Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Politics of Newfoundland and Labrador
The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador is governed by a unicameral legislature, the House of Assembly, which operates under the Westminster model of government. The executive function of government is formed by the Lieutenant Governor, the premier and his or her cabinet; the politics of Newfoundland and Labrador is defined by a long history, liberal democratic political institutions and a unique political culture. Newfoundland and Labrador was first inhabited by the Mi ` kmaq, it has the first known European settlement in the Americas at L'Anse aux Meadows, built by the Vikings circa 1000 A. D; the island of Newfoundland and the coast of Labrador has been colonized or settled by a number of European nations including England and France. The emergence of a common law system and political institutions was slow. Law and order was the responsibility of fishing captains and admirals and military governors in the 17th and 18th centuries. With permanent settlement however, this system was replaced by civil officials and in 1832 representative government.
This meant. In 1854, Newfoundland was granted responsible government, it attained Dominion status in 1907; the Dominion of Newfoundland was a polarized society, marked by distinct cleavages between Roman Catholics and Protestants and Conservatives, descendants of Irish and West Country English, rich merchants and poor fishermen and tradesmen, rural Newfoundland versus St. John's; this manifested itself in hotly contested and violent elections. Various reforms in the 1860s and 1870s quelled the hostile nature of this polarization. With exceptions throughout its Dominion history, class and political parties tended to align such that Irish Catholics tended to support the Liberal Party and English Protestants tended to support the Conservative Party. Newfoundland and Labrador's present-day boundaries were finalized as a result of the British Privy Council's decision in the Labrador Boundary Dispute of 1927, to cede much of inland Labrador to the Dominion of Newfoundland rather than to the Canadian province of Quebec.
As a result of the Great Depression, Newfoundland's economy deteriorated. This resulted in a famous episode in 1932 when a large riot erupted at the Colonial Building and Prime Minister Richard Squires narrowly escaped; the Dominion assembly approved the recommendations of the Amulree Commission the following year and voted itself out of existence in order to be replaced by an appointed Commission of Government. This Commission was an appointed council with a British Governor and six commissioners from both Britain and Newfoundland; the Commission oversaw slow growth during the beginning of its reign, but Newfoundland began to thrive during World War II. It was shortly after the Second World War that a Newfoundland National Convention was created in order to deliberate the constitutional future of Newfoundland. Two referendums were initiated in the year 1948. In the first, Newfoundlanders were asked to vote on whether to join Canada as a province, return to an independent dominion with responsible government, or continue with an appointed Commission.
In the second referendum, Newfoundlanders were asked to choose between responsible government and confederation with Canada. The movement for responsible government tended to be weaker, less organized in rural areas, had some divisions stemming from many of its members supporting a special economic union with the United States. Newfoundland's voters narrowly voted in favour of confederation and in 1949 Newfoundland joined Canada as its tenth province; the second referendum was a divisive one and still to this day is a source of contention among Newfoundlanders and Labradorians. During the referendum, Joey Smallwood campaigned for the Confederate Association and Peter Cashin campaigned for the Responsible Government League; the confederate cause drew most of its support from Protestants, poor fishermen and rural Newfoundlanders those from outside the Avalon Peninsula. The RGL depended on the support of Catholics and voters from the Avalon Peninsula. Religion served as a important determinant in a voter's decision.
The Roman Catholic establishment, centered in St. John's, feared a loss of power and the possible elimination of its role in denominational education after confederation. Confederation was seen as a plot to join loyalist, predominantly English Canada; this trend was not universal since, for example, Catholics from western Newfoundland tended to vote for confederation rather than against it. But it did bring about a crack in the Liberal/Catholic and Conservative/Protestant alignment of Newfoundland's voters. After confederation, the RGL elected to form the Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador, while Smallwood, Newfoundland's first Premier after confederation was a Liberal. Economic issues were quite salient in the referendum on confederation; the confederate cause received much of its support from rural Protestant communities, won over to the confederate side by promises of a child allowance, better health care, full employment, higher incomes and other social reforms. These were measures to which Newfoundland migrants to Canada and the United States were accustomed, but could not be as promised by the Avalon Peninsula-based, affluent leaders of the RGL.
After confederation, Liberal Premier Joey
Politics of Alberta
Politics of Alberta are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces, namely a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The capital of the province is Edmonton; the unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Alberta, has 87 members. Government is conducted after the Westminster model; the provincial government's revenue, although it is described as predominantly coming from the province's resource base is derived from a variety of sources. Nonrenewable resource revenue provided the government with 24 percent of its revenue in 2010-11, with about the same coming from individual income tax, 14 per cent from grants from the federal government, about eight percent coming from both corporations and the government's own business activities. Alberta is the only province in Canada without a provincial sales tax. Alberta has a system of municipal government similar to that of the other provinces. Alberta was swept up in the wave of "prairie populism" that took place after World War I.
However, for over 80 years, the province was governed by right-wing parties, which began in 1935, with Social Credit, which were succeeded in 1971 by the Progressive Conservatives. Ralph Klein was premier of Alberta from 1992 to 2006 and despite making many controversial statements and having had problems with alcohol, he remained the leader of the Progressive Conservative party and thus the province although only 55% of delegates from his party signified their approval of his leadership on the spring of 2006, pushing him into early retirement. Edmonton was the exception to the province's previous right-wing voting pattern, earning it the nickname "Redmonton". Edmonton city residents, to a larger extent than elsewhere, tend to vote for other parties, such as the Liberal Party of Alberta and Alberta New Democrats, but, obscured because of the first-past-the-post system; the 2004 provincial election was an example. While the Tories won 13 of Edmonton's 18 seats in 2008, Klein's successor, Ed Stelmach, represented a riding just outside Edmonton and was perceived to be less connected to the interests of the energy corporations whose headquarters are in Calgary.
Stelmach gave way in 2011 to the province's first female premier. She led the Tories to a 12th consecutive election victory in 2012. Redford was forced to resign in 2014, was succeeded by former federal minister Jim Prentice; the conservative dominance of Alberta politics was broken in 2015, when the Alberta New Democratic Party formed government for the first time in its history, Rachel Notley became Alberta's 17th Premier. Alberta's right-wing tilt is no less pronounced on the federal level; the province was the heartland of the former Reform Party of Canada and its successor, the Canadian Alliance. These parties were the second-largest political parties in the federal Parliament from 1997 to 2003 and the farthest to the political right; the Canadian Alliance merged with the Progressive Conservative Party to form today's Conservative Party of Canada. The Conservatives' former leader and ex-Prime Minister Stephen Harper, moved to Alberta in the 1980s and represented a Calgary riding. Rural Alberta ridings give the Conservatives some of their highest margins in the country.
Alberta's political stability has led to a series of political dynasties. Voters have turned a government out of office only four times in 110 years; the previous two governments, prior to 2015, were among the longest-lived in the Commonwealth. Alberta elections are held using a first-past-the-post system so MLAs elected did not receive a majority of the votes in the constituency, the party with a majority of the seats in the Legislature did not receive the majority of votes cast in the election. For example, in the 2004 election, the Progressive Conservative party won 61 of 83 seats but obtained only 47% of the popular vote. During the UFA and early SC government periods, elections were conducted using transferable preferential ballots, candidates in cities ran "at-large,", using preferential balloting, ensuring more representative membership in the Legislature. Many of the opposition parties today include electoral reform in their policies. In its history, Alberta has seen only five parties form governments.
No governing party, once defeated, has returned to power. Most of the 27 Alberta general elections held as of 2011 have resulted in overwhelming majorities in the Legislature for the governing party, a trend unseen in any other province in Canada. No minority government has existed in Alberta, whether by general elections, by-elections, or floor crossings. Both the provincial Progressive Conservatives and the Reform/Alliance parties reflect Alberta's more conservative nature when compared to other provinces. Politicians elected by Albertans tend to oppose social policies such as same-sex marriage and gun control. According to a 2001 poll by Leger Marketing, 61.8% of Albertans polled are in favour of the death penalty compared to 52.9% of Canadians, although death penalty has been abolished throughout Canada since 1976. Former Premier Ralph Klein attempted to establish relations with po
Charles Herbert Mackintosh
Charles Herbert Mackintosh was a Canadian journalist and politician. Mackintosh served as mayor of Ottawa from 1879–1881, represented Ottawa City as a Liberal-Conservative in the House of Commons of Canada from 1882 to 1887, from 1890 to 1893, served as Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories from 1893 to 1898, he was born in London, Canada West on May 13, 1843, the son of Captain William Mackintosh, of Wicklow, Ireland, an Irish-born officer posted to Canada with the British Army's Ordnance Department, who served as County Engineer for Middlesex County, Ontario. Mackintosh's paternal grandfather was Captain Duncan Mackintosh, a Scotsman, sent to Ireland with the British Army's Highland regiment during the Irish Rebellion of 1798. After the Rebellion, he bought an estate in County Wicklow, in 1802, married, at Dublin, Alicia Weldon, variously described as being the daughter of Lady Weldon, a niece of the Earl of Dysart, though which ones are meant is not specified. C. H. Mackintosh's mother was daughter of Col. Dickinson, of Jamaica, British West Indies.
Through the maternal line, Mackintosh claimed to be close kin to Sir Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore, one of whose sisters was called Leonora, one of whose half-aunts, Elizabeth Raffles, married William Carter, Esq. of Jamaica. Paternally, he claimed to be a near relation of the essayist and politician, the Right Honourable Sir James Mackintosh, member of the Kellachie branch of the Inverness-shire-based Clan Mackintosh, part of the Scottish Highlands Chattan Confederation. In addition to C. H. Mackintosh's grand, if vague, ties to the ruling class, there is occasional confusion with another Mackintosh author, Charles Henry Mackintosh, a prolific Plymouth Brethren author and evangelist, known principally by the initials, C. H. M. which happen to coincide with those of the present subject. Details in this second man's biography indicate that the elder and younger C. H. Mackintoshes were uncle and nephew, or, at least, related. At any rate, in nineteenth century colonial Canada, these exalted family connexions in Britain and the empire may have played a rôle in fostering Mackintosh's ambitions, aiding him in his advancement.
Coupled with his innate talents, they may have served to mark him in Conservative party political circles where, in 1893, Canada's Prime Minister Sir John Thompson viewed him as the more suitable vice-regal candidate over rival fellow Tory, Nicholas Flood Davin, whose own chagrin at Mackintosh's appointment is well documented. Educated at Galt Grammar School and Caradoc Academy, he first began the study of law but instead, in 1862, entered the trade of journalism, he first served as city editor of the London Free Press acting as city editor of the Hamilton Times. He edited the Parkhill Gazette, served as managing editor of the Chicago Journal of Commerce. During his time in Strathroy, Ontario, he was proprietor of the Strathroy Dispatch. In 1873, he was elected to the town council of Strathroy, Ontario, at a time when this was not prohibited as a conflict of interest in an era of partisan journalism. In 1874, he acquired the Ottawa Daily Citizen, serving as its owner and editor-in-chief from 1874 to 1892.
He was owner and editor of the Canadian Parliamentary Companion from 1877 to 1882. On 6 August 1875, he won the gold and silver medals offered by the St. Patrick's Society during the O'Connell centenary at Major's Hill Park in Ottawa for a prize poem entitled, The Irish Liberator, he was president of the Parliamentary Press Gallery, Ottawa, in 1879. He served as chairman for the Dominion Exhibition in 1879, as president of the Agricultural Association in 1881. After only one year, 1873, on the Strathroy town council, he served as 13th Mayor of Ottawa from 1879 to 1881. Elected as a Conservative, he was returned as a Member of Parliament for the riding of Ottawa City in the House of Commons of Canada from 1882 to 1887 and again from 1890 to 1893, he was unsuccessful in contesting the constituency of Russell, Ontario in the 1887 Dominion election. He was appointed Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories in 1893, serving in that capacity until his resignation in 1898. During his tenure of the territorial viceregal office, he promoted a great Territorial Exhibition, opened by His Excellency the Earl of Aberdeen, Governor General of the Dominion of Canada at Regina, district of Assiniboia, N.
W. T. on 30 July 1895. For these services he was presented with an oil portrait of himself in August 1895. Following his vice-regency, he contested unsuccessfully the provincial seat of Rossland, British Columbia in 1900, the riding of Kootenay, British Columbia in the Dominion general elections of 1900 and 1904, all in the Conservative or Liberal-Conservative interest. In 1898, he became Canadian manager of the British American Mining Company, British Columbia becoming a broker and financial agent in Victoria, British Columbia. In 1898, he sold the Le Roi mining property. In 1901, on behalf of the miners of British Columbia, he presented two unusual gold nuggets to King Edward VII and, his wife, Queen Alexandra; the Montreal Gazette described him as "a tactful and experienced public man", while the Toronto Telegram declared him to be "warm hearted and altogether likeable". He was a life director of the Carleton County Protestant Home for the Aged in Ontario. In politics, he was a Liberal-Conservative, being noted as "an imperialist of no uncertain sound", served as vice-president of the British Empire League in Canada.
In religion, he was an Anglican. He was a member of two gentleman's clubs, the Union Club, Victoria
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
Alexander Morris (politician)
Alexander Morris was a Canadian politician. He served in the cabinet of Prime Minister John A. Macdonald, was the second Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, he served as the founder and first Lieutenant Governor of the District of Keewatin. Morris was born in Perth, Upper Canada, the son of William Morris, himself a prominent Canadian businessman and Conservative politician. From this privileged social position, Morris was educated in Canada and Scotland and worked for three years at the Montreal firm of Thorne and Heward. In 1847, he moved to Kingston and articled for a year under John A. Macdonald. In 1849, he became the first person to receive an arts degree from McGill University, he would subsequently receive other degrees from McGill, including a DCL in 1862. In 1851, he was admitted to the bar in both Canada Canada West. Morris was an author, in 1855 published an essay entitled Canada and her resources, which called for the development of national industry. In 1858, he predicted a coming federation of the British North American colonies in a work entitled Nova Britannia, which sold 3,000 copies in its first ten days of publication.
He wrote on academic matters and developments in the Presbyterian church in Canada, of which he was a prominent member. Morris wrote The Treaties of Canada With The Indians of Manitoba and The North-West Territories Including The Negotiations on Which They Were Based, Other Information Relating Thereto in 1880, considered "the primary source document for government's interpretation of the treaty era in Canada."Alexander Morris was raised for public life, it was no surprise when he declared himself a candidate for the Province of Canada's legislature in 1861. He ran as a Liberal-Conservative in the riding of Lanark South in Canada West, supporting the government of George-Étienne Cartier and John A. Macdonald. Morris received 1265 votes, against 828 for his opponent; the Cartier-Macdonald government came out of the 1861 election in a weakened position, Liberal John Sandfield Macdonald was able to form a ministry in 1862. Morris, went into the opposition, he was re-elected in 1863, returned to the government side when the Étienne-Paschal Taché-John A. Macdonald ministry was formed in 1864.
Morris's role in parliament was limited during these years, though he spoke in support of confederation and played a role in negotiating the grand coalition ministry of 1864. He expanded his business interests in this period, was named to the board of the Commercial Bank of Canada in 1867. During his time in parliament, he was responsible for introducing a bill ending public executions in Canada. Morris was re-elected by acclamation in the federal election of 1867, the first to be held following the royal proclamation of Confederation, he was appointed Minister of Inland Revenue on November 16, 1869, served as a competent if not prominent member of the Macdonald ministry for the next three years. On the advice of his doctors, he did not seek re-election in 1872, he was instead appointed as the first Chief Justice of the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba, serving in this position from July to December 1872. He was appointed as the acting Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories in October 1872, following the departure of Adams George Archibald.
Morris maintained Archibald's policy of conciliation among the various factions in Manitoba, unsuccessfully attempted to establish a local police force to preserve law and order in the region. He was formally sworn in as the official Lieutenant Governor on December 2, attempted to accelerate the settling of Métis land claims in the province. Manitoba's government was still in a developing state when Morris became Lieutenant Governor, he continued Archibald's practice of serving as the province's de facto Premier. In 1873, he refused a request by Henry Joseph Clarke to be recognized as Premier of the province, continued to exercise his own authority over the province's legislative process. After the defeat of the provincial ministry in July 1874, Morris asked Marc-Amable Girard to become the province's first Premier, thereby instituting responsible government to the province. After this, he continued to exert considerable authority from behind the scenes. Morris spoke for Manitoba on matters of federal–provincial relations, helped to create the University of Manitoba in 1877.
He was actively involved in treaty negotiations with aboriginal groups, signing Treaties 3, 4, 5, 6, revising Treaties 1 and 2. Morris seems to have been more willing to support aboriginal land title than was his predecessor Archibald, argued in favour of education and hunting/fishing rights for aboriginal groups. Despite some successes, however, he was unable to prevent the withdrawal of many Métis from the province. In 1874, with Manitoba's finances in peril, the provincial government appealed to Ottawa for assistance. Ottawa agreed to provide aid, but demanded that the Legislative Council be eliminated in order to cut expenses; when the council twice rejected bills that would have resulted in its demise, Morris intervened by offering recalcitrant councillors lucrative government positions elsewhere. Due to Morris' mediation, Manitoba's Legislative Council became the first provincial upper house to be abolished in 1876. Morris stepped down as Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories in 1876, after it was made a separate jurisdiction.
While losing this position, h