The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms and animals including human beings. Life science is one of the two major branches of natural science, the other being physical science, concerned with non-living matter. By definition, biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, with the other life sciences being its sub-disciplines; some life sciences focus on a specific type of organism. For example, zoology is the study of animals. Other life sciences focus on aspects common to many life forms, such as anatomy and genetics; some focus on the micro scale other on larger scales. Another major branch of life sciences involves understanding the mind – neuroscience. Life sciences discoveries are helpful in improving the quality and standard of life, have applications in health, agriculture and the pharmaceutical and food science industries. Biology – burst and eclectic field, composed of many branches and sub-disciplines.
However, despite the complexity and the broad scope of the science, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it that govern all study and research, consolidating it into a single, coherent field. Here are some of biology's major branches: Anatomy – study of form and function, in plants and other organisms, or in humans. Astrobiology – the study of the formation and presence of life in the universe. Biotechnology – study of combination of both the living organism and technology. Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function a focus on the cellular level. Bioinformatics – developing of methods or software tools for storing, retrieving and analyzing biological data to generate useful biological knowledge Biolinguistics – study of the biology and evolution of language. Biological anthropology – the study of humans, non-human primates, hominids. Known as physical anthropology. Biomechanics – the study of the mechanics of living beings. Biophysics – study of biological processes by applying the theories and methods that have been traditionally used in the physical sciences.
Botany – study of plants. Cell biology – study of the cell as a complete unit, the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell. Known as cytology Developmental biology – study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment Ethology – the study of behavior Evolutionary biology – study of the origin and descent of species over time Evolutionary developmental biology – study of the evolution of development including its molecular control Genetics – study of genes and heredity Histology – the study of tissues Immunology – the study of the immune system Microbiology – study of microscopic organisms and their interactions with other living organisms Molecular biology – study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry and microbiology Neuroscience – study of the nervous system Paleontology – study of prehistoric organisms Pharmacology – the study of drug action Physiology – study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Population biology – study of groups of conspecific organisms Quantum biology – the study of quantum phenomena in organisms Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macro-molecules Synthetic biology – the design and construction of new biological entities such as enzymes, genetic circuits and cells, or the redesign of existing biological systems Systems biology – study of the integration and dependencies of various components within a biological system, with particular focus upon the role of metabolic pathways and cell-signaling strategies in physiology Theoretical biology – the use of abstractions and mathematical models to study biological phenomena Toxicology – the nature and detection of poisons Biotechnology – manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology Biocomputers – biocomputers use systems of biologically derived molecules, such as DNA and proteins, to perform computational calculations involving storing and processing data.
The development of biocomputers has been made possible by the expanding new science of nanobiotechnology. Biocontrol – bioeffector-method of controlling pests using other living organisms. Bioengineering – study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and related to biotechnology Bioelectronics – the electrical state of biological matter affects its structure and function, compare for instance the membrane potential, the signal transduction by neurons, the isoelectric point and so on. Micro- and nano-electronic components and devices have been combined with biological systems like medical implants, lab-on-a-chip devices etc. causing the emergence of this new scientific field. Biomaterials – any matter, surface, or construct that interacts with biological systems; as a science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science, it has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products.
Biomaterials science encomp
Glarner Kantonalbank is the cantonal bank and the dominant retail banking group in the Swiss canton of Glarus. In addition to the headquarters in Glarus, there are branches in Niederurnen, Näfels, Netstal and Linthal, but not in Glarner Sernftal, traditionally served by Glarner Regionalbank AG. On 11 May 2010, Glarner Kantonalbank was transformed from an institution under public law into a public limited company under special law; until an IPO in July 2014, it was wholly owned by the Canton of Glarus, with a majority stake of 68.24%. In addition to traditional advice in the mortgage and savings business, commercial lending, investment advice and asset management have gained in importance. Like the vast majority of all cantonal banks, the Glarus-based bank has a so-called state guarantee; this means. The Board of Directors is the supreme supervisory body of the Glarner Kantonalbank, it consists of seven members and is chaired by Martin Leutenegger. According to Art. 14 para. 2 of the law on the Cantonal Bank of Glarus, the Government Council must be represented on the Board of Directors by at least one member.
Rolf Widmer, Head of the Department of Finance and Health, represents the Government Council. The operational management is in the hands of the management, it is headed by Hanspeter Rhyner. Cantonal bank List of Banks in Switzerland
Vestido de Etiqueta por Eduardo Magallanes is the thirtieth studio album by Juan Gabriel, released on August 12, 2016. A bonus DVD was included; the album was released 16 days before Juan Gabriel’s death. Vestido de Etiqueta por Eduardo Magallanes reached number one on the Billboard Top Latin Albums chart in the United States. All tracks are written by Juan Gabriel. All tracks are written by Juan Gabriel. La producción de los videoclips se dió en el teatro Peón Contreras en la ciudad de Mérida, tuvo la participación del videógrafo personal de Juan Gabriel, el Juarense Jesús Ochoa, de los cuales se mantienen algunos videos inéditos. Juan Gabriel embarked on the Mexico Es Todo Tour performing his final concert at The Forum in Inglewood, California. "Juan Gabriel Vestido De Etiqueta Por Eduardo Magallanes". Amazon.com. Retrieved August 12, 2016. "Juan Gabriel Vestido De Etiqueta Por Eduardo Magallanes". ITunes. Retrieved August 12, 2016
Constructive notice is the legal fiction that signifies that a person or entity should have known, as a reasonable person would have, of a legal action taken or to be taken if they have no actual knowledge of it. The doctrine is construed with regards to legal notices published, either by posting them at a designated place in a courthouse, or publishing them in a newspaper designated for legal notices; because both methods of publication are available to the general public, the person to whom the notice is being issued is considered to have received notice if they were not aware of it. Another use of constructive notice is in the recording of deeds, mortgages and similar documents in county registries in the United States. Since such documents are considered public information and can be accessed by any member of the public, such recordings are considered constructive notice of land conveyances or encumbrances having taken place. In companies law the doctrine of constructive notice is a doctrine where all persons dealing with a company are deemed to have knowledge of the company's articles of association and memorandum of association.
The doctrine of indoor management is an exception to this rule. The New York City Housing Court allows use of the concept of constructive notice by either the tenant or the landlord. For example, constructive notice could be given to a landlord if a broken and unsupported metal grate on a public sidewalk collapses when stepped on by a pedestrian; the landlord is reasonably expected to know. The harshness of the doctrine of constructive notice is somewhat reduced by the "Rule of Indoor management" or "Turquand's Rule"; the Rule derives its name from the case of Royal British Bank v Turquand, where the defendant was the liquidator of the insolvent Cameron's Coalbrook Steam and Swansea and Loughor Railway Company. The company had borrowed from Royal British Bank by giving a bond worth £2,000; the articles of the company stated that the directors could only borrow if authorised by a resolution of the company's general meeting, could not borrow more than the amount specified in the resolution. The articles were registered with Companies House.
But the bank could not have known about the resolution, as they were not registrable and thus were not a public document. The bond was held valid and there was no requirement to know the company's internal workings
Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PSTPIP2 gene. This protein known as macrophage F-actin-asosiated and tyrosine phosphorylated protein is a member of the Pombe Cdc15 homology family of proteins has been shown to coordinate membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics Pstpip2 is selectively expressed in macrophages and macrophage precursors, it is an actin bundling protein which regulates filopodia formation and macrophage motility PSTPIP2 deficiency leads to elevated levels of circulating inflammatory mediators in vivo. In asymptomatic mice, only MIP-1α and IL-6 are elevated, however symptomatic PSTPIP2-deficient mice have elevated levels of circulating IL-6, MIP-1α, TNF-α, CSF-1 and IP-10< and decreased levels of IL-13 The missense mutation I228N leads to a macrophage-mediated autoinflammatory disease called Lupo Pstpip2. It is characterized by skin necrosis, inflammation of paws and inflammatory bone resorption. Another mutation in Pstpip2, L98P, was described in chronic multifocal osteomyelitis mice.
This disease is autoinflammatory, causes inflammatory infiltrate of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. The infiltrate is replaced with new bone tissue which lead to tail kinks and hind-foot deformities; the cmo mice develop ear inflammation in the epidermis and cartilage. PSTPIP2 interacts with protein tyrosine phosphatases from the proline-, glutamic acid-, serine- and threonine-rich family, SHIP1 and Csk
The Hamidian massacres referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896 and Armenian genocide, were massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire that took place in the mid-1890s. It was estimated casualties ranged from 80,000 to 300,000, resulting in 50,000 orphaned children; the massacres are named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who, in his efforts to maintain the imperial domain of the collapsing Ottoman Empire, reasserted Pan-Islamism as a state ideology. Although the massacres were aimed at the Armenians, they turned into indiscriminate anti-Christian pogroms in some cases, such as the Diyarbekir massacre, where, at least according to one contemporary source, up to 25,000 Assyrians were killed; the massacres began in the Ottoman interior in 1894, before becoming more widespread in the following years. Between 1894 and 1896 was when the majority of the murders took place; the massacres began tapering off in 1897, following international condemnation of Abdul Hamid. The harshest measures were directed against the long persecuted Armenian community as calls for civil reform and better treatment from the government went ignored.
The Ottomans made no allowances for the victims' age or gender, massacred all with brutal force. This occurred at a time when the telegraph could spread news around the world, the massacres received extensive coverage in the media of Western Europe and North America; the origins of the hostility toward Armenians lay in the precarious position in which the Ottoman Empire found itself in the last quarter of the 19th century. The end of Ottoman dominion over the Balkans was ushered in by an era of European nationalism and an insistence on self-determination by many territories long held under Ottoman rule; the Armenians of the empire, who were long considered second-class citizens, had begun in the mid-1860s and early 1870s to ask for civil reforms and better treatment from government. They pressed for an end to the usurpation of land, "the looting and murder in Armenian towns by Kurds and Circassians, improprieties during tax collection, criminal behavior by government officials and the refusal to accept Christians as witnesses in trial."
These requests went unheeded by the central government. When a nascent form of nationalism spread among the Armenians of Anatolia, including demands for equal rights and a push for autonomy, the Ottoman leadership believed that the empire's Islamic character and its existence were threatened; the combination of Russian military success in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, the clear weakening of the Ottoman Empire in various spheres including financial and the hope among some Armenians that one day all of the Armenian territory might be ruled by Russia, led to a new restiveness among Armenians living inside the Ottoman Empire. The Armenians sent a delegation led by Mkrtich Khrimian to the 1878 Congress of Berlin to lobby the European powers to include proper safeguards for their kinsmen in the eventual peace agreement; the sultan, was not prepared to relinquish any power. Abdul Hamid believed that the woes of the Ottoman Empire stemmed from "the endless persecutions and hostilities of the Christian world."
He perceived the Ottoman Armenians to be an extension of foreign hostility, a means by which Europe could "get at our most vital places and tear out our guts." Turkish historian and Abdul Hamid's biographer Osman Nuri observed, "The mere mention of the word'reform' irritated him, inciting his criminal instincts." Upon hearing of the Armenian delegation's visit to Berlin in 1878, he bitterly remarked, "Such great impudence... Such great treachery toward religion and state... May they be cursed upon by God." While he admitted that some of their complaints were well-founded, he likened the Armenians to "hired female mourners who simulate a pain they do not feel. The provisions for reform in the Armenian provinces embodied in Article 61 of the Treaty of Berlin were not enforced and were followed instead by further repression. On January 2, 1881, collective notes sent by the European powers reminding the sultan of the promises of reform failed to prod him into action; the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire were insecure.
In 1890-91, at a time when the empire was either too weak and disorganized or reluctant to halt them, Sultan Abdul Hamid gave semi-official status to the Kurdish bandits. Made up of Kurdish tribes, but of Turks, Yöruk, Arabs and Circassians, armed by the state, they came to be called the Hamidiye Alaylari; the Hamidiye and Kurdish brigands were given free rein to attack Armenians, confiscating stores of grain and driving off livestock, confident of escaping punishment as they were subjects of military courts only. In the face of such abuses and violence, the Armenians established revolutionary organizations, namely the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Clashes ensued and unrest occurred in 1892 at Merzifon and in 1893 at Tokat. In 1894, the sultan began to target the Armenian people in a precursor to the Hamidian massacres; this persecution strengthened nationalistic sentiment among Armenians. The first notable battle in the Armenian resistance took place in Sasun.