Cornell Law School
Cornell Law School is the law school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York. It is one of the five Ivy League law schools and offers three law degree programs along with several dual-degree programs in conjunction with other professional schools at the university. Established in 1887 as Cornell's Department of Law, the school today is one of the smallest top-tier JD-conferring institutions in the country, with around two-hundred students graduating each year. Since its inception Cornell Law School has always ranked among the top law schools in the nation. Cornell Law alumni include business executive and philanthropist Myron Charles Taylor, namesake of the law school building, along with U. S. Secretaries of State Edmund Muskie and William P. Rogers, U. S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel Pierce, the first female President of Taiwan, Tsai Ing-wen, federal judge and first female editor-in-chief of a law review Mary Donlon Alger, former President of the International Criminal Court Song Sang-Hyun, as well as many members of the U.
S. Congress, state attorneys general, U. S. federal and state judges and businesspeople. Cornell Law School is home to the Legal Information Institute, the Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, the Cornell Law Review, the Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy and the Cornell International Law Journal; the current dean of the law school is Eduardo Peñalver, who assumed the role in 2014. The Law Department at Cornell opened in 1887 in Morrill Hall with Judge Douglass Boardman as its first dean. At that time, admission did not require a high school diploma. In 1917, two years of undergraduate education were required for admission, in 1924, it became a graduate degree program; the department was renamed the Cornell Law School in 1925. In 1890, George Washington Fields graduated, one of the first law-school-graduates of color in the United States. In 1893, Cornell had Mary Kennedy Brown. Future Governor, Secretary of State, Chief Justice of the United States, Charles Evans Hughes, was a professor of law at Cornell from 1891–1893, after returning to legal practice he continued to teach at the law school as a special lecturer from 1893–1895.
Hughes Hall, one of the law school's central buildings, is named in his honor. In 1892, the school moved into Boardman Hall, constructed for legal instruction; the school moved from Boardman Hall to its present-day location at Myron Taylor Hall in 1937. The law school building, an ornate, Gothic structure, was the result of a donation by Myron Charles Taylor, a former CEO of US Steel, a member of the Cornell Law class of 1894. Hughes Hall was built as an addition to Myron Taylor Hall and completed in 1963, it was funded by a gift from Taylor. Another addition to Myron Taylor Hall, the Jane M. G. Foster was completed in 1988 and added more space to the library. Foster was a member of the class of 1918, an editor of the Cornell Law Review, an Order of the Coif graduate. In June 2012 the school embarked on a multi-phase expansion and renovation; the first phase created additional classroom space underground, adjacent to Myron Taylor Hall along College Avenue. The second phase will include the removal and digitization of printed materials from the library stacks so that the space can be converted to additional classroom and student space.
The third phase involves converting Hughes Hall into office space. In 1948, Cornell Law School established a program of specialization in international affairs and started awarding LL. B. degrees. In 1968, the school began to publish the Cornell International Law Journal. In 1991, the school established the Berger International Legal Studies Program. In 1994, the school established a partnership with the University of Paris I law faculty to establish a Paris-based Summer Institute of International and Comparative Law. From 1999 -- 2004 the school hosted Legal Theory Project. In 2006, the school established its second summer law institute in China; the Clarke Program in East Asian Law and Culture was established in 2002. Myron Taylor Hall saw the addition of 40,000 square feet of underground classrooms in 2012–2014. Hughes Hall was renovated in 2017. Cornell Law School is selective: for the class entering in the fall of 2018, 872 out of 4,126 applicants were offered admission, with 195 matriculating.
The 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 164 and 168 with a median of 167. The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.73 and 3.89 with a median of 3.82. In the LL. M. program, designed for non-U. S.-trained lawyers, 900 applications were received for the 50 to 60 openings. LL. M. Students come from over 30 different countries. Along with consideration of the quality of an applicant's academic record and LSAT scores, the full-file-review admissions process places a heavy emphasis on an applicant's personal statement, letters of recommendation, community/extracurricular involvement, work experience; the application invites a statement on diversity and a short note on why an applicant wants to attend Cornell. The law school values applicants who have done their research and have particular interests or goals that would be served by attending the school versus one of its peer institutions. Cornell Law School was ranked 13th in the 2019 U. S. News and World Report Law School 8th in the 2019 Above the Law rankings.
The Master of Laws program at Cornell Law School was ranked 1st in the 2006, 2008, 2010, 2011 AUAP rankings. In 2017, the National Law Journal ranked Cornell 4th
United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit known informally as the D. C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia. Appeals from the D. C. Circuit, as with all U. S. Courts of Appeals, are heard on a discretionary basis by the Supreme Court, it should not be confused with the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, limited in jurisdiction by subject matter rather than geography, or with the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, equivalent to a state supreme court in the District of Columbia, was established in 1970 to relieve the D. C. Circuit from having to take appeals from the local D. C. trial court. While it has the smallest geographic jurisdiction of any of the United States courts of appeals, the D. C. Circuit, with eleven active judgeships, is arguably the most important inferior appellate court; the court is given the responsibility of directly reviewing the decisions and rulemaking of many federal independent agencies of the United States government based in the national capital without prior hearing by a district court.
Aside from the agencies whose statutes explicitly direct review by the D. C. Circuit, the court hears cases from other agencies under the more general jurisdiction granted to the Courts of Appeals under the Administrative Procedure Act. Given the broad areas over which federal agencies have power, this gives the judges of the D. C. Circuit a central role in affecting national U. S. policy and law. Because of this, the D. C. Circuit is referred to as the second-most powerful court in the United States, second only to the Supreme Court. A judgeship on the D. C. Circuit is thought of as a stepping-stone for appointment to the Supreme Court; as of October 2018, four of the nine justices on the Supreme Court are alumni of the D. C. Circuit: Chief Justice John Roberts and Associate Justices Clarence Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Brett Kavanaugh. Associate Justice Elena Kagan was nominated by President Bill Clinton to the same seat that Roberts would fill, but was never given a vote in the Senate. In addition, Chief Justices Fred M. Vinson and Warren Burger, as well as Associate Justices Wiley Blount Rutledge and Antonin Scalia, served on the D.
C. Circuit before their elevations to the Supreme Court. In 1987, President Ronald Reagan put forth two failed nominees from the D. C. Circuit: former Judge Robert Bork, rejected by the Senate, former Chief Judge Douglas H. Ginsburg, who withdrew his nomination after it became known that he had used marijuana as a college student and professor in the 1960s and 1970s. In 2016 President Barack Obama nominated Merrick Garland from the D. C. Circuit to replace the late Scalia, but the Senate controversially did not give Garland a full vote; because the D. C. Circuit does not represent any state, confirmation of nominees can be procedurally and easier than for nominees to the Courts of Appeals for the other geographical districts, as home-state senators have been able to hold up confirmation through the "blue slip" process. However, in recent years, several nominees to the D. C. Circuit were stalled and some were not confirmed because senators claimed that the court had become larger than necessary to handle its caseload.
The court has a history of reversing the Federal Communications Commission's major policy actions. The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit meets at the E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse, near Judiciary Square in downtown Washington, D. C. From 1984 to 2009, there were twelve seats on the D. C. Circuit. One of those seats was eliminated by the Court Security Improvement Act of 2007 on January 7, 2008, with immediate effect, leaving the number of authorized judgeships at eleven.. Decisions of the U. S. Courts of Appeals are published in the Federal Reporter, an unofficial reporter from Thomson Reuters; as of March 18, 2019, the judges on the court are as follows: When Congress established this court in 1893 as the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, it had a Chief Justice, the other judges were called Associate Justices, similar to the structure of the Supreme Court. The Chief Justiceship was a separate seat: the President would appoint the Chief Justice, that person would stay Chief Justice until he left the court.
On June 25, 1948, 62 Stat. 869 and 62 Stat. 985 became law. These acts made the Chief Justice a Chief Judge. In 1954, another law, 68 Stat. 1245, clarified what was implicit in those laws: that the Chief Judgeship was not a mere renaming of the position but a change in its status that made it the same as the Chief Judge of other inferior courts. Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice is on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected
Robert H. Jackson
Robert Houghwout Jackson was an American attorney and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. He had served as United States Solicitor General, United States Attorney General, is the only person to have held all three of those offices. Jackson was notable for his work as the Chief United States Prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals following World War II. Jackson was admitted to the bar through a combination of reading law with an established attorney and attending law school, he is the most recent justice without a law degree to be appointed to the Supreme Court. Jackson is well known for his advice that, "Any lawyer worth his salt will tell the suspect, in no uncertain terms, to make no statement to the police under any circumstances," and for his aphorism describing the Supreme Court, "We are not final because we are infallible, but we are infallible only because we are final." Jackson developed a reputation as one of the best writers on the Supreme Court and one of the most committed to enforcing due process as protection from overreaching federal agencies.
Jackson was born on a family farm in Spring Creek Township, Warren County, Pennsylvania on February 13, 1892, was raised in Frewsburg, New York. The son of William Eldred Jackson and Angelina Houghwout, he graduated from Frewsburg High School in 1909 and spent the next year as a post-graduate student attending Jamestown High School, where he worked to hone his writing skills. Jackson decided on a legal career, his uncle soon introduced him to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, serving as a member of the New York State Senate. Jackson attended Albany Law School of Union University from 1911 to 1912. At the time, students at Albany Law School had three options: taking individual courses without receiving a degree. B. degree. Jackson chose the third option. After completing the year at Albany Law School, Jackson returned to Jamestown to complete his studies, he passed the bar examination in 1913, joined a law practice in Jamestown. In 1916, he married Irene Alice Gerhardt, in Albany. In 1917, Jackson was recruited to work for Penney, Killeen & Nye, a leading Buffalo firm defending the International Railway Company in trials and appeals.
In late 1918, Jackson was recruited back to Jamestown to serve as the city's corporation counsel. Over the next 15 years, he built a successful practice, became a leading lawyer in New York State. In 1930, Jackson was elected to membership in the American Law Institute. Jackson became active in politics as a Democrat. In the years during and after World War I, he was a member of the New York State Democratic Committee, he continued his association with Roosevelt. Jackson turned down Roosevelt's offer to appoint him to the New York Public Service Commission, because he preferred to remain in private practice. In 1932, Jackson was active in Franklin Roosevelt's Presidential campaign as Chairman of an organization called Democratic Lawyers for Roosevelt. In 1934, Jackson agreed to join the Roosevelt administration. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Internal Revenue, where he was in charge of 300 lawyers who tried cases before the Board of Tax Appeals. In 1936, Jackson became Assistant Attorney General, heading the Tax Division of the Department of Justice, in 1937, he became Assistant Attorney General, heading the Antitrust Division.
Jackson was a supporter of the New Deal, litigating against corporations and utilities holding companies. He participated in the 1934 prosecution of Samuel Insull, the 1935 income tax case against Andrew Mellon, the 1937 anti-trust case against Alcoa, in which the Mellon family held an important interest. In March 1938, Jackson became United States Solicitor General, serving until January 1940 as the government's chief advocate before the Supreme Court. During his time in this post, he argued 44 cases to the Supreme Court on behalf of the federal government, lost only six, his record of accomplishment caused Justice Louis Brandeis to once remark that Jackson should be Solicitor General for life. Roosevelt regarded Jackson as a possible successor to the Presidency in 1940, worked with his staff on an effort to raise Jackson's public profile, their plan was to mention Jackson favorably in Presidential remarks as as possible, to have Jackson take part in Roosevelt's public appearances. Roosevelt and his advisers next intended for Jackson to become the Democratic nomin
University of Virginia School of Law
The University of Virginia School of Law was founded in Charlottesville in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson as one of the original subjects taught at his "academical village," the University of Virginia. Virginia Law is the fourth-oldest active law school in the United States and the second-oldest continuously operating law school; the law school offers the J. D. LL. M. and S. J. D. degrees in law and hosts visiting scholars, visiting researchers and a number of legal research centers. Virginia Law is perennially regarded as one of the 10 most prestigious law schools in the United States; as of 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranks Virginia Law as eighth in the nation. In 2011, US News ranked Virginia Law as sixth among major law firm recruiters. In the 2010 Super Lawyers Law School Rankings, Virginia Law ranks fourth in the nation. In the 2018 Above the Law rankings, Virginia Law ranked second in the nation. A 2013 Above the Law report notes that Virginia is second in the number of graduates leading the nation's top 100 firms.
A study published in the Journal of Legal Education ranked Virginia Law fourth in the number of partners in the National Law Journal's top 100 firms. Virginia Law places high in clerkships ranking behind only Harvard Law School and Yale Law School; the Princeton Review ranked Virginia Law as first in "Best Quality of Life" and "Best Professors" among the nation's law schools, second in "Best Classroom Experience," fifth in "Toughest to Get Into," and sixth in "Career Prospects." The 2016 QS World University Rankings for law school, places Virginia Law in the range of 51–100 worldwide and the 13th-best law school in U. S. Notable alumni include U. S. Supreme Court Justices James Clark McReynolds and Stanley Forman Reed, as well as numerous members of U. S. Congress and judges on federal courts throughout the United States; the Law School has 19,984 alumni in all 50 states, more than 60 foreign countries and several U. S. protectorates, the Law School's alumni giving rate of more than 50 percent for the past 11 years is among the highest of the nation's law schools.
Virginia Law completed an eight-year capital campaign, raising $173.9 million to enhance the student experience. Virginia Law is among the most selective law schools in the nation. For the class entering in the fall of 2018, 320 out of 5,646 J. D. applicants matriculated. The 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 163 and 171 with a median of 169; the 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.59 and 3.97 with a median of 3.89. The Class of 2021 consists of students from 36 states and the District of Columbia and from 164 undergraduate institutions; the age range was 20 to 35. 56% of the class was male, 44% female, 26% identified themselves as people of color. 67% of the class had postgraduate experience. The total cost of attendance for first-year law students at Virginia Law for the 2018-2019 academic year is $80,156 for Virginia residents and $83,156 for nonresidents; the Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years, based on data from the 2018-2019 academic year, is $300,343 for residents.
Virginia Law receives no funding from the state. In 1995-1997, the Law School used donated funds to renovate and expand its buildings on the University's North Grounds to include the former facilities of the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration which built a new campus several hundred yards away; the Arthur J. Morris Law Library holds more than 820,000 volumes, including substantial collections of federal and international documents, manuscripts and online research databases; the Law School maintains an extensive roster of student organizations, including chapters of the Federalist Society, the American Constitution Society and the St. Thomas More Society; the Virginia Law Weekly, the Law School's student-run weekly newspaper, has been published since 1948. The paper has been cited in several court cases including the U. S. Supreme Court case Patterson v. New York. In addition to its news content, the VLW contains student-submitted content which includes humorous and creative pieces.
The Law Weekly has won the American Bar Association's previous three "Best Newspaper Awards," in 2006, 2007, 2008. Each spring over a hundred students write and perform in The Libel Show, a comedy and musical theatre production, first organized in 1904, its performers roast Law School professors, student stereotypes and life in Charlottesville throughout each of its three nightly showings. Professors sing their response to the students' jokes at the penultimate performance; the school hosts an annual softball tournament to raise money for ReadyKids, an organization that provides care and counseling for at-risk families in Central Virginia, the Public Interest Law Association, which provides public service internships for law students. 51 different law schools send teams to compete in co-rec brackets. In 2017, $25,000 were raised; the Law School is host to 10 academic journals, including the Virginia Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the country: Virginia Journal of International Law, the oldest student edited international law journal in the country Virginia Environmental Law Journal Virginia Journal of Law & Technology Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law Virginia Law & Business Review Virginia Law Review Virginia S
Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
Neil McGill Gorsuch is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was nominated by President Donald Trump to succeed Antonin Scalia and took the oath of office on April 10, 2017. Gorsuch is a proponent of textualism in statutory interpretation and originalism in interpreting the United States Constitution. Along with Justice Clarence Thomas, he is an advocate of natural law jurisprudence. Gorsuch clerked for Judge David B. Sentelle of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit from 1991 to 1992 and U. S. Supreme Court Justices Byron White and Anthony Kennedy from 1993 to 1994, he is the first Supreme Court Justice to serve alongside another Justice for whom he once had clerked. From 1995 to 2005, Gorsuch was in private practice with the law firm of Kellogg, Hansen, Evans & Figel. Gorsuch was Principal Deputy Associate Attorney General at the U. S. Department of Justice from 2005 to his appointment to the Tenth Circuit. Gorsuch was nominated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit by President George W. Bush on May 10, 2006, to replace Judge David M. Ebel, who took senior status in 2006.
He holds a Bachelor of Arts from Columbia University, Juris Doctor from Harvard University, Doctor of Philosophy in Law from the University of Oxford, where he took courses and defended a doctoral thesis, concerning the morality of assisted suicide, under the supervision of philosopher John Finnis. Gorsuch is the son of David Ronald Gorsuch and Anne Gorsuch Burford, a Colorado House of Representatives member, appointed by President Ronald Reagan to be the first female Administrator of United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1981. A fourth-generation Coloradan, Gorsuch was born in Denver and attended Christ the King, a K-8 Catholic school. In 1985, he graduated from Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit school in North Bethesda, Maryland. While attending Georgetown Prep, Gorsuch served as a United States Senate Page in the early 1980s, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from Columbia University in 1988, where he was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa. He was a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity.
As an undergraduate student, he wrote for the Columbia Daily Spectator student newspaper. In 1986, he co-founded the alternative Columbia student newspaper The Fed. Gorsuch attended Harvard Law School, he received a Harry S. Truman Scholarship to attend. While at Harvard, Gorsuch was an editor on the Harvard Journal of Public Policy, he was described as a committed conservative who supported the Gulf War and congressional term limits, on "a campus full of ardent liberals". Former President Barack Obama was one of Gorsuch's classmates at Harvard Law. In 2004 he was awarded a DPhil in law from the University of Oxford, where he completed research on assisted suicide and euthanasia as a postgraduate student of University College, Oxford. A Marshall Scholarship enabled him to study at Oxford in 1992-93, where he was supervised by the natural law philosopher John Finnis of University College, Oxford, his thesis was supervised by Professor Timothy Endicott of Balliol College, Oxford. In 1996, Gorsuch married his wife Louise, an English woman and champion equestrienne on Oxford's riding team whom he met during his stay at Oxford.
Gorsuch served as a judicial clerk for Judge David B. Sentelle of the United States Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit from 1991 to 1992, for Supreme Court of the United States Justices Byron White and Anthony Kennedy from 1993 to 1994. Gorsuch's work with White occurred right after White retired from the Supreme Court, Gorsuch assisted White with his work on the Tenth Circuit, where White sat by designation. Gorsuch was part of a group of five law clerks assigned that year which included Brett Kavanaugh who described Gorsuch at the time stating: "He fit into the place easily. He's just an easy guy to get along with, he doesn't have sharp elbows. We had a wide range of views, but we all got along well." Instead of joining an established law firm, Gorsuch decided to join the two-year-old boutique firm Kellogg, Hansen, Evans & Figel, where he focused on trial work. After winning his first trial as lead attorney, a jury member told Gorsuch, he was an associate in the Washington, D. C. law firm from 1995 to 1997 and a partner from 1998 to 2005.
Gorsuch's clients included Colorado billionaire Philip Anschutz. At Kellogg Huber, Gorsuch focused on commercial matters, including contracts, anititrust, RICO, securities fraud. In 2002, Gorsuch penned an op-ed criticizing the Senate for delaying the nominations of Merrick Garland and John Roberts to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, writing that "the most impressive judicial nominees are grossly mistreated" by the Senate. In 2005, at Kellogg Huber, Gorsuch wrote a brief denouncing class action lawsuits by shareholders. In the case of Dura Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. Broudo, Gorsuch opined that "The free ride to fast riches enjoyed by securities class action attorneys in recent years appeared to hit a speed bump" and that "the problem is that securities fraud litigation imposes an enormous toll on the economy, affecting every public corporation in America at one time or another and costing businesses billions of dollars in settlements every year". Gorsuch served as Principal Deputy to the Associate Attorney General, Robert McCallum, at the United States Department of Justice from 2005 until 2006.
As McCallum's Principal Deputy, Gorsuch assisted in managing the Department of Justice's civil litigation components, which included antitrust, civil r
Joseph McKenna was an American politician who served in all three branches of the U. S. federal government, as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives, as U. S. Attorney General and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, he is one of seventeen members of the House of Representatives who subsequently served on the Supreme Court. Born in Philadelphia, the son of Irish Catholic immigrants, he attended St. Joseph's College and the Collegiate Institute at Benicia, California. After being admitted to the California bar in 1865, he became District Attorney for Solano County and campaigned for and won a seat in the California State Assembly for two years, he retired after an unsuccessful bid for Speaker of the House. After two unsuccessful attempts, McKenna was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1885 and served for four terms, he was appointed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in 1892 by President Benjamin Harrison. In 1897 he was appointed the 42nd Attorney General of the United States by President William McKinley, served in that capacity until 1898.
He was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to succeed Justice Stephen J. Field. McKenna took his seat the next day. Conscious of his limited credentials, McKenna took courses at Columbia Law School for several months to improve his legal education before taking his seat on the Court. Although he never developed a consistent legal philosophy, McKenna was the author of a number of important decisions. One of the most notable was his opinion in the case of United States v. U. S. Steel Corporation which held that antitrust cases would be decided on the "rule of reason" principle—only alleged monopolistic combinations that are in unreasonable restraint of trade—are illegal. McKenna was known to be a centrist, was one of the most vigorous members of the Supreme Court, he authored 614 majority opinions, 146 dissenting opinions during his time on the bench. His passionate rebuttal to the denial of "pecuniary benefit" to a wife whose husband had been killed while working on the railroad was among those which brought a change to the Employer Liability Act.
His most noteworthy opinions are Hipolite Egg Co. v. United States 220 U. S. 45, in which a unanimous Court upheld the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, In Hoke v. United States, he concurred in upholding the Mann Act, a/k/a "White-Slave Traffic Act". However, four years he dissented from the Court's opinion in Caminetti v. United States, which held the act applied to private, noncommercial enticements to cross state lines for purposes of a sexual liaison. According to McKenna, the Act regulated only commercial vice, i.e. "immoralities having a mercenary purpose." While McKenna was quite favorable to federal power, he joined the Court's substantive due process jurisprudence and voted with the majority in 1905's Lochner v. New York, which struck down a state maximum-hours law for bakery workers, This decision carried broader implications for the scope of federal power, at least until the New Deal and the 1937 switch-in-time-that-saved-nine West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish. McKenna resigned from the Court in January 1925 at the suggestion of Chief Justice William Howard Taft.
McKenna's ability to perform his duties had been diminished by a stroke suffered 10 years earlier, by the end of his tenure McKenna could not be counted on to write coherent opinions. Justice McKenna was one of 13 Catholic justices in the history of the Supreme Court. McKenna married Amanda Borneman in 1869, the couple had three daughters and one son. McKenna died on November 21, 1926. in Washington, D. C.. His remains are interred at the city's Mount Olivet Cemetery. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States List of U. S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office United States Supreme Court cases during the Fuller Court United States Supreme Court cases during the Taft Court United States Supreme Court cases during the White Court United States Congress. "Joseph McKenna". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Department of Justice, Joseph McKenna Attorney General. Joseph McKenna at Find a Grave Joseph McKenna at Supreme Court Historical Society.
Official Supreme Court media, Joseph McKenna at the Oyez project