A glacier cave is a cave formed within the ice of a glacier. Glacier caves are called ice caves, but the latter term is properly used to describe bedrock caves that contain year-round ice. Most glacier caves are started by running through or under the glacier. This water often originates on the surface through melting, entering the ice at a moulin. Heat transfer from the water can cause sufficient melting to create an air-filled cavity, air movement can assist enlargement through melting in summer and sublimation in winter. Some glacier caves are formed by heat from volcanic vents or hotsprings beneath the ice. An extreme example is the Kverkfjöll glacier cave in the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland, some glacier caves are relatively unstable due to melting and glacial motion, and are subject to localized or complete collapse, as well as elimination by glacial retreat. An example of the nature of glacier caves is the former Paradise Ice Caves. The Paradise Ice Caves collapsed and vanished in the 1990s, Glacier caves may be used by glaciologists to gain access to the interior of glaciers.
The study of glacier caves themselves is sometimes called glaciospeleology, mount Rainier Two craters on top of a cone on the volcanos summit contain the worlds largest volcanic ice-cave system. Perito Moreno Glacier Titlis Ice cave W. R. Halliday, Glaciospeleology Cave Science Topics, J. Schroeder, Inside the Glaciers – Svalbard, Norway The Canadian Caver vol.22 no.1,1990. Media related to Glacier cave at Wikimedia Commons The Virtual Cave, Glacier Caves
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
A karst spring is a spring that is part of a karst system. That includes the drainage of a much larger area, which means that karst springs often have a very large discharge. Because of their conical or bowl shape, such water sources are known in German-speaking lands as a Topf which is reflected in names such as Aachtopf or Blautopf. Karst springs are usually the end of a system at the place where a river cave reaches the Earths surface. Thus, it is possible to enter the caves at a karst spring. An estavelle or inversac is a ground orifice which, depending on conditions and season. It is a type of sinkhole, a Vauclusian spring is a spring that originates from a shaft or a cave system, with the water surging upwards under relatively high pressure. It is named after the Fontaine de Vaucluse in southern France, submarine karst springs, known as vruljas, occur worldwide, and are most numerous in shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea. The main feature of karst springs results from the fact that water is transported by underground caverns.
This means that there is minimal filtering of the water and little separation of different sediments, groundwater emerges at the spring within a few days. Storms and general changes in rainfall have a very noticeable. Many karst springs dry up during the driest part of the year and are known as intermittent springs. Still others are dry most of the round and only flow after heavy rain. Sources that only flow during wet years are known in German as Hungerbrunnen. It is however more of a culturally related superstition, scientific studies on various Hungerbrunnen have not confirmed such a relationship. An example is the Hungerbrunnen in the parish of Heuchlingen near Gerstetten, the properties of karst springs make them unsuitable for the supply of drinking water. Their uneven flow rate does not support steady rates of consumption, especially in summer there is lower discharge. In addition, poor filtering and high hardness mean that the quality is poor
Tunnels in popular culture
Mysterious tunnels or secret passages are a common element of the local folklore tradition in Europe. In Norwegian a secret passage is called a lønngang and in Swedish a lönngång. Such tunnels are said to physically link prominent places such as houses, churches, ancient monuments and other, often medieval. Legends about the existence of secret tunnels usually involve improbably long subterranean passages, sometimes running under major obstacles such as rivers, religious buildings and the landed gentry are particularly common elements in many tunnel stories. Underground structures have a due to their being hidden from view and their contents, extent. On occasion, possible tunnels prove to be of natural origin, such as at Cleeves Cove cave in Scotland. The site at Cleeves Cove cave was known as the Elfhouse or Elfhame. Some castles really did have escape tunnels, such as the one located at Loudoun Castle in Ayrshire, Scotland. Other tunnels are products of a desire for personal privacy, such as at Welbeck Abbey.
Smugglers at times avoided the excise man by making use of drains, sewers or water supply conduits, sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung and others had various psychological interpretations of the symbolic meanings of tunnels and these may have a part to play in the origins of tunnel myths. Alfred Watkins, in The Old Straight Track, suggested that they might be connected with ley lines, in the city of Aalborg a tunnel is said to have run from the convent under the fjord to another convent near Sundby. This tunnel had branches which ran to an old bridge, two churches and to the castle of Aalborghus, a student once tried to explore the tunnels with a long cord, a sword and a light. The broken cord was retrieved, but the student was never seen again, at Furness Abbey a tunnel has been said to run underneath the Abbey to both Piel Castle and Dalton Castle. This was said to be how the monks travelled to and from each monument to receive foodstuffs and it has been rumoured that the Holy Grail and King John’s missing jewels, are actually hidden somewhere inside.
Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire stands in an impressive cliff-top position overlooking the River Swale, a potter named Thompson is said to have discovered a tunnel entrance at the bottom of this cliff. Following it deep into the hillside, he came to a cavern where slept King Arthur. On the table lay an ancient horn and a mighty sword, Thompson reached out and picked up the horn, but the sleepers began to awake and, fearing for his life, the potter fled. As he raced down the back to daylight and safety, he heard a voice behind him declare, Potter Thompson
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a United States National Park in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. The primary attraction of the park is the cave, Carlsbad Cavern. Carlsbad Caverns National Park is open day of the year except Thanksgiving, Christmas. Visitors to the cave can hike in on their own via the entrance or take an elevator from the visitor center. The park entrance is located on US Highway 62/180, approximately 18 miles southwest of Carlsbad, Carlsbad Caverns National Park participates in the Junior Ranger Program. The park has two entries on the National Register of Historic Places, The Caverns Historic District and the Rattlesnake Springs Historic District, approximately two thirds of the park has been set aside as a wilderness area, helping to ensure no future changes will be made to the habitat. Carlsbad Cavern includes a cave chamber, a natural limestone chamber almost 4,000 feet long,625 feet wide. It is the fifth largest chamber in North America and the twenty-eighth largest in the world, an estimated 250 million years ago, the area surrounding Carlsbad Caverns National Park served as the coastline for an inland sea.
Present in the sea was a plethora of marine life, whose remains formed a reef, unlike modern reef growths, the Permian reef contained bryozoans and other microorganisms. After the Permian Period, most of the evaporated and the reef was buried by evaporites. Tectonic movement occurred during the late Cenozoic, uplifting the reef above ground, susceptible to erosion, water sculpted the Guadalupe Mountain region into its present-day state. Carlsbad Caverns National Park is situated in a bed of limestone above groundwater level, during cavern development, it was within the groundwater zone. Deep below the limestones are petroleum reserves, at a time near the end of the Cenozoic, hydrogen sulfide began to seep upwards from the petroleum into the groundwater. The combination of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen from the water formed sulfuric acid, the sulfuric acid continued upward, aggressively dissolving the limestone deposits to form caverns. The presence of gypsum within the cave is a confirmation of the occurrence of this process, once the acidic groundwater drained from the caverns, speleothems began to be deposited within the cavern.
Erosion above ground created the entrance to the Carlsbad Caverns within the last million years. Exposure to the surface has allowed for the influx of air into the cavern, growths from the roof downward formed through this process are known as stalactites. Additionally, water on the floor of the caverns can contain carbonic acid, growths from the floor upward through this process are known as stalagmites
Stygofauna are any fauna that live in groundwater systems or aquifers, such as caves and vugs. Stygofauna and troglofauna are the two types of subterranean fauna, both are associated with subterranean environments – stygofauna are associated with water and troglofauna with caves and spaces above the water table. Stygofauna can live within freshwater aquifers and within the spaces of limestone, calcrete or laterite, whilst larger animals can be found in cave waters. Stygofaunal animals, like troglofauna, are divided into three based on their life history - stygophiles and stygobites. Many species of stygofauna, especially the obligate stygobites, are endemic to particular regions or even particular caves and this makes them focal points for conservation of groundwater systems. Stygofauna have adapted to the food supply and are extremely energy efficient. Stygofauna feed on plankton and plants found in streams, to survive in an environment where food is scarce and oxygen levels are low, stygofauna often have very low metabolism.
As a result, stygofauna may live longer than other terrestrial species, for example, the crayfish Orconectes australis of Shelta Cave in Alabama can reproduce at 100 years and live to 175. Stygofauna are found all over the world, and include turbellarians, isopods, decapods, stygofaunal gastropods are found in the U. S, Europe and Japan. Stygobite turbellarians can be found in the United States, stygobite isopods and decapods are found widely around the world. Cave salamanders are found in Europe and the U. S, the approximately 170 species of stygobite fish, popularly known as cavefish, are found in all continents, except Antarctica and Europe. The largest number of species are found in China and Brazil, several methods are currently used to sample stygofauna. The accepted method is to lower a haul net, which is a plankton net, to the bottom of the bore, well or sinkhole. The net is retrieved, filtering stygofauna out of the water column on the upward haul. A more destructive method is to pump water through a net on the surface.
These two methods provide animals for morphological and molecular analyses, a video camera can be used down the hole, providing information on life-history of the organisms but, given the small size of the animals no species determinations can be made. Cave conservation List of troglobites Speleology Subterranean fauna Trogloxene Italian groundwater Amphipods Origin and Age of the Marine Stygofauna of Lanzarote, Canary Islands
Hot Springs, South Dakota
Hot Springs is a city in Fall River County, South Dakota, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,711 and it is the county seat of Fall River County. In addition, neighboring Oglala Lakota County contracts the duties of Auditor, Hot Springs is one of the warmest places in South Dakota, with an annual mean temperature of 48.6 °F. Some of the attractions in the Hot Springs area are the Mammoth Site of Hot Springs and Evans Plunge, built in 1890, the town is a gateway to the attractions of the southern Black Hills, particularly Wind Cave National Park. Hot Springs holds the annual Miss South Dakota pageant, in recognition of its historic value, the National Trust for Historic Preservation listed Hot Springs as one of its 2009 Dozen Distinctive Destinations. The city center contains over 35 sandstone buildings, Hot Springs is the home of a United States Department of Veterans Affairs hospital, which was designated in 2011 as a National Historic Landmark. Formerly known as the Battle Mountain Sanitarium, the 100-bed center was built in 1907 for patients suffering from rheumatism or tuberculosis, in the early 21st century, it offers extensive outpatient treatment, acute hospital care, PTSD treatment, and an alcohol and drug treatment facility.
Community and state leaders, including Senator Tim Johnson, Senator John Thune, the Sioux and Cheyenne people had long frequented the area, appreciating its warm springs. According to several accounts, including an art piece by the Oglala Lakota artist Amos Bad Heart Bull. European settlers arrived in the half of the 19th century. They first named this city as Minnekahta, it was renamed in 1882, the present name is a translation of the Native American name. A variety of health resorts were built on the basis of the springs, Hot Springs is located at 43°26′N 103°29′W. The Fall River runs through the city, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.61 square miles, all of it land. Hot Springs has been assigned the ZIP code 57747 and the FIPS place code 30220, as of the census of 2010, there were 3,711 people,1,730 households, and 910 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,028.0 inhabitants per square mile, there were 1,958 housing units at an average density of 542.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 85. 4% White,1. 1% African American,9. 3% Native American,0. 5% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 2% from other races, and 3. 5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 1% of the population,42. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 20. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the family size was 2.79
West Virginia /ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/ is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the north, West Virginia is the 9th smallest by area, is ranked 38th in population, and has the second lowest household income of the 50 United States. The capital and largest city is Charleston, West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20,1863, and was a key Civil War border state. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States, the unique position of West Virginia means that it is often included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, and the Southeastern United States. It is the state that is entirely within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries and it is one of the most densely karstic areas in the world, making it a choice area for recreational caving and scientific research.
The karst lands contribute to much of the states cool trout waters and it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, and hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various mound builder cultures survive, especially in the areas of Moundsville, South Charleston. The artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies and they had a tribal trade system culture that crafted cold-worked copper pieces. The Iroquois drove out other American Indian tribes from the region to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a ground in the 1670s. Siouan language tribes such as the Moneton had recorded in the area previously. West Virginia was originally part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776, residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the restored government. Most voted to separate from Virginia and the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863, in 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, which was ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote.
West Virginia abolished slavery and temporarily disfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy, West Virginias history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, and rich natural resources. These were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, a 2010 analysis of a local stalagmite revealed that Native Americans were burning forests to clear land as early as 100 BC. Some regional late-prehistoric Eastern Woodland tribes were involved in hunting and fishing, practicing the slash. Another group progressed to the more time-consuming, advanced companion crop fields method of gardening, continuing from ancient indigenous people of the state, field space and time was given to tobacco growing through to early historic. Maize did not make a contribution to the diet until after 1150 BP
A lava cave is any cave formed in volcanic rock, though in typical use it usually means caves formed by volcanic processes, which are more properly termed volcanic caves. Sea caves, and other sorts of erosional and crevice caves, may be formed in volcanic rocks, there are many types of lava caves, with these being the most notable, Lava tubes are the most common and most extensive kind of lava cave. Lava tubes usually form in pahoehoe lava flows, though exceptions exist, as the lava is emitted from the vent area, it spreads in the path of least resistance. The outer layers of the lava harden, while the interior forms horizontal conduits that channel the advance of the flow. These conduits are the stages of lava tubes that serve to insulate the heat from the lava which provides a way for the lava flow to advance longer distances. Dependent upon the slope and lava viscosity, different kinds of tubes can form. Multilateral tubes are those that form paralleling, often branching and anastomosing tubes, multilevel tubes are those that sit directly on top or underneath another tube, sometimes above or below several tubes.
Some lava flows hold a mixture of multilevel and multilateral tubes, One other form a lava tube is the tube-in-tube which can form inside lava tubes if the linings of the walls are weak enough to lean inward, forming a new floor above the old. Tube-in-tubes are generally noted to form during the last lava draining through the lava tube. Ice caves Some lava tubes are referred to as ice caves because they contain ice within, surface tubes are small drained rivulets, or runners of the same highly fluid lava that flows in lava channels. They form on a hardened surface, and most are too small to enter. They are created by flowing lava that turns itself inside out, sometimes referred to as toes, they are thought to be instrumental in the growth of lava tubes. They usually form when vents, channels, or reservoirs of lava overflow and they are very shallow and typically reside within the first few feet under the surface. Some surface tubes can connect to lava tubes deeper below the surface, surface tubes typically have a uniform wall thickness and semi-circular cross section, flat side down against the surface where they formed.
Branching is common and broadly dendritic networks are not unusual, widths range from about four inches to several yards. Length depends primarily on a supply of lava and ranges widely. Surface tubes are far more numerous than is generally realized because most are subsequently buried, inflationary caves tend to be small chambers that form when lava is pressurized and pushes exterior rock. The lava may later drain leaving an inflationary cave, in some cases, volcanic gases may exert pressure on solid or semi-solid lava and form what is basically a bubble of thin rock called a blister