Torcuato de Alvear
Torcuato de Alvear y Saenz de la Quintanilla was a 19th-century Argentine conservative politician. He was the son of soldier and statesman Carlos María de Alvear and father of Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear, president of Argentina from 1922 to 1928, he was a Freemason. In 1880 Buenos Aires was declared the capital city of Argentina, Torcuato de Alvear served as the first mayor of the city until 1887. During this period he improved the road and street networks, the water and electricity supply, public transport and street lighting and other public services
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body levels charges against a government official. It does not mean removal from office. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must face the possibility of conviction by a legislative vote, which judgment entails removal from office; because impeachment and conviction of officials involve an overturning of the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office and because it requires a supermajority, they are reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office. In the United States, for example, impeachment at the federal level is limited to those who may have committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". Impeachment exists under constitutional law in many countries around the world, including Brazil, the Republic of Ireland, the Philippines, South Korea and the United States; the word "impeachment" derives from Old French empeechier from Latin word impedicare expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, has analogues in the modern French verb empêcher and the modern English impede.
Medieval popular etymology associated it with derivations from the Latin impetere. Impeachment was first used in the British political system; the process was first used by the English "Good Parliament" against Baron Latimer in the second half of the 14th century. Following the British example, the constitutions of Virginia and other states thereafter adopted the impeachment mechanism, but they restricted the punishment to removal of the official from office; as well, in private organizations, a motion to impeach can be used to prefer charges. The Austrian Federal President can be impeached by the Federal Assembly before the Constitutional Court; the constitution provides for the recall of the president by a referendum. Neither of these courses has been taken; this is because while the President is vested with considerable powers on paper, they act as a ceremonial figurehead in practice, are thus hardly in a position to abuse their powers. The President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, state governors and municipal mayors may be impeached by the Chamber of Deputies and tried and removed by the Federal Senate.
Upon conviction, the officeholder has his political rights revoked for eight years—which has the effect of barring him from running for any office. Fernando Collor de Mello, the 32nd President of Brazil, resigned in 1992 amidst impeachment proceedings. Despite his resignation, the Senate nonetheless voted to convict him and bar him from holding any office for eight years, due to evidence of bribery and misappropriation. In 2016, the Chamber of Deputies initiated an impeachment case against President Dilma Rousseff on allegations of budgetary mismanagement. Following her conviction, she was replaced by Vice President Michel Temer, who had served as acting president while Rousseff's case was pending; the President of Bulgaria can be removed only for violation of the constitution. The process is started by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parliament to impeach the President, whereupon the Constitutional Court decides whether the President is guilty of the crime of which he is charged. If he is found guilty, he is removed from power.
No Bulgarian President has been impeached. The same procedure can be used to remove the Vice President of Bulgaria, which has never happened; the process of impeaching the President of Croatia can be initiated by a two-thirds majority vote in favor in the Sabor and is thereafter referred to the Constitutional Court, which must accept such a proposal with a two-thirds majority vote in favor in order for the president to be removed from office. This has, never occurred in the history of the Republic of Croatia. However, in case of a successful impeachment motion a president's constitutional term of five years would be terminated and an election called within 60 days of the vacancy occurring. During the period of vacancy the presidential powers and duties would be carried out by the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament in his/her capacity as Acting President of the Republic. Prior to 2013 the President of the Czech Republic could be impeached only for an act of high treason; the process has to start in the Senate of the Czech Republic which only has the right to impeach the president, this passes the case to the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic which has to decide whether the President is guilty or not.
If the Court decides that the President is guilty the President loses his office and the ability to be elected President of the Czech Republic again. No Czech president has been impeached, members of the Senate sought to impeach President Vaclav Klaus in 2013; this case was dismissed by the court reasoning. In 2013 the constitution changed; the President can be impeached not only for high treason but for a serious infringement of the Constitution. The President of France can be impeached by the French Parliament for willfully violating the Constitution or the national laws; the process of impeachment is written in the 68th article of the French Constitution. A group
José Félix Uriburu
Lieutenant General José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu was the first de facto President of Argentina. He achieved the position through a military coup, his tenure lasted from September 6, 1930, to February 20, 1932. Uriburu was born on July 20, 1868 in Salta Province, was a nephew of President José Evaristo Uriburu, he graduated from the military college in 1890. Prior to World War I, he served as military attache to the United Kingdom; when he returned to Argentina in 1914, he was elected to the Argentine National Congress. He was appointed inspector general of the army by Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear in 1922. In September 1930, he led a military coup against democratically elected President Hipólito Yrigoyen, in which the far-right Argentine Patriotic League participated; the coup marked the start of what was called the Infamous Decade. His regime was supported by rightist intellectuals such as Rodolfo and Julio Irazusta and Juan Carulla, he stayed as head of the government until 1932, implementing several reforms including cutting of government employees' salaries by more than 10 percent.
After being diagnosed with stomach cancer in early 1932, he died in Paris, France on 29 April 1932 following an operation. José Félix Uriburu at Find a Grave Newspaper clippings about José Félix Uriburu in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
República Cromañón nightclub fire
The República Cromañón nightclub fire occurred in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 30 December 2004, killing 194 people and leaving at least 1,492 injured. The tragedy was symbolic of government failure in Argentina, since the club had received a permit despite lacking basic fire safety measures like fire extinguishers. República Cromañón was a facility that held events, it was located on 3060/3066/3070 Bartolomé Mitre in the Balvanera neighbourhood of Buenos Aires. It was operated by Omar Chabán, opened on 12 April 2004, with a concert of the same band who played the day of the fire: Callejeros; the club was in a two story building, with a main entrance with six doors behind it leading into the main area of the nightclub, on the night of the fire four of the six doors were locked. There was a connection to a nearby hotel, an emergency exit, locked, another emergency exit, blocked by a fence in front of the stage. Fire safety measures in the building were lacking with no reports of a fire detection or alarm system, emergency lighting, fire suppression with ten of the fifteen fire extinguishers were depressurized and unusable.
The nightclub's fire safety license had run out the previous month. The venue was hosting rock group Callejeros and around 3,000 people were in attendance, double the venue's capacity of 1,500; the blaze was started when a pyrotechnic flare was ignited foam in the ceiling. The materials used in the building for decoration were flammable: wood, acoustic panels and a plastic net; this plastic net was caught fire first, melting into a rain of fire. In some parts of the building, teddy bear stuffing was used as a cheap alternative to wool fiber; the owner and the band's lead singer had told the patrons not to use flares inside the building. Four of the six doors, some of which were fire exits, were chained shut so that "people would not enter without paying", according to Mayor Aníbal Ibarra. Most of the victims died from inhaling poisonous gases, carbon monoxide. After the fire the technical institution INTI found that the level of toxicity, due to the materials and volume of the building was 225 ppm of cyanide in the air.
A lethal dose for rats is between 150 ppm and 220 ppm, meaning the air in the building was toxic. Many of the victims were identified to be in their teens and 20s, but rescue workers clearing the club found children and babies; this is due to survivor accounts that a bathroom inside the nightclub had been used as a nursery, where parents could leave their children for the show. Following the disaster, an Argentine judge issued a national and international arrest order against Omar Chabán, local businessman and owner of República Cromañón and other nightclubs, including one called Cemento, closed by court orders many times before. Chabán was arrested. Police are still seeking those responsible for setting off the flare, the guilty parties could face eight to twenty years in prison. President Néstor Kirchner decreed three days of national mourning, city authorities forbade concerts and closed all nightclubs in Buenos Aires during the mourning period, only to open again, one by one, after they had been checked and approved by the fire department.
Pope John Paul II expressed his condolences to victims families in a message sent to officials in Argentine churches. The parents of many of the victims have worked to keep the victims memories alive, by planting 194 trees in honor of the deceased, creating a traveling exhibit of the victims' photographs. A ceramics factory has donated memorial plaques to be dispersed across the country, it became known that República Cromañón had been overdue for a fire hazard inspection since late November 2004. Although Buenos Aires Mayor Anibal Ibarra blamed the Fire Department of the Argentine Federal Police, several flaws in the city's inspection system soon surfaced. In addition to the city's poor planning for a disaster of this magnitude, critics pointed to Ibarra for failing to reorganize Buenos Aires' inspection system. A few days after the fire, Ibarra reshuffled the entire Buenos Aires security and emergency administration; the City Legislature announced that Mayor Ibarra was going to face a questioning session, but failed to achieve the necessary votes to force his questioning.
Shortly thereafter, Ibarra voluntarily submitted to a questioning session, announced a recall referendum to decide whether he would remain in office or not. Relatives and friends of the dead organized several marches to Plaza de Mayo demanding the resignation of Aníbal Ibarra as Mayor of Buenos Aires, the conviction of Omar Chabán, a more efficient inspection system; some of these marches ended with incidents between the police. On 14 November 2005, an impeachment jury formed by the Buenos Aires Legislature suspended Mayor Ibarra for four months, pending an investigation of his performance that could lead to his removal, he accused the opposition of manipulating the families of República Cromañón's victims in order to ruin his career. On 7 March 2006, after four months of deliberations, the impeachment jury voted to remove Ibarra from office. A trial finished 1 year later; the judges heard from over 300 witnesses, who claimed young fans has lit a flare that struck the ceiling, it was revealed that the band was in charge of the concerts organization and entry into the club that night.
But that the band was not at fault for the club being given a permit though it lacked basic fire safety measures such as fire extinguishers, working eme
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century; the oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the newly-discovered Americas, as well as territories in Africa and the Philippines. Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin and, through Latin, Ancient Greek. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula.
With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has been influenced by Basque, Celtiberian, by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages the Romance languages—French, Portuguese, Catalan and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, it is used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations. Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, with the exception of the humanities, it is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers.
Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million, it is an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home. According to a 2011 paper by U. S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration.
Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020. In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only español but castellano, the language from the kingdom of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Asturian, Catalan and Occitan; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.... The other Spanish languages shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities... The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand uses the term español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and castellano—are regarded as synonymous and valid. Two etymologies for español have been suggested; the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus,'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning; the Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin, brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War, beginning in 210 BC. Several pre-Roman languages —unrelated to Latin, some of them unrelated to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula; these languages included Basque, Iberian and Gallaecian. The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century.
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Mozarabic (Anda