List of longest-reigning monarchs

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This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the 100 monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign.

  • Currently reigning monarchs are highlighted.
  • Note: "(HRE)" indicates a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire.

Monarchs with verifiable reigns by exact date[edit]

Rank Name State Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
1 Sobhuza II[note 1] Swaziland 10 December 1899 21 August 1982 30,204 82 years, 254 days
2 Bernhard VII Lippe (HRE) 12 August 1429 2 April 1511 29,818 81 years, 234 days
3 William IV Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE) 26 May 1480 24 January 1559 28,731 78 years, 243 days
4 Heinrich XI[note 2][1][2] Reuss-Obergreiz (HRE) 17 March 1723 28 June 1800 28,227 77 years, 103 days
5 Idris ibni Muhammad al-Qadri,[3] Tunku Besar of Tampin Tampin (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia) 1 to 31 May 1929 26 December 2005 27,983 ±15 76 years, 224 days ± 15 days
6 Christian August Palatinate-Sulzbach (HRE) 14 August 1632 23 April 1708 27,645 75 years, 253 days
7 Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nimbalkar Phaltan (India) 7 December 1841 17 October 1916 27,342 74 years, 315 days
8 Bhagvatsingh Sahib Gondal state (India) 14 December 1869 10 March 1944 27,114 74 years, 87 days
9 Georg Wilhelm Schaumburg-Lippe 13 February 1787 21 November 1860 26,944 73 years, 282 days
10 Karl Friedrich Baden 12 May 1738 10 June 1811 26,691 73 years, 29 days
11 John Louis Nassau-Saarbrücken (HRE) 19 October 1472 4 June 1545 26,525 72 years, 228 days[note 3]
12 Louis XIV France 14 May 1643 1 September 1715 26,407 72 years, 110 days
13 Heinrich Friedrich Hohenlohe-Langenburg (HRE) 29 January 1628 5 August 1699 26,121 71 years, 188 days
14 Jagatjit Singh Bahadur Kapurthala (India) 3 September 1877 20 August 1948 25,918 70 years, 352 days[4][note 4]
15 Parashuramrao Shrinivas Aundh (India) 30 August 1777 11 June 1848 25,852 70 years, 286 days
16 Franz Karl Fürstenberg-Donaueschingen (HRE) 15 November 1627 19 July 1698 25,814 70 years, 246 days
17 Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) Thailand 9 June 1946 13 October 2016 25,694 70 years, 126 days
18 Johannes II Liechtenstein 12 November 1858 11 February 1929 25,658 70 years, 91 days
19 Karl August Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 28 May 1758 14 June 1828 25,584 70 years, 17 days
20 Alberico I Cybo-Malaspina Massa and Carrara 6 June 1553 18 January 1623 25,428 69 years, 226 days
21 Werner Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (HRE) 31 October 1559 16 February 1629 25,311 69 years, 108 days
22 Heinrich Joseph Johann Auersperg (HRE) 6 November 1713 9 February 1783 25,297 69 years, 95 days
23 Friedrich III[note 5] Inner Austria (HRE) 10 June 1424 19 August 1493 25,272 69 years, 70 days
24 Friedrich V Hesse-Homburg 7 February 1751 20 January 1820 25,183 68 years, 347 days
25 Vikramatji Khimojiraj[5] Porbandar (India) 20 June 1831 21 April 1900 25,142 68 years, 305 days
26 Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar Mysore (India) 30 June 1799 27 March 1868 25,107 68 years, 271 days
27 Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II Kedah Sultanate 15 February 1710 23 September 1778 25,057 68 years, 220 days
28 Johann Friedrich Castell-Rüdenhausen (HRE) 10 January 1681 23 June 1749 25,000 68 years, 164 days
29 Sawant Singh[6] Pratapgarh (India) 26 October 1775 5 January 1844 24,907 68 years, 71 days
30 K'inich Janaab' Pakal Palenque (Mexico) July 29, 615 August 31, 683 24,870 68 years, 33 days
31 Christian Karl Reinhard Leiningen-Dagsburg (HRE) 3 November 1698 17 November 1766 24,850 68 years, 14 days
32 Franz Joseph I Austria-Hungary 2 December 1848 21 November 1916 24,825 67 years, 355 days
33 Ram Singh Bundi State (India)[7] 14 May 1821 28 March 1889 24,790 67 years, 318 days
34 Heinrich III Meissen (HRE) 18 January 1221 15 February 1288 24,499 67 years, 28 days
35 Aliénor[note 6] Aquitaine 9 April 1137 1 April 1204 24,464 66 years, 358 days
36 Amarsinhji[note 7] Wankaner (India) 12 June 1881 15 February 1948 24,353 66 years, 248 days
37 Constantine VIII Byzantine Empire March 30, 962 11 November 1028 24,332 66 years, 226 days
38 Khengarji III Cutch (India) 19 December 1875 15 January 1942 24,133 66 years, 27 days
39 Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah Sultanate of Serdang 20 December 1879 4 December 1945 24,090 65 years, 349 days
40 Basil II Byzantine Empire April 22, 960 15 December 1025 23,977 65 years, 237 days
41 Leopold III Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 16 December 1751 9 August 1817 23,977 65 years, 236 days
42 Elizabeth II United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand[8][note 8] 6 February 1952[8] present 23,968 65 years, 226 days
43 Ferdinand III Sicily 6 October 1759 4 January 1825 23,831 65 years, 90 days
44 John I Brittany 21 October 1221 8 October 1286 23,728 64 years, 352 days
45 Frederick William Hohenzollern-Hechingen (HRE) 13 January 1671 14 November 1735 23,680 64 years, 305 days
46 Ibrahim Johor (Malaysia) 4 June 1895 8 May 1959 23,348 63 years, 338 days
47 Sayajirao Gaekwad III Baroda State (India) 27 May 1875 6 February 1939 23,265 63 years, 256 days
48 Albert Anton Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (HRE) 4 November 1646 24 June 1710 23,242 63 years, 232 days
49 Anton Günther Oldenburg (HRE) 12 November 1603 19 June 1667 23,230 63 years, 219 days
50 Victoria United Kingdom 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days
51 Friedrich August I[note 9] Saxony 17 December 1763 5 May 1827 23,149 63 years, 139 days
52 Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa Bahrain 1 December 1869 9 December 1932 23,018 63 years, 8 days
53 Charles III Upper Lorraine (HRE) 12 June 1545 14 May 1608 22,982 62 years, 337 days
54 James I Aragon 12 September 1213 27 July 1276 22,964 62 years, 319 days
55 Johann Friedrich II Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 17 October 1702 24 August 1765 22,957 62 years, 311 days
56 Bernhard II Saxe-Meiningen 24 December 1803 20 September 1866 22,916 62 years, 270 days
57 Philipp II Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 2 July 1429 19 March 1492 22,906 62 years, 261 days[note 10]
58 Leopold-Philippe Arenberg (HRE) 19 August 1691 4 March 1754 22,842 62 years, 197 days
59 Muhammad Ibrahim Khan Salarzai[9] Tonk (India) 20 December 1867 23 June 1930 22,830 62 years, 185 days
60 Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates) 17 July 1948 27 October 2010 22,747 62 years, 102 days
61 Nahar Singh, Raja of Shahpura Shahpura (India) 21 April 1870 24 June 1932 22,709 62 years, 64 days[10]
62 Hirohito (Shōwa)[note 11] Japan 25 December 1926 7 January 1989 22,659 62 years, 13 days
63 Kangxi Emperor[note 12] Qing (China) 7 February 1661 20 December 1722 22,595 61 years, 316 days
64 Tuanku Abdul Hamid Halim Shah Kedah (Malaysia) 22 September 1881 13 May 1943 22,512 61 years, 233 days
65 Philip IV Waldeck-Wildungen (HRE) 28 May 1513 30 November 1574 22,466 61 years, 186 days
66 Wakhat Singh Dalil Singh Lunavada (India) 31 October 1867 27 April 1929 22,458 61 years, 178 days
67 Paku Alam VIII Pakualaman (Indonesia) 12 April 1937 11 September 1998 22,432 61 years, 152 days
68 Victor Amadeus Anhalt-Bernburg (HRE) 22 September 1656 14 February 1718 22,424 61 years, 145 days
69 Lakshman Singh, Maharawal of Banswara Banswara State (India) 2 February 1844 29 April 1905 22,366 61 years, 86 days[11]
70 Ulrich V Württemberg-Stuttgart (HRE) 2 July 1419 1 September 1480 22,342 61 years, 61 days[note 13]
71 Ranbir Singh Jind (India) 7 March 1887 31 March 1948 22,304 61 years, 24 days[12][note 14]
72 Ernst Ludwig Hesse-Darmstadt (HRE) 31 August 1678 12 September 1739 22,291 61 years, 12 days
73 Johann Friedrich I Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 11 October 1641 17 October 1702 22,285 61 years, 6 days
74 Wilhelm Moritz II Isenburg-Philippseich (HRE) 8 March 1711 7 March 1772 22,280 60 years, 365 days
75 Christian Ernst Stolberg-Wernigerode (HRE) 9 November 1710 25 October 1771 22,265 60 years, 350 days
76 Adolf III Schauenburg and Holstein (HRE) 6 July 1164 3 January 1225 22,096 60 years, 181 days
77 Leopold Ludwig Palatinate-Veldenz (HRE) 3 June 1634 29 September 1694 22,033 60 years, 118 days
78 Qianlong Emperor[note 15] Qing (China) 18 October 1735 8 February 1796 22,028 60 years, 113 days
79 Friedrich Günther Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 28 April 1807 28 June 1867 21,976 60 years, 61 days
80 Pakubuwono XII Surakarta (Indonesia) 11 June 1944 11 June 2004 21,915 60 years, 0 days[13]
81 Johann Jakob I Waldburg-Zeil (HRE) 4 May 1614[note 16] 18 April 1674 21,899 59 years, 349 days
82 Christian IV Denmark (D&N) 4 April 1588 28 February 1648 21,879 59 years, 330 days
83 Gustav Adolf Mecklenburg-Güstrow (HRE) 23 April 1636 6 October 1695 21,715 59 years, 166 days
84 Georg Friedrich I Brandenburg-Ansbach (HRE) 27 December 1543 25 April 1603 21,669 59 years, 119 days
85 Karl I Hesse-Kassel (HRE) 1 December 1670 23 March 1730 21,661 59 years, 112 days
86 George III United Kingdom[note 17] 25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days
87 Honoré III Monaco 7 November 1733 19 January 1793 21,623 59 years, 73 days
88 Abdul Halim Kedah (Malaysia) 14 July 1958 11 September 2017 21,618 59 years, 59 days
89 Barnim I Pomerania-Stettin 23 January 1220 13 December 1278 21,509 58 years, 324 days
90 Louis XV France 1 September 1715 10 May 1774 21,436 58 years, 251 days
91 Pedro II Brazil 7 April 1831 15 November 1889 21,407 58 years, 222 days
92 Ludovico I Saluzzo October 1416 8 April 1475 21,373 58 years, 189 days
93 Nikola I Montenegro 13 August 1860 26 November 1918 21,288 58 years, 105 days
94 Honoré I Monaco 22 August 1523 7 October 1581 21,231 58 years, 46 days
95 Philipp Hesse-Philippsthal (HRE) 16 July 1663 18 June 1721 21,156 57 years, 337 days
96 Wilhelmina The Netherlands 23 November 1890 4 September 1948 21,104 57 years, 286 days
97 Philipp I Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 20 September 1371 2 July 1429 21,104 57 years, 285 days
98 Philipp I Hesse (HRE) 11 July 1509 31 March 1567 21,082 57 years, 263 days
99 James VI Scotland[note 18] 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 21,066 57 years, 246 days
100 Al-Mustansir Billah[note 19] Fatimid Caliphate (Egypt) 13 June 1036 10 January 1094 21,030 57 years, 211 days

Monarchs whose exact dates of rule are unknown[edit]

These monarchs are grouped according to length of reign by year in whole numbers. Within each year-grouping, they appear in historical order; in a given year, there may have been a wide array of actual reign lengths based on days. Thus, this table does not present a pure ranking of monarchs, the list is limited to those that might reasonably be expected to lie within the range of those in the table above.

Rank Name Country Reign Duration (approx. years)
from to
1 Pepi II Neferkare[note 20][note 21] Ancient Egypt 2278 BC 2184 BC 94 years94 years (disputed)
2 Taejo Goguryeo (Korea/China) 53 146 93 years93 years (disputed)
3 Ermanaric the Ostrogoth Oium 296 (disputed) 376 80 years (disputed)
4 Mahanyod Hariphunchai (Thailand) 670 750 80 years
5 Raja Sawai Basavalinga I Sundem (India) 1763 1843 80 years
6 Jangsu Goguryeo (Korea/China) 413 491 78 years
7 Mirian III Kingdom of Iberia 268 or 284 345 or 361 77 years
8 Raisingh Deo Patna (India) 1685 1762 77 years
9 Mohan Singh Rajgarha (India) 1638 14 April 1714 76 years
10 Tai Wu Shang (China) 1486 BC 1411 BC 75 years
11 Vakhtang Gorgasali Kingdom of Iberia 447 522 75 years
12 Johann Philipp[note 22] Stadion (HRE) 1666 1741 75 years
13 Sukhachain Jind (India) 1676 1751 75 years
14 Yo-Tha Hariphunchai (Thailand) 1197 1271 74 years
15 Wilhelm I Sayn-Wittgenstein (HRE) 1494 1568 74 years
16 Harald I Norway 860 933 73 years
17 Fazl Ali Khan II Bahadur Banganapalle (India) 1686 1759 73 years
18 Zhao Tuo Nanyue 208 BC 137 BC 71 years
19 Simon I Lippe (HRE) 1273 1344 71 years
20 Heinrich VIII Fürstenberg-Wolfach (HRE) 1419 30 November 1490 71 years
21 Pandukabhaya Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) 437 BC 367 BC 70 years
22 Ponhea Yat Khmer Empire (Cambodia) 1393 1463 70 years
23 Johann Ulrich Stadion (HRE) 1530 1600 70 years
24 Muhtarram Shah Kator The First Chitral (India) 1585 1655 70 years
25 Shapur II[note 23] Persian Empire, Sassanid Dynasty March 310 379 69 years
26 Huan Qi (China) 636 BC 567 BC 69 years
27 Tshudpud Namgyal Sikkim (India) 1793 1863 69 years
28 Alberto Azzo II Este and Milan 1029 20 August 1097 68 years
29 Louis XIII Oettingen-Wallerstein (HRE) 1449 1517 68 years
30 Malojirao III Mudhol (India) 1737 1805 68 years
31 Sultan Mahmud Shah II Perak (Malaysia) 1653 1720 67 years
32 Johann III Sponheim-Starkenburg (HRE) 1331 1398 67 years
33 Ramesses II Ancient Egypt 1279 BC 1213 BC 66 years
34 Pharnavaz I Kingdom of Iberia 302 BC 237 BC 65 years
35 Nandivarman II Pallava Empire 731 796 65 years
36 Sagramji I Kumbhoji Gondal (India) 1648 1713 65 years
37 Zhao Song (China) 468 BC 404 BC 64 years
38 Khuman III Udaipur State (India) 878 942 64 years
39 Amoghavarsha Rashtrakuta Empire (India) 814 878 64 years
40 Friedrich IV Castell (HRE) 1285 1349 64 years
41 Zhuang I Qi (China) 794 BC 731 BC 63 years
42 Friedrich II Salm-Neuweiler (HRE) 1610 1673 63 years
43 Nicolas Leopold I Salm-Hoogstraat (HRE) 1707 1770 63 years
44 Jayavarman VIII Khmer Empire (Cambodia) 1243 1295 63 years
45 Ibrahim Ali Khan Tonk (India) 1867 23 June 1930 63 years
46 Philipp Ernst Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (HRE) 1697 1759 62 years
47 Karl Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen (HRE) 1741 1803 62 years
48 Franz Wilhelm Salm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim (HRE) 1673 1734 61 years
49 Bhavsinhji I Ratanji Bhavnagar (India) 1703 1764 61 years
50 Cynan Garwyn Kingdom of Powys 00550-01-01c. 550 00610-01-01c. 610 60c. 60 years
51 Aescwine Kingdom of Essex 527 587 60 yearsc. 60 years
52 Pawl Glywysing 00480-01-01c. 480 540 60 yearsc. 60 years
53 Mutasiva Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) 367 BC 307 BC 60 years
54 Sophie Bar (HRE) 1033 1093 60 years
55 Friedrich I Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1210 1270 60 years
56 Heinrich III Henneberg-Aschach-Römhild (HRE) 1292 1352 60 years
57 Heinrich II Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1301 1361 60 years
58 Otto I Solms-Braunfels (HRE) 1349 1409 60 years
59 Ludwig Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1443 1503 60 years
60 Mayadunne Sitawaka (Sri Lanka) 1521 1581 60 years
61 Vanghoji II Jagpalrao Nimbalkar Phaltan (India) 1570 1630 60 years
62 Hu Chen (China) 1045 BC 986 BC 59 years
63 Guilhem III Toulouse 978 1037 59 years
64 Otto I Salm-Kyrburg (HRE) October 1548 7 June 1607 59 years
65 Nan Zhou (China) 314 BC 256 BC 58 years
66 Heinrich II Baden-Hachberg (HRE) 1231 1289 58 years
67 Jayaba Mukne Jawhar (India) 1342 1400 58 years
68 Heinrich V Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE) 1347 1405 58 years
69 Nikolaus III Tecklenburg (HRE) 1450 1508 58 years
70 Mulraj II Jaisalmer State (India) 1762 1820 58 years
71 Muhammad Shafi ud-din II Sambas (Borneo) 1866 1924 58 years
72 Maredydd ap Rhain Dyfed 740 797 57 yearsc. 57 years
73 Jing Qi (China) 547 BC 490 BC 57 years
74 Mithridates VI Pontus 120 BC 63 BC 57 years
75 Vseslav of Polotsk Polotsk 1044 1101 57 years
76 Roger II Foix (France) 1067 1124 57 years
77 Bernhard I Bentheim-Bentheim (HRE) 1364 1421 57 years
78 Yi Hham Hka Kengtung (Burma) 1403 1460 57 years
79 Ernst II Oettingen-Wallerstein (HRE) 1613[note 24] 3 March 1670 57 years
80 Johannes Waldburg-Waldsee (HRE) 1667 1724 57 years
81 Adolf Ludwig Wilhelm Sayn-Wittgenstein-Karlsburg (HRE) 1749 1806 57 years
82 Jashwant Singh Nabha (India) December 1783 21 May 1840 57 years
83 Manasseh Judah October 697 BC 642 BC 55 years

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ He was proclaimed king at the age of four months, and his grandmother, Labotsibeni Mdluli, acted as regent until 22 December 1921 and then formally transferred all monarchial power to Sobhuza II: Swaziland National Trust Commission website, retrieved 29 August 2008. TheRoyalist.net takes the date of succession as the date on which his grandmother handed over the royal duties to him, not when he was proclaimed king.
  2. ^ Heinrich XI succeeded to the throne as Count of Reuss-Obergreiz in 1723 on the death of his brother, Heinrich IX (all male members of the family were named Heinrich in order of birth, even across cousins). In 1778 he became the first Prince of Reuss Elder Line.
  3. ^ Count Johann Ludwig was born posthumously, after the death of his father Count Johann II on 25 July 1472; he succeeded to the throne at birth.
  4. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 15 August 1947. Merged Kapurthala into the Patiala and Eastern Punjab States Union (PEPSU) on 5 May 1948, relinquished his sovereign powers with effect from 20 August. Rajpramukh of the PEPSU from 5 May 1948 until his death on 17 June 1949
  5. ^ Also a long-serving Holy Roman Emperor as Friedrich III
  6. ^ More commonly known as Eleanor of Aquitaine, Aliénor was Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, although medieval law dictated that her various husbands (Louis VII of France, Henry II of England) and sons (Richard I and John of England) reign with her jointly.
  7. ^ Merged his state into the United State of Kathiawad on 15 February 1948, but lived until 28 June 1954
  8. ^ This length of reign applies only to the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, as all of the other countries Elizabeth II is at present queen of had yet to gain independence at the time of her accession.
  9. ^ Friedrich August I was known as Friedrich August III before 1806.
  10. ^ Philipp II ruled as co-ruler with his brother till 1442 when they divided their inheritances.
  11. ^ Served as Regent for his father, the Taishō Emperor, from 29 November 1921 until his formal accession.
  12. ^ Longest de jure ruler of China, although the Qianlong Emperor held longer de facto power.
  13. ^ Ulrich V was Count of all Württemberg until its partition between Württemberg-Urach and Württemberg-Stuttgart in 1442. He continued as Count of the latter branch until his death in 1480.
  14. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 14 August 1947, but retained sovereignty over his state until his death on 31 March 1948
  15. ^ Longest de facto ruler of China, although the Kangxi Emperor held longer de jure power.
  16. ^ Johann Jakob I succeeded as Truchsess (Archsteward), and was raised to the rank of Graf (Count) in 1628.
  17. ^ Exceeded by Queen Victoria as monarch of United Kingdom as a part of British Empire.
  18. ^ Exceeded by Queen Victoria as monarch of Scotland as part of British Empire.
  19. ^ Al-Mustansir Billah had the longest recorded reign of any Muslim ruler, according to his biographical entry in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, written by H. A. R. Gibb and Paul Kraus (see online version).(This ignores e.g. the longer-reigning Sultans of Kedah listed above).
  20. ^ Pepi II's figure has been disputed by some Egyptologists who favour a shorter reign length of 64 years, given the absence of attested dates known for Pepi after his 31st Count, which would equate to 62 years assuming the count to be biennial. Others point however to the consistency between the existing historical sources all crediting Pepi with over 90 years of reign. Finally, the lack of evidence beyond his 62nd year does not preclude a much longer reign, especially in view of the decay of the Egyptian state into the chaos of the First Intermediate Period at the end of Pepi's reign.
  21. ^ Japanese legendary emperors, according to the ancient Japanese calendar, ruled for very long terms of 60–70 years each. The longest ruler of the legendary emperors, Emperor Kōan, was claimed to have ruled for about 101 years, these figures are not included in the table because they are regarded as inaccurate by modern scholars.
  22. ^ Johann Philipp succeeded to the Lordship of Stadion at age 14 in 1666, was raised to Baron in 1686 and Reichsgraf (Count) in 1704.
  23. ^ Shapur II was crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates.
  24. ^ Ernst II ruled jointly with Friedrich VIII in the years 1602–13, but then ruled for 57 years as sole monarch.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Trebge, Spuren im Land, Hohenleuben, 2005.
  2. ^ Thomas Gehrlein, Das Haus Reuß – Älterer und Jüngerer Linie, Börde Verlag 2006, ISBN 978-3-9810315-3-9
  3. ^ "Rulers of Malaysian States". 
  4. ^ "kapurth4". Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  5. ^ "porband3". Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  6. ^ "Partab3". Royalark.net. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "Bundi – Indian Princely States". WorldStatesmen.org. Retrieved 17 September 2016. 
  8. ^ a b 06 Feb 2016  Sat. "Princess Elizabeth II becomes the Queen". Mintage World. Retrieved 2017-06-20. 
  9. ^ "Tonk4". Royalark.net. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  10. ^ "SHAHPURA3". Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  11. ^ "BANS3". Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  12. ^ "JIND4". Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  13. ^ Indonesian wikipedia: Pakubuwana_XII