This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the 100 monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign. Reigning monarchs are highlighted green; the table below contains monarchs of states that were internationally sovereign for most or all of their reign. The table below contains monarchs of states that were not internationally sovereign for most of their reign. Note: "" indicates a semi-sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and a reign that concluded before the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. Indicates a reign that continued afterward; these monarchs are grouped according to length of reign by year in whole numbers. Within each year-grouping, they appear in historical order. In a given year, there may have been a wide array of actual reign lengths based on days. Thus, this table does not present a pure ranking of monarchs; the list is limited to those that might reasonably be expected to lie within the range of those in the table above.
Japanese legendary emperors, according to the ancient Japanese calendar, ruled for long terms of 60–70 years each. The longest ruler of the legendary emperors, Emperor Kōan, was claimed to have ruled for about 101 years; these figures are not included in the table because they are regarded as inaccurate by modern scholars. List of current reigning monarchs by length of reign List of shortest-reigning monarchs List of oldest living state leaders Lists of state leaders Records of heads of state
Dysexecutive syndrome consists of a group of symptoms resulting from brain damage, that fall into cognitive and emotional categories and tend to occur together. The term was introduced by Alan Baddeley to describe a common pattern of dysfunction in executive functions, such as planning, abstract thinking and behavioural control, it is thought to be Baddeley's hypothesized working memory system and the central executive that are the hypothetical systems impaired in DES. The syndrome was once known as frontal lobe syndrome, however dysexecutive syndrome is preferred because it emphasizes the functional pattern of deficits over the location of the syndrome in the frontal lobe, not the only area affected. Classification code in ICD-10 - F07 Symptoms of DES fall into three broad categories: cognitive and behavioural. Many of the symptoms can be seen as a direct result of impairment to the central executive component of working memory, responsible for attentional control and inhibition. Although many of the symptoms co-occur, it is common to encounter patients who have several, but not all symptoms.
The accumulated effects of the symptoms have a large impact on daily life. Cognitive symptoms refer to a person's ability to process thoughts. Cognition refers to memory, the ability to learn new information and reading comprehension. Deficits within this area cause many problems with every day life decisions. One of the main difficulties for an individual with DES is reasoning. Impaired planning and reasoning affect the individual's ability to realistically assess and manage the problems of every day living. New problems and situations may be poorly handled because of the inability to transfer previous knowledge to the new event. An individual that has DES may have a short attention span due to impairment in attentional control; this may alter the individual's ability to focus, as such have difficulty with reading and following a storyline or conversation. For instance, they can lose track of conversations which can make it difficult to hold a meaningful conversation and may result in avoiding social interactions.
Individuals with DES will have poor working memory and short term memory due to executive dysfunction. The dysfunction can range from subtle to severe and obvious. There is a tremendous variability in the manifestations of executive dysfunction with strong influences apparent from the afflicted person's personality, life experiences and intellect. Individuals with DES may suffer from confabulation, the spontaneous reporting of events that never happened; this can affect their autobiographical memory. It is thought that patients may not be able to assess the accuracy of memory retrieval and therefore elaborate on implausible memories. Individuals with dementia, delirium or other severe psychiatric illnesses combined with DES have disturbed sleep patterns; some will not recognize that it is night-time and may become upset when someone tries to correct them. The emotional symptoms that individuals with DES experience may be quite extreme and can cause extensive problems, they may have difficulty inhibiting many types of emotions such as anger, sadness, or frustration.
Due to multiple impairments of cognitive functioning, there can be much more frustration when expressing certain feelings and understanding how to interpret every day situations. Individuals with DES may have higher levels of aggression or anger because they lack abilities that are related to behavioural control, they can have difficulty understanding others' points of view, which can lead to anger and frustration. Behavioural symptoms are evident through an individual's actions. People with DES lose their social skills because their judgments and insights into what others may be thinking are impaired, they may have trouble knowing how to behave in group situations and may not know how to follow social norms. The central executive helps control impulses; this can lead to higher levels of anger. DES can cause patients to appear self-centered and stubbornUtilization behaviour is when a patient automatically uses an object in the appropriate manner, but at an inappropriate time. For example, if a pen and paper are placed in front of an individual with DES they will start to write or if there is a deck of cards they will deal them out.
Patients showing this symptom will begin the behaviour in the middle of conversations or during auditory tests. Utilization behaviour is thought to occur because an action is initiated when an object is seen, but patients with DES lack the central executive control to inhibit acting it out at inappropriate times. Perseveration is often seen in patients with DES. Perseveration is the repetition of thoughts, behaviours, or actions after they have been completed. For instance, continually blowing out a match, after it is no longer lit is an example of perseveration behaviour. There are three types of perseveration: continuous perseveration, stuck-in-set perseveration, recurrent perseveration. Stuck-in-set perseveration is most seen in dysexecutive syndrome; this type of perseveration refers to when a patient cannot get out of a specific frame of mind, such as when asked to name animals they can only name one. If you ask them to name colours, they may still give you animals. Perseveration may explain.
DES occurs with other disorders, known as comorbidity. Many studies have examined the presence of DES in patients with schizophrenia. Results of schizophrenic patients on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutiv
The Bowmanville Merchant was a weekly newspaper published in Bowmanville, Ontario from 1869 to 1884. A lifelong Methodist, Cephas. Barker was born in 1818 in Kent County, to a devout Baptist father, he came to Bowmanville in 1867 after leaving Ontario in 1856, having spent years in the navy and nearly a decade as a Superintendent Minister on Prince Edward Island. Barker was the manager of the Merchant, which had a circulation of 1,000 in the townships of Darlington and Cartwright, publishing on Fridays with a 75 cent per annum fee for subscription. Paul Trebilcock was a stationer and bookseller as Barker was. Trebilcock was a member of YMCA and an agent for Travellers Insurance. Trebilcock continued to operate as a book and recreation goods seller with ads in the succeeding publication to the Merchant, the Canadian Statesman. Trebilcock’s son Arthur J. would be best known as president of the Toronto Stock Exchange, retiring in 1958 at the age of 70. Arthur was the son of Paul and his wife Christina, who married in 1875.
Local event listings in the Canadian Statesman have Paul Trebilcock still alive in 1922. The paper contained a number of front page columns devoted to literature, letters to the editor, tips for the farm and household, plenty of columns for advertisements, including Barker’s own “People Book Store and Sabbath School Depot.” Barker was a member of the Board of Trustees for the town, where reports of his meetings published in the Merchant showed the liberal leaning Barker clashing with the Conservative John McClung. The paper itself did not have specific columns reporting on the events of other communities, but is an excellent source of examples for advertising and services, illustrated classifieds of the time. Literature had a number of columns devoted to it on the front page, as well as international topics and provincial news. Three years before the Merchant began, Barker was editor and publisher of The Observer, an eight page Bible Christian denominational newspaper. Paul Trebilcock acted as foreman for that paper when it was being printed in the Horsey Block.
As well as running the West Durham Steam Printing House, Barker sold books and goods from his King Street office. One such book is History of the Early Settlement of Bowmanville and Vicinity by John T. Coleman, printed 1875 and regarding history and zoology of the region. Barker held his position for 14 years until being succeeded by H. John Nott, though he only published for three more years until July 1st, 1884; this was due to a $55,000 deficit incurred by a saturated marketplace of Methodist papers. Cephas was married to Elizabeth Barker, whose obituary he printed in 1875 issue. Barker’s own funeral took place on November 16th, 1881 in London and was attended by many of his fellow Bible Christians, five years after the Merchant had been absorbed by the Canadian Statesman. List of newspapers in Canada The Bowmanville Merchant - INK/ODW Newspaper archive
Laurent Freidel is a French theoretical physicist and mathematical physicist known for his contributions to quantum gravity, including loop quantum gravity, spin foam models, doubly special relativity, group field theory, relative locality and most metastring theory. He is a faculty member at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada. Freidel received his PhD in 1994 from the École normale supérieure de Lyon in France, he stayed at ENSL as a research scientist for 12 years, until 2006. During that time he held a postdoctoral position at Pennsylvania State University in State College, United States from 1997 to 1999 and an adjunct professor position at the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Canada from 2002 to 2009. In 2006 he joined Perimeter Institute as its ninth faculty member. Between 2004 and 2006 Freidel has coauthored a series of papers on the Ponzano-Regge model, a spin foam model of 3-dimensional quantum gravity. In 2007 he introduced, with Kirill Krasnov, a new spin foam model for 4-dimensional quantum gravity which has become known as the Freidel-Krasnov model.
In 2011 Freidel published a paper with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, Jerzy Kowalski-Glikman and Lee Smolin introducing the principle of relative locality, a proposed generalization of the principle of relativity in which different observers see different notions of spacetimes. Between 2013 and 2015 he published a series of papers with Robert Leigh and Djordje Minic introducing a new formulation of string theory, metastring theory, which implements the notion of relative locality in a precise way and introduces a new notion of modular spacetime. Laurent Freidel's homepage at Perimeter Institute Laurent Freidel on INSPIRE-HEP
A yoficator or joficator is a computer program or extension for a text editor that restores the Cyrillic letter Yo ⟨Ё⟩ in Russian texts in places where the letter Ye ⟨Е⟩ was used instead. The majority of Russian newspapers and publishers use Ye in all contexts, assuming that an educated reader can distinguish which letter is meant; this practice creates a large number of homographs, this is the problem a yoficator is intended to fix. The problem of choice between Ye and Yo in spelling can be complex and requires a deep analysis of the context. Therefore, yoficators capable of solving this problem automatically do not yet exist; the existing yoficators rely on specially created databases of Russian words containing the letter Yo, either replace Ye by Yo only in indisputable cases or work interactively leaving the choice to the user in uncertain cases. A combined strategy is implemented in a yoficator for GNU Emacs; the term "yoficator" is used to mean "one who yoficates", or, in the broad sense of the word, "a supporter of using the letter Yo"
Road Trip: The Arcade Edition, known as Gadget Racers in Europe and Choro Q! in Japan, is a racing video game released in 2002 by Takara. This 3D game is only available for the Nintendo GameCube. Road Trip: The Arcade Edition is based upon Road Trip Adventure, a predecessor, however was only sold for the GameCube. Allowing this, weapons were added to a more racing perspective to make it an arcade version, it involves tiny little toy cars known in real life as Penny Racers. There are many different modes in this game; the game include weapons such as machine guns and shot guns. Players choose; some modes are: Challenge Race, Drag Racing, Grand Prix. Players must complete tracks in Challenge Race and Grand Prix in order to play additional cars in any given game; the tracks for the races are called: Road Trip Circuit, Road Trip Park, After School, Kid's Room, Road Trip Highway, Silver Village. The tracks will be short, long, short reversed, middle reversed, long reversed. Successful players may work up to 100 cars and many more parts including the legendary Devil Magnimum engine and the Road Trip Hurtle.
The game includes six different tracks, as well as three different lengths of the tracks, short and long. The tracks can be unlocked in reverse mode, heightening the total number of tracks to 36; these Environments Include Road Trip Circuit, A track that starts out as an oval track that increases to a massive circuit on the shoreline, Road Trip Park, An Offroad track that takes place in a nature park, features bridges, jungle gyms, a short river, After School, a track that takes racers around a school after hours, one of its more notable sections is the pool area, where the player had to stay on the'Floaties' to avoid falling into the water and losing speed, Kid's Room, a track, made up of many toys and some school supplies. Another notable aspect of this track is the spinning tops arena, similar to the "Beyblade" Toys. Road Trip Highway is a futuristic highway course decorated with several tall buildings and holographic billboards; the track has several'potholes' in the road, one some areas of the track, electric fences that slow cars down.
The final track, Silver Village, starts out in the small village, the Silver Village, but enters a massive and dangerous mountain, with broken bridges, oddly colored caves, is decorated with snowmen. The track's finale being a ski jump. 100 "Bodies" are available for the vehicles, including VW Beetles, SUV's Pickup Trucks, Sports Cars, Emergency Vehicles, Other Utility Trucks, a model-T like vehicle with a pumpkin for a cockpit, A Rubber Duck. The Bodies, are just for looks, as well are the accessories. Players can modify the two colors of their vehicles, the tire colors as well, can rename their bodies. Tires and equipped weapons affect the vehicles' performance. One Engine Part of notability is the Legendary Devil Magnum Engine. There are Monster Truck sized versions of the available Tires, But the size of them affects the vehicle's performance. There are several weapons in the game that players can use to hinder other racers, or use to help themselves; the Shield coin protects players from enemy fire three times, but prevents players from getting other weapons.
The Niro boosts allow a player to increase their speed for a short amount of time. The Weight Coin causes a large weight to appear on the car ahead of the player, can be shaken off with the spin function; the Super Weight Coin does the same to all of the players ahead of the player. Oil Slick can be dropped like a mine, causes other players to skid out of control. Weapons can be mounted on the players' vehicles, which range from Sniper Rifles to Machine Guns, as well as Shotguns and Bazookas. If the player has a Weapon, so will all of the CPU players. Without a weapon, the ammo pickup gives the player a Missile; the Shop in the game has all of the above-mentioned parts for purchase, but the inventory expands as players progress through the game. Some vehicles can only be unlocked by winning 1st place in career mode races and tournaments, most of the unlockable bodies can only be bought from the shop, as well as all the other unlockable parts, minus the Devil Magnum, which can only be unlocked when the player returns to their garage after collecting all 100 Vehicles.
Once a player has purchased everything in the shop, a license plate with the words, "Woo-Hoo!" Appears whenever they enter the shop. Minigames include Drag Racing and shooting game where one player drives and collects ammo while another player controls the equipped weapon, First-Person Style, attempts to shoot the opposing vehicle three times. There is an unlockable minigame in which players jump over hurdles and finish as fast as possible; the game received "mixed" reviews according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. Nintendo Power gave the game a mixed review over nine months. In Japan, Famitsu gave it a score of one six, two sevens, one six for a total of 26 out of 40. Road Trip: The Arcade Edition at MobyGames