The Navajo Nation is a Native American territory covering about 17,544,500 acres, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico in the United States. This is the largest land area retained by a Native American tribe, with a population of 350,000 as of 2016. By area, the Navajo Nation is larger than West Virginia, Hawaii, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware; the original territory has been expanded several times since the 1800s. In 2016, under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program, some 149,524 acres of land were returned by the Department of Interior to the Navajo Nation for tribal communal use; the program is intended to help restore the land bases of reservations. The Navajo Nation has an elected government that includes an executive office, a legislative house, a judicial system, but the United States federal government continues to assert plenary power over all decisions; the executive system manages a large law enforcement and social services apparatus, health services, Diné College, other local educational trusts.
The population continues to disproportionately struggle with health problems and the effects of past uranium mining incidents. In English, the official name for the area was "Navajo Indian Reservation", as outlined in Article II of the 1868 Treaty of Bosque Redondo. On April 15, 1969, the tribe changed its official name to the Navajo Nation, displayed on the seal; this was assertion of sovereignty. In 1994, the Tribal Council rejected a proposal to change the official designation from "Navajo" to "Diné." It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, that Navajo is the appropriate designation for the future. In Navajo, the geographic entity with its defined borders is known as "Naabeehó Bináhásdzo"; this contrasts with "Diné Bikéyah" and "Naabeehó Bikéyah" for the general idea of "Navajoland". Neither of these terms should be confused with "Dinétah," the term used for the traditional homeland of the Navajo, it is situated in the area among the four sacred Navajo mountains of Dookʼoʼoosłííd, Dibé Ntsaa, Sisnaajiní, Tsoodził.
The Navajo people's tradition of governance is rooted in oral history. The clan system of the Diné is integral to their society, as the rules of behavior found within the system extend to the manner of refined culture that the Navajo people call "to walk in Beauty"; the philosophy and clan system from before the Spanish colonial occupation of Dinetah, through to the July 25, 1868, Congressional ratification of the Navajo Treaty with President Andrew Johnson, signed by Barboncito and other chiefs and headmen present at Bosque Redondo. The Navajo people have continued to transform their conceptual understandings of government since it joined the United States by the Treaty of 1868. Social and political academics continue to debate the nature of the modern Navajo governance and how it has evolved to include the systems and economies of the "western world". In the mid-19th century, most Navajo were forced from their lands by the US Army, were marched on the Long Walk to imprisonment in Bosque Redondo.
The Treaty of 1868 established the "Navajo Indian Reservation" and the Navajos left Bosque Redondo. The borders were defined as the 37th parallel in the north; as drafted in 1868, the boundaries were defined as: the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30" west of Greenwich, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly, which canyon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, the same hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them. Though the treaty had provided for one hundred miles by one hundred miles in the New Mexico Territory, the size of the territory was 3,328,302 acres —slightly more than half.
This initial piece of land is represented in the design of the Navajo Nation's flag by a dark-brown rectangle. As no physical boundaries or signposts were set in place, many Navajo ignored these formal boundaries and returned to where they had been living prior to captivity. A significant number of Navajo had never lived in the Hwéeldi near, they remained or moved to near the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers, on Naatsisʼáán and some with Apache bands. The first expansion of the territory occurred on October 28, 1878, when President Rutherford Hayes signed an executive order pushing the reservation boundary 20 miles to the west. Further additions followed throu
Landscape Arch is the longest of the many natural rock arches located in Arches National Park, United States. The arch is among many in the Devils Garden area in the north of the park. Landscape Arch was named by Frank Beckwith who explored the area in the winter of 1933–1934 as the leader of an Arches National Monument scientific expedition; the arch can be accessed by a 0.8 mi graded gravel trail. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society considers Landscape Arch the fifth longest natural arch in the world, after four arches in China; the span of Landscape Arch was measured at 290.1 feet, ±0.8 feet, in 2004. NABS measured the span of the shorter Kolob Arch in Zion National Park at 287 feet in 2006; the most recent recorded rockfall events occurred in the 1990s when one large slab fell in 1991 and two additional large rockfalls occurred in 1995. Since the rockfalls, the trail beneath the arch has been closed. List of longest natural arches Delicate Arch Durdle Door Wall Arch Xianren Bridge Natural Arch and Bridge Society article
Kolob Arch is a natural arch in Zion National Park, Utah. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society considers Kolob Arch to be the sixth longest natural arch in the world. In 2006, the Society measured the span at 287.4 ± 2 feet, shorter than the Landscape Arch in Arches National Park. Differences in measuring technique or definitions could produce different results and change this ranking. Kolob Arch can be reached via one of two hiking trails, either of, seven miles long and results in a round trip of fourteen miles; the arch can be reached from Ice Box Canyon, a canyoneering route in this section of Zion National Park. The arch is set close to a cliffside. Natural Arch and Bridge Society article Kolob Information about Kolob Arch, Kolob Canyons and Kolob Terrace
Rainbow Bridge National Monument
Rainbow Bridge National Monument is administered by Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, southern Utah, United States. Rainbow Bridge is described as the world's highest natural bridge; the span of Rainbow Bridge was reported in 1974 by the Bureau of Reclamation to be 275 feet, but a measurement of span according to definition by the Natural Arch and Bridge Society in 2007 resulted in a value of 234 feet. At the top it is 33 feet wide; the bridge, of cultural importance to a number of area Native American tribes, has been designated a Traditional Cultural Property by the National Park Service. Two other natural arches, Kolob Arch and Landscape Arch, both in southern Utah, have confirmed spans several meters longer than Rainbow Bridge, but by most definitions of the terms they are considered to be arches rather than bridges. With a height of 290 feet Rainbow Bridge does indeed stand taller than either of its longer competitors, but it is outdone by Aloba Arch in Chad at 394 feet; the world's tallest arch is Töshük Tagh, better known as Shipton's Arch, in China at an estimated 1,200 feet.
Xianren Bridge, in Guangxi Province, with a span of about 295 feet, a height of the opening of 210 feet, appears to be the natural bridge with the largest span in the world. Rainbow Bridge is one of the most accessible of the large arches of the world, it can be reached by a two-hour boat ride on Lake Powell from either of two marinas near Page, followed by a mile-long walk from the National Park wharf in Bridge Canyon, or by hiking several days overland from a trailhead on the south side of Lake Powell. Rainbow Bridge is made from sandstone deposited by wind as sand dunes, during the end of the Triassic and the Jurassic periods. Extreme fluctuations in climate during the Triassic and Jurassic periods—the region was alternately a sea and desert on par with the Sahara—produced layers of sandstone with different levels of hardness. By the end of the Jurassic, the sea returned to cover these layers of sandstone and compressed them so that they would persist until the present day; as Bridge Creek flowed toward the growing Colorado River during the last ice age, it carved first through softer rocks and veered away from the harder Triassic and Jurassic sandstones creating a wide hairpin bend that flowed around a solid "fin" of sandstone that would become Rainbow Bridge.
The previous course of the creek is still visible above the bridge. Water flows back on itself at wide spots, creating swirling eddies along the banks; as the creek flowed around Rainbow Bridge fin, these abrasive eddies formed on both the upstream and downstream sides and cut circular alcoves in the rock wall. The sediment in the creek scoured the softer layers of sandstone away, leaving the harder layers behind. Located in the rugged, isolated canyons at the feet of Navajo Mountain, Rainbow Bridge was known for centuries by the Native Americans who have long held the bridge sacred. Ancient Pueblo People were followed much by Paiute and Navajo groups who named the bridge Nonnezoshe or "rainbow turned to stone." Several Native American families still reside nearby. By the 1800s, Rainbow Bridge was seen by wandering trappers and cowboys. Not until 1909, was its existence publicized to the outside world. Two separate exploration parties – one headed by University of Utah Dean Byron Cummings, another by government surveyor, W.
B. Douglass – began searching for the legendary span, they combined efforts. Paiute guides Nasja Begay and Jim Mike led the way, along with explorer John Wetherill. Late in the afternoon of August 15, coming down what is now Bridge Canyon, the party saw Rainbow Bridge for the first time; the next year, on May 30, 1910, U. S. President William Howard Taft used presidential proclamation to designate Rainbow Bridge National Monument. Teddy Roosevelt and Zane Grey were among the first visitors to make the trek by foot and horseback from Oljeto or Navajo Mountain. In 1924 S. I. and Hubert Richardson built a road north from Red Lake to the west side of Navajo Mountain, where they built a rustic stone building and facilities for mules and visitors, calling it Rainbow Lodge. They established a trail from the lodge to Cliff Canyon over Redbud Pass to Bridge Canyon; the 14-mile trip from the lodge to Rainbow Bridge could be made in one day by horse. Bill and Catherine Wilson operated the lodge from 1928 except for the World War II years.
In 1942 Barry Goldwater acquired a half interest in the lodge. The main building at the site burned in August, 1951. Merritt and Winona Holloway operated the lodge in 1952. Miles Hedrick conducted some trips from the lodge site for the next few years, before the site was abandoned; the site is now the trailhead for hikers to the bridge. Due to erosion, Redbud Pass is no longer passable for horses. Rainbow Bridge became more accessible with the popularity of river running in Glen Canyon after World War II, although the trip still required several days floating the Colorado River plus a six-mile hike up-canyon. By the early 1950s, people could travel upstream by jet boat from Lee's Ferry. Glen Canyon Dam was authorized in 1956. By 1963, the gates on the dam closed and rising Lake Powell began to engulf the river and its side canyons. Higher water made motorboat access to Rainbow Bridge much easier, bringing thousands of visitors each year. In 1974, Navajo tribal members who lived in the history of Rainbow Br
Xinjiang the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2. Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, administered by China and claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and India; the rugged Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai; the most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, it is China's largest natural gas-producing region, it is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Kazakhs, Hui, Kyrgyz and Russians.
More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan. Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation. With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory; the territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century, replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union, promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, the East Turkistan independent movement, separatist conflict and the influence of radical Islam have both resulted in unrest in the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.
The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many different names in earlier times, in indigenous languages as well as other languages. These names include Altishahr, the historical Uyghur name, as well as Khotan, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay, Kashgaria, Little Bokhara, and, in Chinese, "Western Regions". In Chinese, under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang was known as Xiyu, meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han Empire established the Protectorate of the Western Regions or Xiyu Protectorate in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road; the Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi. Qi refers to the Gobi Desert; the Tang Empire had established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Anxi Protectorate in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria was known as Zhunbu and the southern Tarim Basin was known as Huijiang before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang" simplified as "Xinjiang".
The current Chinese name "Xinjiang", which means "New Frontier" or "New Borderland", was given during the Qing dynasty. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned", or the new old land.. The term was given to other areas conquered by Chinese empires, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang was known as Gansu Xinjiang; the name "East Turkestan" is used in the diaspora communities today, refers to the independent republic of East Turkestan. The name was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829. "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin in the south, the modern Xinjiang area and Dzungaria being excluded. In 1955, Xinjiang province was renamed Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; the name, proposed was "Xinjiang Autonomous Region". Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers.
It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region". Xinjiang consists of two main geographically and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains, before Qing China unified them into one politic
Canyons of the Escalante
The Canyons of the Escalante is a collective name for the erosional landforms created by the Escalante River and its tributaries—the Escalante River Basin. Located in southern Utah in the western United States, these sandstone features include high vertical canyon walls, numerous slot canyons, domes, natural arches and bridges; this area—extending over 1,500 square miles and rising in elevation from 3,600 ft to over 11,000 ft —is one of the three main sections of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, a part of the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, with Capitol Reef National Park being adjacent to the east. The headwaters of the Escalante River are located on the slopes of the Aquarius Plateau, in Utah's Garfield County, just west of the town of Escalante; the Escalante River begins at the confluence of Birch Creek and North Creek, with the flow of Pine Creek added just below the town. The river runs a total distance of 80 mi from the Birch/North Creek confluence before emptying into the Colorado River in Kane County.
The lower section of the river, southeast of Coyote Gulch, is now beneath the surface of Lake Powell. Numerous side canyons feed the main river, accounting for the large size of the basin. From the west, the major tributaries are Harris Wash, Twentyfive Mile Creek, Coyote Gulch, Fortymile Gulch, Fiftymile Creek, along with the smaller Phipps, Scorpion, Davis and Indian Creeks. Most of these larger creeks flow from the top of the Kaiparowits Plateau or from the base of its eastern edge, the Straight Cliffs Formation. An greater number of tributaries flow in from the north and east, including Death Hollow and Calf Creeks, the combined Boulder and Deer Creeks, The Gulch and Silver Falls Creeks, Choprock, Moody and Cow Canyons. Streams from the north flow from Boulder Mountain, while those from the northeast originate in the Circle Cliffs area, near the Waterpocket Fold in Capitol Reef National Park; the sandstone layers now exposed in the Canyons of the Escalante were deposited during the Mesozoic era, 180 to 225 million years ago, when this area was part of a large area of sand dunes.
Near the end of the Cretaceous period, about 80 million years ago, the entire western section of North America entered an era of uplift and mountain-building, an event known as the Laramide orogeny. More additional uplift formed the Colorado Plateau province; these episodes of uplift raised the Aquarius Plateau to the extent that there were strong erosional forces acting on the Escalante River Basin. Wetter climates during the recent ice ages of the Pleistocene period contributed to deep cutting of the canyon walls. Sandstone exposed in canyons nearer to the Colorado River are from the Glen Canyon Group; the dark red cliffs of Coyote Gulch, for example, are composed of Navajo Sandstone. The lighter sandstone domes of Dance Hall Rock and Sooner Rocks are formed from the higher Entrada sandstone layer. Due to tilting of layers throughout the area, sandstone exposed at higher elevations near the town of Escalante may be from a lower layer, Wingate Sandstone. Calf Creek Falls Devil's Garden Geology of the Bryce Canyon area - to the west of the basin Geology of the Capitol Reef area - to the east of the basin Hole in the Rock Trail - unpaved access road to the canyons Utah State Route 12 - only paved highway through the basin Hiking the Escalante, by Rudi Lambrechtse, ISBN 0-915272-27-X Canyon Hiking Guide to the Colorado Plateau, by Michael R. Kelsey, ISBN 0-944510-11-6 Canyons of the Escalante, Trails Illustrated Map, ISBN 0-925873-98-5 Escalante Canyon at Utah.com History of the Escalante area
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S