University of Santiago de Compostela
The University of Santiago de Compostela - USC is a public university located in the city of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. A second campus is located in Galicia, it is one of the world's oldest universities in continuous operation. The university traces its roots back to 1495. In 1504, Pope Julius II approved the foundation of a university in Santiago but "the bull for its creation was not granted by Clement VII until 1526". In 1555 the institute began to separate itself from religious instruction with the help of Cardinal Juan Álvarez de Toledo and started to work towards developing other academic fields, including the emerging science fields. Today the university's facilities cover more than 130 hectares. In terms of human resources, the university has more than 2,000 teachers involved in study and research, over 42,000 students, more than 1,000 people working in administration and services. Moreover, in 2009, the University received the accreditation of Campus of International Excellence by the Ministry of Education, recognising USC as one of the most prestigious universities in Spain.
The university ranks 5th in Spain's best universities ranking by Complutense University of Madrid and IAIF and 4th amongst public universities. The roots of the University go back to 1495, when the Santiago de Compostela solicitor López Gómez de Mazoa founded, with the help of the abbot of San Martiño Pinario, a school for the poor known as "Grammatic Academy" in the monastery of San Paio de Antealtares. Early on, the success of the school was in doubt due to a lack of economic resources, but in the year 1504, Pope Julius II issued a Papal Bull recognizing the institution and allowing for the institution of higher learning in the "Gramatic Academy". The definitive consolidation of the University comes with Alonso III de Fonseca, named archbishop of Santiago de Compostela in 1507. Fonseca was an erudite man, a Renaissance man and patron of numerous artists of the time, in touch with important thinkers such as Erasmus of Rotterdam. At this time the old Pilgrim's Hospital was purchased with the aim of transforming it into a university college.
The Santiago Alfeo College, today known as the Fonseca College, was built, which became the centre of the university life until the second half of the 18th century and still remains emblematic in today's university. At the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries the San Patricio College, or College of the Irish, was created and the San Xerome College was moved to its current location. In contrast to current practice, these colleges agglutinated all the seats of learning in the same building, where students lived as boarders. At this time, there were the main disciplines: Theology and Arts, which were soon complemented with the study of Law and Medicine, more preoccupied with the health of the soul than about the care of the body; the 18th century witnessed a profound transformation in the University of Santiago. Not only was it the era when the University escaped from the control of the religious orders of the Catholic Church, but it was a time when the University lost part of its autonomy to the centralising forces of the Spanish Monarchy.
It was during this period. The University seal is enriched with the Royal Crown over the coat of arms of Castilla, León and Galicia, as well as the most important founders' emblems. After expelling the Jesuits, Charles III granted their land and buildings in Santiago to the university, thus establishing the core of the new university; the University recuperated to its plan of studies disciplines, given to certain religious congregations, including academic degrees and schools for Experimental Physics or Chemistry. The beginning of the 20th century produced a new generation of intellectuals tied to the university who would make up the core of a revival in the cultural life of Galicia. At the same time, there was a wide support to the modern currents of thought; this introduced key figures from different scientific fields in our institutions. This is when the USC experiences a significant growth in the number of students as well as in careers, which meant a significant growth in infrastructures.
Thus, it continued to develop with new buildings, the enlargement of the University Building, the Faculty of Geography and History, further on accommodation buildings, the College of Veterinary, the College of Deaf and Dumbs and the Faculty and Medicine. Another great project was the establishment of the Hall of Residence in 1930. Definitively, it is a period of great quantitative and quality changes with an important increase in infrastructures along with the regionalisation of studies in search for a best adaptation to the Galician reality. Another characteristic of the 20th century was the establishment of agreements with foreign institutions of university education, at first with Portuguese universities. From on, academic halls were established for women, who became members of the university in the 1913–1914 academic year. Moreover, the number of books of the institution has been increased with new endowments, such as that of the American Library; the military rising against the Republic and the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War meant a period of change in the University of Santiago.
The military coups dominated the city council, imposing on the University a new rector and new norms such as praying before and after each
University of Valladolid
The University of Valladolid is a public university in the city of Valladolid, province of Valladolid, in the autonomous region of Castile and Leon, Spain. Established in the 13th century, it is one of the oldest universities in the world; the university has more than 2,000 teachers. The University of Valladolid is a Spanish public university founded in 1241 as removal of studies at the University of Palencia, founded by Alfonso VIII of Castile, between 1208 and 1212, it is responsible for teaching higher education in seven campuses distributed through four cities of Castile and Leon: Valladolid, Palencia and Segovia. The first building of the university, notable for its architecture is the one constructed at the end of the 15th century, after the move of the institution from the Colegiata, it consists of a four sided cloister, which opens up the hallways, a late Gothic chapel. At the cloister one enters through a portal late Gothic, that opens to the Bookshop Street. At the beginning of the 18th century, this became insufficient, prompting an enlargement consisting of a quadrangular cloister with four galleries that open to hallways built at the same time.
From the Plaza de Santa María, one can see the Baroque facade designed by the Carmelite Fray Pedro de la Visitación and constructed in 1715. There are sculptural groups that represent allegories of the subjects that are taught in the building; the central section, organized into four columns of giants, is finished off by a giant ornamental comb. In 1909, with great controversy, it was decided to destroy the old building, including the entrance hall from the 15th century that opened to Bookshop Street, in order to construct a new building following a design by the architect Teodosio Torres; the Baroque facade was kept. Torres's design featured two cloisters. A staircase was situated between a great vestibule opened to Bookshop Street; the facade of the university building to this street was based on a reinterpretation of the Baroque facade of Fray Pedro, with a mixture of Plateresque and Neoclassical decorative elements. At one side of the facade was an observation tower and on the other was a new clock tower that filled the corner between the University Sq. and Bookshop St.
The project experienced problems. In 1939, the building suffered a fire. To alleviate the problem of the facade's integration into Torres's building, Constantino Candeira designed a great staircase and vestibule, in the historicist style, accessed through the Baroque facade; the staircase is an example of the historicist architecture of Postwar Spain. In 1968 the building was finished with the destruction of the second cloister and the construction of a five-floor building to house students, the destruction of Torres's building, built for far fewer students. In this same reform, the observation tower and the great auditorium of 1909; the facade that faces Librería was remodeled. The new auditorium flanks the facade of Fray Pedro on one of its sides; the computer science department has hosted programming contests for the Association for Computing Machinery using online judging of the submitted programs. Within the university there are cultural associations for theatre; the youth symphonic orchestra: the Joven Orquesta de la Universidad de Valladolid is run by students of the university, headquartered in the Residencia Universitaria Alfonso VIII of Valladolid.
Since its founding in 1998 Francisco Lara Tejero has been the artistic musical director. The choir, the Coro de la Universidad de Valladolid, is directed by Marcos Castán and the Early Music Group El Parnasso; the theatre group is Gente de Teatro de la Uva, founded in 1984 with the name of People's Theatre of the Faculty of Medicine, that from 1998 became the official theater group of the university. Its director is Carlos Burguillo. Through the Area of Extension and Culture, the university presents cultural programs throughout the year, with special emphasis on the UniversiJazz Festival and Santa Cruz. Valladolid University supports cultural initiatives such as those developed by the Hermandad Universitaria del Santo Cristo de la Luz, which includes Christmas and Auto Passion, it assists in the concerts that are organized through each Vice President for University Association and with public and private partnerships. The university library has 14 library services: they are located in Palencia and Segovia provinces, the rest are situated in Valladolid, each of them have a director.
All the services are coordinated by Central Services. The book collection is available through the Almena UVaDoc repository; the collection has 970,000 books. Periodicals: 16,000 titles, E-journals: 21,000 titles, E-books: 900, Data bases: 66. Theses and Masters projects: 33,000. Library Services: Website, reading room and intercampus loan, computers, e-books, bibliographic information, user education online through Moodle, subject guides, tutorials; the library is a member of OCLC, Europe Direct, REBIUN, Catálogo 17, ABBA, Documat, REDINED y BUCLE. List of oldest universities in continuous operation List of medieval universities Official website International Relations Office Technical High School of Computer Engineer Web of the University Young Orchestra of Valladolid Choir of the Uni
National Library of Catalonia
The Library of Catalonia is a Catalan library located in Barcelona, Spain. The mission of the Library of Catalonia is to collect and spread Catalan bibliographic production and that related to the Catalan linguistic area, to look after its conservation, to spread its bibliographic heritage while maintaining the status of a center for research and consultation, it has about three million items. The library was founded in 1907 as the library of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, it was opened to the public in 1914, in the time of the Commonwealth of Catalonia, was housed in the Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya. In 1914 the Commonwealth of Catalonia converted the library of the IEC into a public cultural service. In its early days, the library was situated in an area of the Palau de la Generalitat in Barcelona. In 1929, the library was acquired by the city government of Barcelona. In 1931, the 15th century buildings occupied by the Hospital de la Santa Creu were declared a part of Spain's historical patrimony.
In 1936 the first reading room, the Sala Cervantina was opened, but the project was halted because of the Civil War and not all of the necessary adaptations were completed. After the fall of Barcelona in early 1939, the library was closed until 1940. After the Spanish Civil War, in 1940, the library was renamed the Central Library in Francoist Spain and moved to its new site, where it remains to this day. In Francoist Spain, the institution was turned into a general use library, intended to supplement the deficiencies of the public and university libraries. In 1981 it was made the library of Catalonia by the Llei de biblioteques of 1981, approved by the Parliament of Catalonia, conferring upon it the duties of the reception and distribution of the Catalan legal deposit. In 1993, the Law of the Library System of Catalonia extended the institution's depository functions and helped in its modernization, which included the remodelling of the building, its reorganization and the digitization of its procedures.
During the 1990s, a major renovation project further transformed the library, including the construction of four underground levels of storage and the annex building. In 1998, the library renovated the Gothic elements of its buildings and extended its space, thanks to the construction of a new services building. In 2007, the Biblioteca de Catalunya and four more Catalan libraries agreed to join the digitization project; these libraries have begun digitizing books of theirs. The digitization partnership project is intended to make these books available on the Internet; the Biblioteca de Catalunya acts as coordinator and intermediary on behalf of the other four Catalan libraries participating in the project: the library of the Monastery of Montserrat, the Public Episcopal Library of the Seminary of Barcelona, the Library of the Barcelona Excursionist Centre and the Library of the Barcelona Athenaeum. The Catalan libraries group became the second non-Anglo-Saxon collaborator to join the Google Books Library Project, within the Google Book Search program.
In 1977, the Library of Catalonia joined another Spanish participant in the project, the Complutense University of Madrid. Linear metres of shelving: Free access: 1,500 m Closed stacks: 49,000 m Total surface area of the Biblioteca: 15,000 m2 Total surface area of the General reading room: 2,700 m2 Surface area of the Reserve room: 360 m2 Seats: 229 Total documents: 3 million List of libraries in Spain Google Book Search Google Books Library Project PADICAT Joan Maragall Archive Name and Title Authority File of Catalonia Llista d'encapçalaments de matèria en català Riding, Alan. "France Detects a Cultural Threat in Google," New York Times. 11 April 2005. Fontbona, Francesc: Présentation dés tresors de la Unitat Gràfica de la Biblioteca de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2005. Jorba, Manuel: La Biblioteca de Catalunya com a biblioteca nacional, Barcelona, 1996. Panyella, V.: The Biblioteca de Catalunya, Library of Catalonia, Barcelona: Biblioteca de Catalunya, 1993.: Cincuenta años de la antigua Biblioteca de Catalunya, Biblioteca Central de la Diputación de Barcelona, Barcelona 1968.
Reis Fontanals, Marga Losantos: Biblioteca de Catalunya, 100 anys: 1907–2007, Biblioteca de Catalunya, Barcelona 2007 Rodón, Joan: Sales de lectura de la Biblioteca de Catalunya, 1995. Rodríguez Parada, Concepción: Los fondos patrimoniales de la Biblioteca de Catalunya, Firenze, 2010. Biblioteca de Catalunya The European Library
Public Library of Valencia
The Public Library of Valencia is the main library of the city of Valencia. As an institution, it was founded in 1838. However, it was not until 1979 when it was relocated to its present location, the main building of the former Hospital for the Poor Innocents; the origin of the institution comes from 1938, has its beginnings in the Popular Library of Valencia placed in Casa Vestuario, in Plaza de la Virgen. The library was relocated in 1979 in the intersection of the Old Hospital of Valencia known as Hospital de los Pobres Innocentes; the building that houses the library was founded in 1409 by members of the Valencian bourgeoisie of the time, encouraged by a sermon of Fray Juan Gilabert Jofre in which he defended the need to create an institution to care of the mentally ill. That is, it was the first psychiatric hospital founded in Europe and in 1493 it was granted permission to expand the hospital. The construction works built a new nursing with the form of a Greek cross as one of the many attachments to the hospital, in which now is located the library.
It had two floors, the lower one designed to treat men, the upper one, for women. Until the early 16th century, in Valencia coexisted several minor hospitals associated with religious organizations that were dedicated to cure specific diseases. In 1511, an edict of Ferdinand II of Aragon decreed the unification of all these hospitals into one; some other attachments were added and the whole complex was renamed as General Hospital of Valencia. A fire in 1547 forced reconstruction of the building, in 1664 a second transept was built; the Gothic portal, in the entrance of the library is the only original piece that remains from before the fire. The health complex continued to serve as a hospital until 1960 when it opened the Clinical Hospital of Valencia. After the abandonment of the center began the demolition of the same. During that process, the church, the old pharmacy and the medical school were demolished; the citizen opposition managed to stop the demolition just before the building of nursing was brought down.
Nowadays, in that building is located the library. On November 28, 1963 through Decree 3438, the buildings that had not been demolished were declared as a conjunto histórico, surviving to the construction works the old infirmary, the hermitage of Santa Lucia and the chapel known as "El Capitulet". In 1979, the Ministry of Culture installed the Public Library of Valencia in the former hospital building, the Coordinating Center Library at the pharmacy. Due to the form of Greek cross of the building, the library divides its services by wings: the entrance is in the public limelight and shelves of magazines and reference books. Upstairs, there are the wings of humanities, the offices and the local fund; as a centre, the Public Library of Valencia offers the following services: Bibliographic information. Home loan of books and other media. Cultural activities. Check and reading rooms. Online services. Wifi and Internet. Website of the Public Library of Valencia Catalogue of the Public Library of Valencia Directory of public libraries from Spanish State Additional architectural information Additional information about the Library
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences
The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences is an encyclopedia for library and Information science related issues. It was first published 1968-2003 in 73 volumes under the editorship of Allen Kent, Harold Lancour and Jay E. Daily. Second edition edited by Miriam Drake was published 2003 in 4 volumes, third edition edited by Marcia J. Bates and Mary Niles Maack came in 2010 in seven volumes and fourth edition edited by John D. McDonald and Michael Levine-Clark came in 2017 in seven volumes. Joseph C. Meredith published a “Review of Reviews,” summarizing thirty-nine earlier reviews of the first edition, his findings mentions “omissions, errors and inconsistencies. He concludes that “although as an encyclopedia, the encyclopedia is a failure, it contains many excellent articles.” James D. Anderson reviewed the 2nd edition, he found that "Regretfully, many of the problems of the first edition have been inherited exacerbated, by the second edition" and concluded: "This new second edition turns out to be not so new after all with regard to the most basic articles.
It cannot be recommended for libraries that own the first edition. Overall, it appears to be a spin-off aimed at making money rather than describing the state of the art in the twenty-first century, it reminds us of the drug companies that change the color of a pill in order to get a brand new patent." The third edition was reviewed by Tony Chalcraft He notes: "Of the 565 articles, more than 400 are new to this edition, amounting to about 70 percent of total material." Whereas ELIS2 was devoted to library and information science, ELIS3 addresses in addition "archival science, museum studies and records management...as well as...bibliography, information systems and social studies of information." He concludes: "unquestioned achievement collecting material on the wide field of library and information sciences unobtainable elsewhere. There is no other work that comes near it in scale or spread and for librarians and information specialists it must be regarded as the pre-eminent reference source for the profession."
The editor-in-chief wrote about the scope of the work. The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. First edition, Vol. 1-73. 1968-2003. Edited by Allen Kent, Harold Lancour and Jay E. Daily. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vol. 1: Accountability to Associcao Brasileira De Escolas De Biblioteconomia. 1968. Vol. 2: Association Canadienne des Bibliotheques to Book World. 1969. Vol. 4: Calligraphy to church. 1970 13, 1975 23, 1978 Vols. 46-47: indexes to v. 1-45. Vol. 73: index to v. 48-72. The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. Second edition, Vol. 1-4. 2003. Edited by Miriam A. Drake. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-2075-X. (+ 1 suppl. 2005 ISBN 0849338948 Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. Third edition, Vol. 1-7. 2010. Edited by Marcia J. Bates and Mary Niles Maack. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 084939712X <ref>Contents, 3rd. Edition, vol. 1-7: Academic Librarianship Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences Fourth edition, Vol. 1-7. 2017. Edited by John D. McDonald and Michael Levine-Clark.
Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 146655259X ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization Introduction to the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, Third Edition, Marcia J. Bates and Mary Niles Maack Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, Fourth Edition
University of Barcelona
The University of Barcelona is a public university located in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia in Spain. With 73 undergraduate programs, 273 graduate programs and 48 doctorate programs to over 63,000 students, UB is considered to be the best university in Spain in the QS World University Rankings of 2018, which ranked the university 156th overall in the world. In the 2016-2017 ranking of University Ranking by Academic Performance, UB is considered the best university in Spain and 45th university in the world. According to the yearly ranking made by US News, it is the 81st-best university in the world, the best university in Spain; the University of Barcelona is the principal centre of university research in Spain and has become a European benchmark for research activity, both in terms of the number of research programs it conducts and the excellence these have achieved. According to the 2011 CYD Report, it is the highest-placed Spanish university in terms of scientific output, with a total of 15,290 papers published between 2006 and 2010 leading the ranking of Spanish universities in terms of percentage of papers published in high impact journals.
It has 106 departments and more than 5,000 full-time researchers and research assistants, most of whom work in the 243 research groups as recognized and supported by the Government of Catalonia. In 2010 the UB was awarded 175 national research grants and 17 European grants and participated in over 500 joint research projects with the business sector, generating an overall research income of 70 million euros; the work of these groups is overseen by the UB's research centres and institutes which collaborate with leading research institutions and networks in Spain and abroad. The UB is home to three large research foundations: the Barcelona Science Park Foundation, which includes the Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona, it is a member of the Coimbra Group, LERU, European University Association, Mediterranean Universities Union, International Research Universities Network and Vives Network. Established on 3 November 1450, it is the fifth oldest university in Spain and one of the oldest universities in the world.
The University was founded under the royal prerogative granted by King Alfonso V of Aragon, in Naples, on 3 November 1450. For forty-nine years prior to this, the city had a fledgling medical school, founded by King Martin of Aragon, but neither the Consell de Cent nor the city's other leading institutions had given it their official recognition, considering it an intrusion on their respective jurisdictions. Alphonse the Magnanimous’ prerogative, was granted at the petition of the Consell de Cent, so the council was always to consider the Estudi General created in 1450 as the city's true university, since it was much under its control and patronage; the process that culminated in the foundation of the Estudi General of Barcelona can be traced back to the end of the fourteenth century, with the opening of a number of schools under the patronage of the City Hall, the cathedral schools and the Dominican convent of Santa Caterina, which established itself as a major cultural centre. It was King Martín the Humane who set in motion the process that would result in the foundation of the University of Barcelona.
In his letter written 23 January 1398 and addressed to the councillors of Barcelona, he informed them that he had sought the Pope's permission to found a university in the city by Juan Carlos IX. Despite the Consell de Cent's refusal to accept the concession issued by the King to found an estudi general, on 10 January 1401, Martín founded the Estudi General of Medicine in Barcelona under his royal prerogative, granting it the same privileges as those enjoyed by the University of Montpellier. In another document, signed in Valencia on 9 May 1402, King Martin sought to promote the Estudi General of Medicine with the appointment of a number of teachers of the liberal arts, without which the study of medicine was useless. From that day forth, the Estudi was known as the Estudi of Medicine and the Arts; the prerogative granted by King Alphonse the Magnanimous in 1450, authorizing the Consell de Cent to found a university in Barcelona, was the culmination of the process initiated in 1398. The first university in the lands of the Crown of Aragon was founded by king James II of Aragon in Lleida in 1300.
Power and learning have always gone hand in hand. So much so that the discussions concerning the foundation of the first universities were characterized by the clear delimitation of jurisdictional authority. After 1229, following a series of bloody encounters in Paris that saw grave confrontations between the agents of the university provost and the students, King Philip II of Spain granted full judicial authority to the university chancellor or rector within the university grounds. Henceforth, the authority of the chancellor came to be symbolized in the maces carried by his two beadles on official occasions; the maces were capped with gold or silver and were borne by public servants during official acts before the king or any other civil or military authority with jurisdiction over a territory, municipality or region. For a number of reasons, in particular the civil war that raged during the reign of John II and the subsequent conflicts involving the peasant farmers, the official Estudi General of Barcelona did not begin to develop until the reign of Fernando the Catholic.
Open access in Spain
In Spain, the national 2011 "Ley de la Ciencia, la Tecnología y la Innovación" requires open access publishing for research, produced with public funding. The first peer-reviewed open access Spanish journal, began in 1995. Publishers CSIC Press and Hipatia Press belong to the international Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. There are a number of collections of scholarship in Spain housed in digital open access repositories, they contain journal articles, book chapters and other research outputs that are free to read. As of March 2018, the UK-based Directory of Open Access Repositories lists some 131 repositories in Spain; those with the most digital assets include Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert, Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa, GREDOS, Biblioteca Virtual del Patrimonio Bibliográfico, Digital CSIC. Most universities in Spain maintain an institutional repository, collectively searchable via the "Recolecta" digital platform. Copyright law of Spain Education in Spain Internet in Spain List of libraries in Spain Media of Spain Open access in other countries Redalyc Science and technology in Spain in EnglishGrupo de Trabajo de “Depósito y Gestión de datos en Acceso Abierto” del proyecto RECOLECTA, Preservation and reuse of scientific data in Spain: Report of the good practices working group, FECYT Rosângela Schwarz Rodrigues.
"Scientific journals in Brazil and Spain: Alternative publishing models". Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. US. 65. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Á. Borrego. "Measuring compliance with a Spanish Government open access mandate". Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67: 757–764. Doi:10.1002/asi.23422. Walt Crawford. "Spain". Gold Open Access by Country 2012-2017. US: Cites & Insights Books. Maria‐Francisca Abad‐García. "Effectiveness of OpenAIRE, BASE, Google Scholar at finding Spanish articles in repositories". Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69.in Spanish"Open Data, expertos de #Sadiel nos proponen su #roadmap", Geek and Tech: Tecnología, internet y mucho mas, 2012, archived from the original on 27 January 2012 Informe de la Comisión de Seguimiento sobre el grado de cumplimiento del artículo 37 de la Ley de Ciencia, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2016 Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología.
"Recolector de Ciencia Abierta: Buscador". Recolecta.fecyt.es. "Acceso Abierto". Accesoabierto.net. "BuscaRepositorios". Accesoabierto.net. Universitat de Barcelona and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. "Dulcinea". "Melibea". Lista OS-REPOSITORIOS "Browse by Country: Europe: Spain". Registry of Open Access Repositories. UK. Peter Suber. "". Open Access Tracking Project. Harvard University. OCLC 1040261573. News and comment from the worldwide movement for open access to research "Browse by Country: Spain". ROARMAP: Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies. UK: University of Southampton. "5th International Conference on Open Repositories, Spain, July 6th - 9th, 2010". Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. "Our members: Spain". Sparceurope.org. SPARC Europe. Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition