clerkship with Chief Justice William Rehnquist on the U. S. Supreme Court, but was not offered a clerkship. Kavanaugh was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1990 and the District of Columbia Bar in 1992. In 1992, Kavanaugh earned a one-year fellowship with the Solicitor General of the United States, Ken Starr, he clerked for Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy from 1993–1994, working alongside fellow high school alumnus Neil Gorsuch and with future-Judge Gary Feinerman. After his Supreme Court clerkship, Kavanaugh again worked for Ken Starr until 1997 as an Associate Counsel in the Office of the Independent Counsel with colleagues Rod Rosenstein and Alex Azar.
In that capacity, he reopened an investigation into the 1993 gunshot death of Vincent Foster. After three years, the invest