Biospeleology, known as cave biology, is a branch of biology dedicated to the study of organisms that live in caves and are collectively referred to as troglofauna. The first documented mention of a cave dates back to 1689, with the documentation of the olm. Discovered in a cave in Slovenia, in the region of Carniola, the first formal study on cave organisms was conducted on the blind cave beetle. Found in 1831 by Luka Čeč, an assistant to the lamplighter, the specimen was turned over to Ferdinand J. Schmidt, who described it in the paper Illyrisches Blatt. He named it Leptodirus Hochenwartii after the donor, and gave it the Slovene name drobnovratnik, the article represents the first formal description of a cave animal. Subsequent research by Schmidt revealed further previously unknown cave inhabitants, which aroused considerable interest among natural historians, for this reason, the discovery of L. hochenwartii is considered as the starting point of biospeleology as a scientific discipline.
Biospeleology was formalized as a science in 1907 by Emil Racoviţă with his seminal work Essai sur les problèmes biospéologiques, cave organisms fall into three basic classes, Troglobites are obligatory cavernicoles, specialized for cave life. Some can leave caves for short periods, and may complete parts of their life cycles above ground, examples include chemotrophic bacteria, some species of flatworms and cavefish. Troglophiles can live part or all of their lives in caves, examples include cave crickets, millipedes and spiders. Trogloxenes frequent caves, and may require caves for a portion of its life cycle and the Daddy-Long-Legs are trogloxenes. Parahypogean environments are the regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight. These can be in contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals. Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, Emil Racoviță Alfred Pierre Chappuis Bruno Condé Claude Delamare-Debouteville Carl Eigenmann Louis Fage René Jeannel Curt Kosswig Albert Vandel Bernard Collignon, scientific approaches.
Edisud 1988 Fabien Steak, Approach biospéologie, File EFS Instruction No, Delamare-Debouteville, Life in caves, PUF, Que sais-je
Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base.
It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation.
As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide.
Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals
Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace.
Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwelling
The Black Hills are a small, isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains of North America in western South Dakota and extending into Wyoming, United States. Black Elk Peak, which rises to 7,244 feet, is the ranges highest summit, the Black Hills encompass the Black Hills National Forest. The name Black Hills is a translation of the Lakota Pahá Sápa, the hills were so-called because of their dark appearance from a distance, as they were covered in trees. Native Americans have a history in the Black Hills. After conquering the Cheyenne in 1776, the Lakota took over the territory of the Black Hills, when settlers discovered gold there in 1874, as a result of George Armstrong Custers Black Hills Expedition, miners swept into the area in a gold rush. As the economy of the Black Hills has shifted from natural resources since the late 20th century, locals tend to divide the Black Hills into two areas, The Southern Hills and The Northern Hills. Attractions in the Northern Hills include Spearfish Canyon, historic Deadwood, the first Rally was held on August 14,1938 and the 75th Rally in 2015 saw more than 1 million bikers visit the Black Hills.
Devils Tower National Monument, located in the Wyoming Black Hills, is an important nearby attraction and was the United States first national monument. Scientists have been able to utilize carbon-dating to evaluate the age of tools found in the area, stratigraphic records indicate environmental changes in the land, such as flood and drought patterns. For example, large-scale flooding of the Black Hill basins occurs at a probability rate of 0.01, during The Medieval Climate Anomaly, or the Medieval Warm Period, flooding increased in the basins. The Arikara arrived by AD1500, followed by the Cheyenne, Kiowa, the Lakota arrived from Minnesota in the 18th century and drove out the other tribes, who moved west. They claimed the land, which they called Ȟe Sápa, the mountains commonly became known as the Black Hills. François and Louis de La Vérendrye probably travelled near the Black Hills in 1743, fur trappers and traders had some dealings with the Native Americans. European Americans increasingly encroached on Lakota territory, in this treaty, they protected the Black Hills forever from European-American settlement.
Both the Sioux and Cheyenne claimed rights to the land, saying that in their cultures, it was considered the axis mundi, an official announcement of gold was made by the newspaper reporters accompanying the expedition. The following year, the Newton-Jenney Party conducted the first detailed survey of the Black Hills, the surveyor for the party, Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy, was the first European American to ascend to the top of Black Elk Peak. This highest point in the Black Hills is 7,242 feet above sea level, during the 1875–1878 gold rush, thousands of miners went to the Black Hills, in 1880, the area was the most densely populated part of the Dakota Territory. Three large towns developed in the Northern Hills, Central City, around these were groups of smaller gold camps and villages
Brownsville is a home rule-class city in Edmonson County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 836 at the time of the 2010 census and it is included in the Bowling Green metropolitan area. It is just outside Mammoth Cave National Park, Brownsville is located near the center of Edmonson County at 37°11′28″N 86°15′40″W. The city limits border the edge of Mammoth Cave National Park. State Routes 70 and 259 pass through the city together as Main Street. KY70 leads east 20 miles to Cave City and west 27 miles to U. S. Route 231 at Aberdeen, while KY259 leads southeast 12 miles to U. S. Route 31W and north 25 miles to Leitchfield. According to the United States Census Bureau, Brownsville has an area of 2.6 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles. The city is located on the Green River, a tributary of the Ohio River, as of the census of 2000, there were 921 people,387 households, and 229 families residing in the city. The population density was 581.0 people per square mile, there were 421 housing units at an average density of 265.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 98. 37% White,0. 11% African American,0. 43% Native American,0. 11% Asian,0. 11% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 76% of the population. 37. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, the population was out with 20. 3% under the age of 18,8. 6% from 18 to 24,22. 8% from 25 to 44,24. 4% from 45 to 64. The median age was 43 years, for every 100 females there were 72.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males, the median income for a household in the city was $15,370, and the median income for a family was $21,250. Males had an income of $26,125 versus $14,583 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,711, about 30. 8% of families and 32. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45. 2% of those under age 18 and 24. 5% of those age 65 or over.
There is a Plain and buggy community with about 40 to 50 people in Peace Valley, the community is affiliated with the Caneyville Christian Community. Brownsville is served by the Edmonson County Schools
Lechuguilla Cave is, as of June 2013, with 138. The cave is named for Agave lechuguilla, a species of plant found near its entrance, Lechuguilla is in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Access to the cave is limited to approved scientific researchers and exploration teams, Lechuguilla Cave was known until 1986 as a small, insignificant historic site in the parks back country. Small amounts of bat guano were mined from the passages for a year under a mining claim filed in 1914. The historic cave contained a 90-foot entrance pit known as Misery Hole, the cave was visited infrequently after mining activities ceased. However, in the 1950s, cavers heard wind roaring up from the cave floor. Although there was no route, people concluded that cave passages lay below the rubble. Led by Dave Allured, a group of cavers from the Colorado Grotto gained permission from the National Park Service, lechugilla was the deepest cave in the continental United States 1,604 feet until the exploration of Tears of the Turtle Cave in 2014.
Drawn by the pristine condition and rare beauty, cavers come from around the world to explore and map its passages. In May 2012 a team led by Derek Bristol of Colorado climbed over 410 feet into a dome and discovered new, unexplored passages, pits. This new section was named Oz and many of its features were named after items from The Wizard of Oz, the discovery included a large room measuring 600 feet long, up to 150 feet wide and up to 150 feet high. A pit, named Kansas Twister, at over 510 feet from floor to ceiling, is the deepest pit yet discovered in the park. The team spent eight days mapping Oz, adding the largest distance to the survey since 1989, Lechuguilla Cave offers more than extreme size. For the first time, a Guadalupe Mountains cave extends deep enough that scientists may study five separate geologic formations from the inside, the profusion of gypsum and sulfur lends support to speleogenesis by sulfuric acid dissolution. The sulfuric acid is believed to be derived from hydrogen sulfide that migrated from nearby oil deposits, this cavern formed from the bottom up, in contrast to the normal top-down carbonic acid dissolution mechanism of cave formation.
Lechuguilla Cave lies beneath a park wilderness area, the caves passages may extend out of the park into adjacent Bureau of Land Management land. A major threat to the cave is proposed gas and oil drilling on BLM land, any leakage of gas or fluids into the caves passages could kill cave life or cause explosions. Rare, chemolithoautotrophic bacteria are believed to occur in the cave and these bacteria feed on the sulfur and manganese minerals and may assist in enlarging the cave and determining the shapes of unusual speleothems
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the Peoples Republic of China. China Daily was established in June 1981 and has the widest print circulation of any English-language newspaper in China. C, the paper is published by satellite offices in the United States, Hong Kong, and Europe. Published Monday to Saturday, it serves those who are foreigners in China, as well as those who wish to improve their English and its editorial policies are slightly more liberal than most Chinese newspapers. It claims that the goal of newspaper is the presentation of China and Chinas news to a unique group of readers and to provide services. As of its first publication on 1 June 1981, most of the staff of China Daily are Chinese. The paper offers guides to Radio Beijing and television, daily exchange rates, local entertainment schedules and national. The online edition of China Daily, established in December 1995, is becoming one of the first major online Chinese newspapers and it has editions in three languages, Chinese and French.
The English language edition contains one of Chinas largest English language forums, the BBC called the paper state-run. According to a 1993 book, China Daily is run by Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China. China Daily is organized into seven sections, the China Daily is a member of the Asia News Network. It is the only official English-language newspaper published by the Chinese government in Hong Kong, China Daily Asia Weekly is a tabloid-sized pan-Asian edition of the China Daily. The 24 page newspaper launched on 9 December 2010 in Hong Kong, zhou Li, editor-in-chief of China Daily Asia Weekly, told Indias The Statesman, Our long-term aspiration is to be a reference point on China and the rest of Asia for the region’s readers. China Daily Asia Weekly is a member of Asia News Network, China Daily Asia Weekly was initially distributed in Indonesia, Malaysia and Japan. Later, it was expanded to include Australia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, United Arab Emirates, China Daily US Edition, based in New York City, was launched in 2009.
It publishes 16 pages Monday to Friday, with a 24-page insert on Fridays, China Daily European Weekly was launched in 2010 and is published from London. It offers 32 pages of news and views from China and continental Europe each week and is distributed in over 23 countries. In 2011, it won the Launch Paper of the Year award presented by the UKs Association of Circulation Executives, in December 2012, China Daily launched an Africa edition, published in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. COM
Gunung Mulu National Park
This initiated a series of over 20 expeditions now drawn together as the Mulu Caves Project. The national park is named after Mount Mulu, the second highest mountain in Sarawak, Gunung Mulu National Park is famous for its limestone karst formations. Features include enormous caves, vast cave networks, rock pinnacles, Mount Mulu is a sandstone mountain rising to 2,376 m. Gunung Mulu National Park has the largest known natural chamber or room – Sarawak Chamber and it is 700 m ) long,396 m wide and at least 70 m high. It has been said that the chamber is so big that it could accommodate about 40 Boeing 747s, the nearby Deer Cave is one of the largest single cave passages in the world. Mulus limestones belong to the Melinau Formation and their age is between 17 and 40 million years, stratigraphically below the limestones, and forming the highest peaks in the south east sector of the Park including Gunung Mulu, lies the Mulu Formation. The age of rocks is between 40 and 90 million years. Twenty seven species of bat have been recorded in Mulu, Deer Cave in the southern limestone hills of the park is home to an enormous colony of Wrinkle-lipped bats.
The bats exit the cave almost every evening in search of food in a spectacular exodus, a huge mound of guano in the cave is evidence of the size of the bat colony that roosts in the caves high ceilings. The small Malaysian sun bear Helarctos malayanus, which is the bear known in South-East Asia, has been identified in Gunung Mulu National Park. A number of amphibians are known from the Gunung Mulu National Park, including squat frog Calluella flava. Gunung Mulu National Park contains a number of plant species, including flowering plants, trees. Geology, soil types and topography have given rise to a tapestry of plant zones and types. On Gunung Mulu itself these include lowland mixed dipterocarp forest, lower montane forest, mossy or upper montane forest, on the limestones there is lowland limestone forest as well as lower and upper montane limestone forest. Other plant communities dominate the plains, including kerangas and peatswamp forest. Mulu National Park is a remote access area, the only practical way of getting to and from it is by air.
There are flights between Mulu Airport and Miri and Kota Kinabalu on MASwings. Alternatively, it is possible to travel by river from Miri, which is about 100 km away, using a riverboat, a long boat
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government, with a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia, located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, the first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946, Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957.
Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia, less than two years in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while allowing freedom of religion for non-Muslims, the government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the prime minister, since its independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6. 5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, commerce.
Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked third largest in Southeast Asia, the name Malaysia is a combination of the word Malay and the Latin-Greek suffix -sia/-σία. The word melayu in Malay may derive from the Tamil words malai and ur meaning mountain and city, malayadvipa was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word melayu or mlayu may have used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra
National Speleological Society
The National Speleological Society is an organization formed in 1941 to advance the exploration, conservation and understanding of caves in the United States. Originally headquartered in Washington D. C. its current offices are in Huntsville, the organization engages in the research and scientific study, restoration and protection of caves. It has more than 10,000 members in more than 250 grottos, the Speleological Society of the District of Columbia was formed on May 6,1939 by Bill Stephenson. In the fall of 1940, the officers of the SSDC drafted a constitution that would transform the SSDC into the National Speleological Society. On January 24,1941, Bill Stephenson sent a letter to all members of the SSDC announcing that on January 1 the Society was reorganized as a national organization, the New England Grotto was the first NSS Grotto. It was chartered in 1941 with Clay Perry as president and Ned Anderson as vice-president, on February 6,1974, a pioneering cave diver named Sheck Exley became the first chairman of the Cave Diving Section of the National Speleological Society.
The new section began with 21 members in 10 different states, the NSS produces a number of publications, including, NSS News, monthly Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, formerly NSS Bulletin. The grottos carry out the local recreational and conservation-related business of the NSS. They generally function as the local NSS chapter/club, many Grottos however, operate in areas outside of their local area, with many operating in several states. Most Grottos participate in Regions which are loose associations of Grottos, Regions are an internal organization of the National Speleological Society. Grottos are required to meet certain requirements as outlined by the National Speleological Society. These include, A constitution and bylaws that are submitted to, and approved by, a minimum of at least five members of the Society. It is NSS policy that full membership in a Grotto requires NSS membership, however, in practice, this is often not the case. A full list of grottos can be found on the NSS website, the NSS hosts a yearly convention, which is generally held in the month of June.
Grottos take turns hosting the convention, caving Speleology Cave diving The National Speleological Society Journal of Cave and Karst Studies
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a United States National Park in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. The primary attraction of the park is the cave, Carlsbad Cavern. Carlsbad Caverns National Park is open day of the year except Thanksgiving, Christmas. Visitors to the cave can hike in on their own via the entrance or take an elevator from the visitor center. The park entrance is located on US Highway 62/180, approximately 18 miles southwest of Carlsbad, Carlsbad Caverns National Park participates in the Junior Ranger Program. The park has two entries on the National Register of Historic Places, The Caverns Historic District and the Rattlesnake Springs Historic District, approximately two thirds of the park has been set aside as a wilderness area, helping to ensure no future changes will be made to the habitat. Carlsbad Cavern includes a cave chamber, a natural limestone chamber almost 4,000 feet long,625 feet wide. It is the fifth largest chamber in North America and the twenty-eighth largest in the world, an estimated 250 million years ago, the area surrounding Carlsbad Caverns National Park served as the coastline for an inland sea.
Present in the sea was a plethora of marine life, whose remains formed a reef, unlike modern reef growths, the Permian reef contained bryozoans and other microorganisms. After the Permian Period, most of the evaporated and the reef was buried by evaporites. Tectonic movement occurred during the late Cenozoic, uplifting the reef above ground, susceptible to erosion, water sculpted the Guadalupe Mountain region into its present-day state. Carlsbad Caverns National Park is situated in a bed of limestone above groundwater level, during cavern development, it was within the groundwater zone. Deep below the limestones are petroleum reserves, at a time near the end of the Cenozoic, hydrogen sulfide began to seep upwards from the petroleum into the groundwater. The combination of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen from the water formed sulfuric acid, the sulfuric acid continued upward, aggressively dissolving the limestone deposits to form caverns. The presence of gypsum within the cave is a confirmation of the occurrence of this process, once the acidic groundwater drained from the caverns, speleothems began to be deposited within the cavern.
Erosion above ground created the entrance to the Carlsbad Caverns within the last million years. Exposure to the surface has allowed for the influx of air into the cavern, growths from the roof downward formed through this process are known as stalactites. Additionally, water on the floor of the caverns can contain carbonic acid, growths from the floor upward through this process are known as stalagmites