List of leaders of Malaysian states
This is the list of current leaders of Malaysian states and federal territories.
This is the list of current leaders of Malaysian states and federal territories.
|State and Federal Territory||Portfolio||Name||Since|
|Johor||Sultan||Ibrahim Ismail||12 May 2010|
|Menteri Besar||Sahruddin Jamal||14 April 2019|
|Kedah||Sultan||Sallehuddin||12 September 2017|
|Menteri Besar||Mukhriz Mahathir||11 May 2018|
|Kelantan||Sultan||Muhammad V||13 September 2010|
|Menteri Besar||Ahmad Yakob||6 May 2013|
|Kuala Lumpur||Minister||Khalid Abdul Samad||2 July 2018|
|Mayor||Mhd Amin Nordin Abdul Aziz||18 July 2015|
|Labuan||Minister||Khalid Abdul Samad||2 July 2018|
|Chief Executive Officer||Azhar Ahmad||2 April 2003|
|Malacca||Yang di-Pertua Negeri||Mohd Khalil Yakob||4 January 2004|
|Chief Minister||Adly Zahari||11 May 2018|
|Negeri Sembilan||Yang di-Pertuan Besar||Muhriz Munawir||29 December 2008|
|Menteri Besar||Aminuddin Harun||12 May 2018|
|Pahang||Sultan||Abdullah||15 January 2019|
|Menteri Besar||Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail||15 May 2018|
|Penang||Yang di-Pertua Negeri||Abdul Rahman Abbas||1 May 2001|
|Chief Minister||Chow Kon Yeow||14 May 2018|
|Perak||Sultan||Nazrin Shah||29 May 2014|
|Menteri Besar||Ahmad Faizal Azumu||12 May 2018|
|Perlis||Raja||Syed Sirajuddin||17 April 2000|
|Menteri Besar||Azlan Man||7 May 2013|
|Putrajaya||Minister||Khalid Abdul Samad||2 July 2018|
|President||Haji Hasim Haji Ismail||9 May 2018|
|Sabah||Yang di-Pertua Negeri||Juhar Mahiruddin||1 January 2011|
|Chief Minister||Shafie Apdal||12 May 2018|
|Sarawak||Yang di-Pertua Negeri||Abdul Taib Mahmud||1 March 2014|
|Chief Minister||Abang Abdul Rahman Zohari||13 January 2017|
|Selangor||Sultan||Sharafuddin Idris Shah||22 November 2001|
|Menteri Besar||Amirudin Shari||19 June 2018|
|Terengganu||Sultan||Mizan Zainal Abidin||15 May 1998|
|Menteri Besar||Ahmad Samsuri Mokhtar||10 May 2018|
Perak known by its honorific Darul Ridzuan or "Abode of Grace", is one of the thirteen states of Malaysia, the fourth-largest one. It borders Kedah at the north; the state's administrative capital of Ipoh was known for tin-mining activities until the price of the metal dropped affecting the state's economy. The royal capital, remains at Kuala Kangsar, where the palace of the Sultan of Perak is located; the state's official name is Perak Darul Ridzuan. Perak means silver in Malay, derived from the silvery colour of tin. In the 1890s, with the richest alluvial deposits of tin in the world was one of the jewels in the crown of the British Empire. However, some say. Darul Ridzuan is the state's Arabic honorific, can mean either "land" or "abode" of grace. Legend tells of a Hindu-Malay Kingdom called Gangga Negara in the northwest of Perak. Archaeological discoveries indicate; the modern history of Perak began with the fall of the Malacca Sultanate. Raja Muzaffar Shah, the eldest son of the last Sultan of Melaka, Sultan Mahmud Shah and his Queen Tun Fatimah, fled the Portuguese conquest of 1511 and established his own dynasty on the banks of the Sungai Perak in 1528.
Being rich in tin ore deposits, the dominion was under continuous threat from outsiders. The Dutch attempted to control the tin trade in the 17th century, built defensive forts at the mouth of the Perak River and on Pulau Pangkor. Early history recorded the arrival in Perak of the Dutch in 1641, when they captured the Straits of Malacca and controlled tin-ore and spice trading. However, the Dutch attempt to monopolise the tin-ore trading in Perak by influencing Sultan Muzaffar Syah failed, they turned to Sultanah Tajul Alam Safiatuddin, the Sultan of Aceh, to seek permission to trade in Perak, which forced the Sultan of Perak to sign a treaty, allowing the Dutch to build their plant in Kuala Perak on 15 August 1650. This did not go down well with the aristocracy of Perak. In 1651, Temenggung and the people of Perak destroyed the Dutch plant; the Dutch were forced to leave their base in Perak. The Dutch sent a representative to Perak in 1655 to renew the earlier agreement and to seek compensation for the loss of their plant.
The Perak government however was thus surrounded by the Dutch. In 1670, the Dutch returned to Perak to build Kota Kayu, now known as Kota Belanda, on Pangkor Island. Perak agreed to the construction because of news that the Kingdom of Siam would be attacking the state. In 1685, Perak once again attacked the Dutch on Pangkor Island, forcing them to retreat and close their headquarters; the Dutch failed. In the 19th century, the Bugis and the Siamese all attempted to invade Perak, only British intervention in 1820 prevented Siam from annexing Perak. Although the British were reluctant to establish a colonial presence in Malaya, increasing investment in the tin mines brought a great influx of Chinese immigrants, including Foo Ming, who formed rival clan groups allied with Malay chiefs and local gangsters which all fought for control of the mines; the Perak Sultanate was unable to maintain order as it was embroiled in a protracted succession crisis. In her book The Golden Chersonese and The Way Thither, Victorian traveller and adventurer Isabella Lucy Bird describes how Raja Muda Abdullah turned to his friend in Singapore, Tan Kim Ching.
Tan, together with an English merchant in Singapore, drafted a letter to Governor Sir Andrew Clarke which Abdullah signed. The letter expressed Abdullah's desire to place Perak under British protection, "to have a man of sufficient abilities to show a good system of government." In 1874, the Straits Settlements governor Sir Andrew Clarke convened a meeting on Pulau Pangkor, at which Sultan Abdullah was installed on the throne of Perak in preference to his rival, Sultan Ismail. This Pangkor Treaty required that the Sultan of Perak accept a British Resident, a post granted wide administrative powers. In 1875, various Perak chiefs assassinated the British Resident James W. W. Birch, resulting in the short-lived Perak War of 1876. Sultan Abdullah was exiled to the Seychelles, the British installed a new ruler; the new resident, Sir Hugh Low, was well-versed in the Malay language and local customs, proved to be a more capable administrator. He introduced the first rubber trees in Malaya. Perak joined Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States in 1896.
However, the British Resident system persisted until the Malayan Union was established in 1948. Perak gained its independence from the British on 31 August 1957. Under the laws of the Constitution of Perak, Perak is a constitutional monarchy, with a constitutional hereditary ruler; the current Sultan of Perak is the 35th Sultan of Perak. He was appointed as the new Sultan on 29 May 2014; the preceding Sultan was Sultan Azlan Muhib
Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Al-Maghfur-Lah is the 35th Sultan of Perak. He became the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, elected on 14 October 2016, before Sultan Muhammad V abdicated on 6 January 2019, he is the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong. He is a half-third cousin of Tunku Ismail Sultan Ibrahim, since both share a common ancestor. Sultan Nazrin Shah was born on 27 November 1956 at George Town, Malaya. During the reign of his grandfather, Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah, he is the eldest son of the late Sultan of Perak, Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullahu-lah and the former Raja Permaisuri of Perak Tuanku Bainun Binti Mohd Ali. He studied at Sekolah Rendah Jalan Kuantan, Kuala Lumpur from 1962 to 1967 followed by lower secondary stage at St. John Institution, Kuala Lumpur from 1968 to 1970, furthered his upper secondary and sixth form at The Leys School, Cambridge until 1975. Sultan Nazrin Shah was born at Penang, Malaya, 27 November 1956 as the first child of late Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullahu-lah Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak, his wife Tuanku Bainun Binti Mohd Ali His siblings are: sister Raja Azureen brother Raja Ashman Shah sister Raja Eleena sister Raja Yong Sofia Sultan Nazrin was educated at St. John's Institution and holds a BA degree in Philosophy and Economics from Worcester College, Oxford.
He holds an MPA degree from John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, a PhD degree in Political Economy and Government from Harvard University. Sultan Nazrin’s research interests are in the area of economic and political development in South-East and North-East Asia, historical national income accounting and economic growth in developing countries; the sultan has written articles and spoken on a wide range of issues including the role of the constitutional monarchy in Malaysia, Islam, ethnic relations and economic development. He has assumed the role of Financial Ambassador of the Malaysian International Islamic Financial Centre, has been Pro-Chancellor of Universiti Malaya since 1989 and is the chairman of the Board of Governors of the Malay College Kuala Kangsar, he is an Eminent Fellow of the Institute of Strategic and International Studies Malaysia. He was proclaimed the Raja Muda of Perak on 15 April 1984, taking over from his father, Sultan Azlan Shah, who had become the Sultan of Perak two weeks earlier.
Raja Dr. Nazrin's full name and official title is In Malay: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Raja Dr. Nazrin Shah Ibni Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah, Raja Muda Perak Darul Ridzuan, D. K, D. K II, D. K. A,D. K. S. A, S. P. M. P, S. P. C. M, S. P. T. S, Ph in English: His Royal Highness Raja Dr. Nazrin Shah Ibni Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah, The Raja Muda of Perak Abode of Grace and its dependencies, D. K, D. K II, D. K. A, D. K. S. A, S. P. M. P, S. P. C. M, S. P. T. S, Ph. D On 29 May 2014 he became the 35th Sultan of Perak on the death of Sultan Azlan. Sultan Nazrin's full name and official title is in Malay: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Al-Maghfurlah, Yang di-Pertuan dan Raja Pemerintah Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan dan Jajahan Takluknya, D. K. D. K. S. A. D. K. A. D. M. N. D. K. D. K. S. P. C. M, S. P. T. S, S. P. M. P. Ph. D, MPA. in English: His Royal Highness Paduka Seri Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Al-Maghfurlah, The Sultan, Sovereign Ruler and Head of the Government of Perak Abode of Grace and its dependencies, D.
K. D. K. S. A. D. K. A. D. M. N. D. K. D. K. S. P. C. M, S. P. T. S, S. P. M. P. Ph. D, MPA.. He was appointed Regent of Perak when his father became the ninth Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 1989 to 1994; as the Sultan of Perak he is the Colonel-in-Chief of the Malaysian Army's Royal Army Engineers Regiment. Sultan Nazrin was elected as the Deputy Yang Di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia on 14 October 2016; the appointment took effect on 13 December 2016. On 2 November 2018, Sultan Nazrin was proclaimed as the Acting Yang Di-Pertuan Agong after Sultan Muhammad V was on medical leave, he ended his duties on 31 December 2018. However, due to the sudden abdication of Sultan Muhammad V as the 15th Yang Di-Pertuan Agong on 6 January 2019, he became again acting King the next day whilst the Conference of Rulers elects the 16th Yang Di-Pertuan Agong on 24 January 2019 and the subsequent swearing-in ceremony on 31 January 2019. In the 251st Meeting of the Conference of Rulers, while Sultan Abdullah of Pahang was elected as the 16th Yang Di Pertuan Agong, Sultan Nazrin was re-elected as the Deputy King for a new 5-year term effective on 31st January 2019.
His regency as Acting King ends effective at the stroke of midnight on 31st January 2019. Sultan Nazrin of Perak married Zara Salim Davidson at Istana Iskandariah, Bukit Chandan, on 17 May 2007. Sultan Nazrin and Tuanku Zara had known each other for eight years before the wedding; the day after the wedding there was a ceremony to bestow Tuanku Zara with the official title of Raja Puan Besar of Perak. Nazrin's father had proclaimed Zara Salim Davidson as the Raja Puan Besar of Perak and conferred the Darjah K
Yamtuan known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the Undangs; this royal practice has been followed since 1773. The Yamtuan Besar is selected from among the four leading princes of Negeri Sembilan; this unique form of government inspired the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman, to implement a form of rotational constitutional monarchy for a newly independent Malaya. Thus, the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong was created. Negeri Sembilan has been receiving immigrants from Sumatra for hundreds of years. Prior to the implementation of this unique form of monarchy, the area was ruled by the Sultan of Malacca. After Malacca was defeated by the Portuguese, it was ruled by the Sultanate of Johor. By 1760, Johor, having trouble from the Dutch, decided to allow the state to find a leader from Minangkabau in Sumatra. Between 1760 and 1770, a council of leaders known as the penghulu luak left for Pagar Ruyung in Minangkabau in search of a leader.
The Raja of Pagar Ruyung—who was believed to be a descendant of Dhul-Qarnayn, gave them a leader in the form of his son, Raja Mahmud. Raja Mahmud became known as Raja Melewar when he came to Negeri Sembilan; when Raja Melewar died in 1795, instead of selecting his son as their new leader, the same council of leaders once again set out on a journey to their ancestral land. This time, the Raja of Pagar Ruyong gave another one of his sons—Raja Hitam as their new Yamtuan Besar. Raja Hitam married Raja Melewar's daughter, Tengku Aishah, he died in 1808. Once again, the leaders of Negri Sembilan went to Minangkabau in search of someone to replace their leader; the Raja of Pagar Ruyung at that time sent Raja Lenggang. He wedded Tengku Ngah, from another marriage, they had two sons -- Tengku Imam. Before he died in 1824, Raja Lenggang said; this time, the Undangs did not embark on a trip to meet the Raja of Pagar Ruyong. Thus, for the first time in its history, Negri Sembilan had a hereditary leader. Yam Tuan Radin ruled for 30 years.
His brother, Yang di-Pertuan Imam, ruled for eight years. When he died, Negri Sembilan was plunged into uncertainty when Yam Tuan Radin's son, Tengku Antah, Yang di-Pertuan Imam's son, Tengku Ahmad Tunggal, scrambled for the throne; the Undangs did not want to accept Tengku Ahmad Tunggal, so Tengku Antah became ruler until 1888. His son, Tuanku Muhammad took over until his death in 1933. Tuanku Muhammad's son, Tuanku Abdul Rahman, took over in 1933. Tuanku Abdul Rahman became the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya in 1957. Tuanku Abdul Rahman's son, Tuanku Munawir, ascended the throne in 1960 and ruled until 1967; when Tuanku Munawir died, his brother, Tuanku Ja'afar Tuanku Abdul Rahman, became the ruler of Negri Sembilan, by-passing Munawir's son Muhriz of Negeri Sembilan, who at 19 years of age was a minor. Tuanku Jaafar served as the tenth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. During this period, Negeri Sembilan was ruled by the regent, Y. A. M. Tunku Laxamana Tunku Naquiyuddin. However, on the death of Tuanku Jaafar in 2008, the Undangs voted to re-instate Tuanku Muhriz, who should have rightfully been elected ruler on the death of his father.
1773 – 1795: Raja Melewar – The 1st Yamtuan of Negeri Sembilan 1795 – 1808: Raja Hitam – The 2nd Yamtuan of Negeri Sembilan 1808 – 1824: Raja Lenggang – The 3rd Yamtuan of Negeri Sembilan 1824 – 1861: Yamtuan Radin – The 4th Yamtuan of Negeri Sembilan 1861 – 1869: Yamtuan Imam – The 5th Yamtuan of Negeri Sembilan 1869 – 1872: Tengku Ampuan Intan 1875 – 1888: Tuanku Antah ibni Almarhum Yamtuan Radin – The 6th Yamtuan of Negeri Sembilan/Sri Menanti 1888 – 1933: Tuanku Muhammad Shah ibni Almarhum Tuanku Antah – The 7th Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Sri Menanti/Negeri Sembilan 1933 – 1960: Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad – The 8th Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan and 1st Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1960 – 1967: Tuanku Munawir ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman – The 9th Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan 1967 – 2008: Tuanku Ja'afar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman – The 10th Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan and 10th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 2008 – present: Tuanku Muhriz ibni Almarhum Tuanku Munawir – The 11th Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan Information from Warisan Diraja Negri Sembilan Darul Khusus History behind Negri's unique selection of ruler, The New Straits Times, 29 December 2008
Pahang Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia. It is the third largest Malaysian state by area and ninth largest by population; the state occupies the basin of the Pahang River, a stretch of the east coast as far south as Endau. Geographically located in the East Coast region of the Peninsular Malaysia, the state shares borders with the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu to the north, Perak and Negeri Sembilan to the west, Johor to the south, while South China Sea is to the east; the Titiwangsa mountain range that forms a natural divider between the Peninsula’s east and west coasts is spread along the north and south of the state, peaking at Mount Tahan, 2,187m high. Although two thirds of the state is covered by dense rain forest, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, along the coast there is a 32-kilometre wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the Kuantan, Rompin and Mersing rivers.
The state is divided into 11 administrative divisions called daerah - Pekan, Maran, Jerantut, Raub, Cameron Highlands and Bera. The largest district is Jerantut, the main gateway to the Taman Negara national park. Pahang's capital and largest city, Kuantan, is the eighth largest urban agglomerations by population in Malaysia; the royal capital and the official seat of the Sultan of Pahang is located at Pekan. Pekan was the old state capital which its name translates into'the town', it was known as'Inderapura'. Other major towns include Temerloh and its hills resorts of Genting Highlands and Bukit Tinggi; the head of state is the Sultan of Pahang. The government system is modeled on the Westminster parliamentary system; the state religion of Pahang is Islam, but grants freedom to manifest other religions in its territory. Pahang is categorised as medium ethnically diverse state with 0.36 of ethnic diversity index in 2010. It is ranked 5th least diverse among Malaysian states and territories, after Terengganu, Kelantan and Perlis.
Archaeological evidences revealed the existence of human habitation in the area, today Pahang from as early as the paleolithic age. The early settlements developed into an ancient maritime trading state by the 3rd century. In the 5th century, the Old Pahang sent envoys to the Liu Song court. During the time of Langkasuka and Ligor, Pahang was one of the outlying dependencies. In the 15th century, the Pahang Sultanate became an autonomous kingdom within the Melaka Sultanate. Pahang entered into a dynastic union with Johor Empire in the early 17th century and emerged as an autonomous kingdom in the late 18th century. Following the bloody Pahang Civil War, concluded in 1863, the state under Tun Ahmad of the Bendahara dynasty, was restored as a Sultanate in 1881. In 1895, Pahang became a British protectorate along with the states of Perak and Negeri Sembilan. During the World War II, Pahang and other states of Malaya were occupied by the Empire of Japan from 1941 to 1945. After the war, Pahang became part of the temporary Malayan Union before being absorbed into the Federation of Malayas and gained full independence through the federation.
On 16 September 1963, the Malayan federation are being merged into a more larger federation of the Federation of Malaysia with North Borneo and Singapore. The federation was opposed by neighbouring Indonesia, which led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation over three years along with the continuous war against local Communist insurgents. Modern Pahang is an economically important state with main activities in services and agricultural sectors; as part of ECER, it is a key region for the manufacturing sector, with the local logistics support network serving as a hub for the entire east coast region of Peninsular Malaysia. Over the years, the state has attracted much investment, both local and foreign, in the mineral sector. Important mineral exports include iron ore, gold and bauxite. Malaysia’s substantial oil and natural gas fields lie offshore in the South China Sea. At one time, timber resources brought much wealth to the state. Large-scale development projects have resulted in the clearing of hundreds of square miles of land for oil palm and rubber plantations and the resettling of several hundred thousand people in new villages under the federal agencies and institutions like FELDA, FELCRA and RISDA.
The naming of Pahang relates to the ancient practice in Malayic culture of defining territorial definitions and apportioning lands by water-sheds. The term'Pahang' in referring to the kingdom thus, is thought to originate from the name of Pahang River. There have been many theories on the origin of the name. According to Malay legend, across the river at Kampung Kembahang where the present stream of the Pahang parts company with the Pahang Tua, in ancient time stretched a huge mahang tree from which the river and kingdom derived their name; this legend agrees with oral tradition among Proto-Malay Jakun peoples that say their forefathers called the country Mahang. Other notable theory was espoused by William Linehan, that relates the early foundation of the kingdom to the settlers from ancient Khmer civilisation, claims its naming origin to the word saamnbahang meaning'tin', based on the discovery of prehistoric tin mines in the state. There were many variations of the name Pahang in history.
The Book of Song referred to the kingdom as Panhuang. The Chinese
Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, Melaka and Johor to the south; the name is believed to derive from the nine villages or nagari in the Minangkabau language settled by the Minangkabau, a people from West Sumatra. Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken. Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan is known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan; the election of the Ruler is unique. He is selected by the council of Undangs who lead the four biggest territories of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu and Rembau, making it one of the more democratic monarchies; the capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in Kuala Pilah District. Other important towns are Port Dickson and Nilai; the Arabic honorific title of the state is Darul Khusus. The earliest inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan were the ancestors of the Semelai, Semai and Jakun peoples, who lived either as hunter-gatherer nomads or as subsistence farmers.
The Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 15th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate, under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johor. They brought their matrilineal custom with them and made it a majority, the Linggi River was used as a main trade route since the time of the Malacca Sultanate; as Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near Raja Melewar; when he arrived, he found that another royal, Raja Khatib had established himself as ruler. He became the ruler of Negeri Sembilan; the Sultan of Johor confirmed his position by granting the title Yamtuan Seri Menanti in 1773. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for a ruler. However, competing interests supported different candidates resulting in instability and civil war.
In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay States was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negeri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS; the number of states within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states and a number of sub-states under their suzerainty. The former state of Naning was annexed to Malacca, Klang to Selangor, Segamat to Johor. Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1942 and 1945, joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, became a state of Malaysia in 1963. Negeri Sembilan have seven districts. Negeri Sembilan has a collective population of 1,098,500 as of 2015.
The state has the highest percentage of Indians. According to the 2010 census, the population of Negeri Sembilan is 60.3% Muslim, 21.2% Buddhist, 13.4% Hindu, 2.4% Christian, 1.1% of unknown affiliation, 0.8% non-religious, 0.5% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, 0.3% of followers of other religions. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 92.9% of the Chinese population in Negeri Sembilan are identified as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians, Chinese folk religions and Muslims. The majority of the Indian population are Hindus, with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians and Buddhists; the non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Atheists, with significant minorities identifying as Christians and Muslims. All Malays are Muslims. Negeri Sembilan is a multiethnic state in which every ethnic group speaks their own respective languages and dialects; the Negeri Sembilanese people speak a unique variety of Malay known as Negeri Sembilan Malay or in their native language as Baso Nogoghi.
It is not related to other varieties of Malay in Peninsular Malaysia but more related with Malay varieties spoken in neighbouring Sumatra varieties of Minangkabau. Besides Malays, the Chinese and Indian communities speak their own languages and dialects. Orang Asli peoples like Temuans speak a language related to Malay. Standard Malay is used throughout the state; the Constitution of Negeri Sembilan came into force on 26 March 1959. It is divided into two sections; the constitution establishes that the state's form of government is constitutional monarchy and the world's only elective monarchy for matrilineal society. The system was the basis for the federal monarchy; the official constitutional title of the Ruler of the state are Duli Yang Maha Mulia Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of
The Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the sovereign ruler of the Malaysian state of Johor. In the past, the sultan was advised by a bendahara; the role of bendahara has been taken over by chief minister with the constitutional monarchy system via Johor State Constitution. The Sultan is the constitutional head of state of Johor; the Sultan has own independent military force Royal Johor Military Force. The Sultan is the Head of Islam in Johor state; the first sultan of Johor was Alauddin Riayat Shah II. He was the son of the last sultan of Sultan Mahmud Shah; the descendants of the Sultanate of Malacca in Johor ended with the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah II in 1699 and throne was taken over by Sultan Abdul Jalil IV. Abdul Jalil IV was a bendahara before the death of the sultan. Though Johor has been ruled over by at least 20 sultans, the first sultan of modern Johor was Sultan Abu Bakar who reigned from 1862 to 1895, he was the first person from the Temenggong family to become the sultan in Johor's history.
His father, Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim managed to consolidate enough power to disfranchise Sultan Ali who died in 1877. The office of sultan is held by Sultan Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj, proclaimed as the 25th Sultan of Johor on 23 January 2010 and crowned on 23 March 2015 at the Istana Besar, Johor Bahru, his father, Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail Al-Khalidi, a great-grandson of Sultan Abu Bakar died on 22 January 2010. Ibrahim Ismail, The Tunku Mahkota of Johor, was appointed as Acting Sultan of Johor on the same day; the funeral was held on 23 January after the proclamation of Sultan Ibrahim Ismail. Johor Sultanate Nesalamar Nadarajah and the Origins of British Control, 1895–1914, Arenabuku, 2000, ISBN 967-970-318-5 T. Wignesan, "A Peranakan's View of the fin de siècle monde malais – Na Tian Piet's Endearing syair of Epic Proportions" in The Gombak Review, Vol. 4,N° 2, Kuala Lumpur, 1999, pp. 101–121. T. Wignesan. Sporadic Striving amid Echoed Voices, Mirrored Images and Stereotypic Posturing in Malaysian-Singaporean Literatures.
Allahabad: Cyberwit.net, 2008, pp. 196–218. ISBN 978-81-8253-120-8
The Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states. When the Sultanate of Malacca empire fell to Portugal in 1511, Sultan Mahmud Syah I retreated to Kampar and died there in 1528, he left behind two princes named Sultan Muzaffar Syah. The former went on to establish the Sultanate of Johor. Muzaffar Syah was invited to rule Perak: he became the first sultan of Perak. In contrast to the other Malay sultanates, the ruling dynasty of Perak utilises a somewhat complex order of succession; the reigning Sultan appoints princes in the male line of descent from a Sultan to certain high princely titles. They are arranged in a strict order of precedence indicating the order of succession to the throne; as per ruling of 25 February 1953, the present hierarchy of titles and the corresponding order of succession is as follows: Raja Muda Raja di-Hilir Raja Kecil Besar Raja Kecil Sulong Raja Kecil Tengah Raja Kecil Bongsu. While titleholders are appointed for life, titles may be revoked in cases of proven incompetence or disability.
On the death or promotion of an existing titleholder, the holder of the next most senior title succeeds him. The Raja Muda is the heir apparent, succeeds the ruling sultan on his demise, whereupon the prince holding the title of Raja Di-Hilir becomes the new Raja Muda; the Raja Kechil Besar becomes the Raja Di-Hilir. The new Sultan may appoint his own nominee to the junior-most title made vacant by these successions; the Perak royal regalia consists of items that are said to have been with the Perak Sultanate from its inception, some of which pre-dating the Malacca Sultanate. The regalia is used during the installation ceremony of Sultan of Perak and few other royal ceremonies. Royal headress Royal aigrette Royal tiara Royal sword Cura Si Manja Kini Royal blade Taming Sari Royal blade Sari Gading Mestika Embun - known as ‘Ball of Petrified Dew. ’Given to Sultan Muzaffar Riayat Shah I on his installation as the first Sultan of Perak by Tok Temong, a local official. Mohor Kecil Cap Halilintar - seal made of silver, placed behind the right ear of the Sultan during installation.
Ceremony Royal Musical Ensemble Pontoh - golden armlets worn by the Sultan and his consort around both arms during the installation ceremony. Agok - golden pendant, worn around the neck of the Queen Consort during installation ceremony. Dokoh - golden brooch, worn by the Queen Consort during installation ceremony. Royal seal Royal coat of arms Panji Di-Raja Royal umbrella State umbrella State spear Kancing Halkah - decorative ornament worn around the neck of a tunic, believed to be a gift from the Emperor of China to Parameswara of Malacca. Sundang Keris Panjang Baur-Baur Orang Besar Negeri Kamar Rantai Bunga Nyiur Geluk Puan - Betel leaves container. Presented to Tok Temong by Sultan Muzaffar Riayat Shah I on his installation as the first Sultan of Perak but returned to be royal regalia of Perak. Batil Emas The following is the orders and medals given by Sultan of Perak; when applicable, post-nominal letters and non-hereditary titles are indicated. The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Perak: founded by Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah in 1957.
Conferred on members of the Perak and foreign royal houses. The Most Esteemed Perak Royal Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah: founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2000. Conferred on members of the Perak and foreign royal houses; the Most Esteemed Azlanii Royal Family Order founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2010. Awarded in two classes: First Class - Darjah Kerabat Azlanii Second Class - Darjah Kerabat Azlanii II The Most Esteemed Perak Order of Sultan Azlan Shah: founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2000. Conferred for distinguished services to the Sultan of Perak; the Most Esteemed Perak Order of Sultan Nazrin Shah: founded by Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah. The Most Illustrious Order of Cura Si Manja Kini: founded by Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah II in 1969 and 1989. Awarded in four classes: Grand Knight or Dato'Seri - Darjah Dato’ Seri Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Knight or Dato' - Darjah Dato’ Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Commander or Ahli Paduka - Darjah Ahli Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Member or Ahli - Darjah Ahli Cura Si Manja Kini The Most Valliant Order of Taming Sari: founded by Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah II in 1977.
Awarded to military and police personnel in six classes: Dato' Seri Panglima - Darjah Dato’ Seri Panglima Taming Sari Dato' Pahlawanan - Darjah Dato’ Pahlawan Taming Sari Ahli Perwira - Darjah Ahli Perwira Taming Sari Ahli Hulubalang - Darjah Ahli Hulubalang Taming Sari Ahli Kesatria - Darjah Ahli Kesatria Taming Sari Ahli Perajurit - Darjah Ahli Perajurit Taming Sari The Most Illustrious Order of the Perak State Crown: founded by Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah in 1957. Awarded in four classes: Knight Grand Commander or Dato' Seri - Darjah Dato’ Seri Paduka M