Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv
Stephan Weil is a German politician and the leader of the Social Democratic Party in Lower Saxony. On 20 January 2013, the SPD and the Green party won the 2013 Lower Saxony state election by one seat. On 19 February 2013, he was elected Prime Minister of Lower Saxony with the votes of SPD and Alliance'90/The Greens. From 1 November 2013 until 31 October 2014 he was President of the Bundesrat and ex officio deputy to the President of Germany. In November 2017, he was again elected Prime Minister of Lower Saxony with the votes of SPD and CDU. Weil has lived in Hanover since 1965. After his community service in 1978 he began a law degree in Göttingen, which he finished with his first state examination in 1983, he worked as a lawyer in Hanover, a public prosecutor and judge in the Lower Saxony ministry of justice. In 1994, Weil became a member of the ministerial council of Lower Saxony. In his early years, Weil served as chairman of the SPD Jusos in Hanover. From 1997 until late October 2006 he held the office of the city treasurer.
In May 2006 he was chosen as the SPD candidate for the Hanover mayoral election on 10 September 2006 against the CDU politician Dirk Topeffer and Ingrid Wagemann of Alliance'90/The Greens. He won an absolute majority in the first round, he succeeded Herbert Schmalstieg, the mayor of Hanover for 34 years on 1 November 2006. Weil held the office for 7 years, up to 2013 state election. Due to legal restrictions, Weil was automatically removed from the office of mayor when he became Prime Minister of Lower Saxony on 19 February 2013. From 29 January 2008 to 2011, Weil monthly answered questions from citizens in the TV program Warum Herr Weil which airs every third Tuesday every month on HR Fernsehen. On 18 September 2011 Weil announced that he would apply for the top candidate of the SPD for the 2013 state election in Lower Saxony, he was elected as the top candidate with 53.3% of votes on 27 September 2011. On 20 January 2012 he was voted as the chairman of SPD Lower Saxony. In March, Weil was unanimously chosen as the SPD direct candidate for the Hanover-Buchholz constituency.
On the state convention in Hameln, Weil placed first with 98.95%. Just weeks before the state elections, opinion polls indicated that Weil, with the help of the Greens, would defeat incumbent Minister-President David McAllister, he won the elections by a wafer-thin majority, resulting in his center-left coalition having a narrow majority of just one vote in the state parliament. At the time, his victory constituted the twelfth consecutive setback in a state vote for Chancellor Angela Merkel’s CDU party and therefore was interpreted as indicative for the national elections that year. Early on in his tenure, Weil emphasized consolidating Lower Saxony's finances; as Lower Saxony has a 20 percent stake in Volkswagen, Weil has been an ex-officio member of the company’s supervisory board since February 2013. Within the supervisory board, he serves on the nomination committees. Only a few months after Weil took office, Germany won a decisive victory over the European Commission in its bid to preserve state influence at VW, when the European Court of Justice rejected an attempt by the Commission to abolish a state veto over key decisions such as factory closures and acquisitions.
Weil was elected vice president of the Bundesrat from 1 March 2013, served as President of the Bundesrat from November 2013 to October 2014. On the Bundesrat, he is a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and deputy chairman of the Committee on European Affairs. In August 2017, Weil called for parliament to be dissolved and new elections to be held after one deputy, Elke Twesten, quit the Green Party, costing his coalition government its one-seat parliamentary majority. In November 2017, he was again elected Prime Minister of Lower Saxony with the votes of SPD and CDU. Deutsche Messe AG, Chairman of the Supervisory Board Sparkasse Hannover, Chairman of the Supervisory Board Business Forum of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Member of the Political Advisory Board Robert Enke Foundation, Chairman of the Board of Trustees kestnergesellschaft, Member of the Board of Trustees Freundeskreis Hannover, Member of the Board of Trustees Deutsches Museum, Member of the Board of Trustees Hannover Medical School, Member of the Board of Trustees German Association of Local Utilities, President Rotary International, Member In 1987, Weil married public health expert Rosemarie Kerkow-Weil, the former president of the University of Hanover who teaches at the HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, they have one son.
Official web site Biography
Arthur Mengeh was a German politician, the mayor of Hanover from 1925 to 1937. Arthur had studied law and in 1911, he worked as a legal aid at the Hanover Municipality. From 1914 to 1918 he became the Senator of Industry and Nutrition, became the director of Hanover Railway Trains Company. In 1919, he was elected as a prosecutor for the German-Hanoverian Party and due to the re-elections in 1924, he was nominated as the mayor of Hannover in 1925. Arthur managed to work as the mayor until 1937 though the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Nazi Party were both coming in power at the same time. During the time he was the mayor, the artificial lake, Maschsee was built and the Hermann-Löns-Park and the Herrenhausen Gardens were completed. With the end of World War II, Arthur was elected as the representative of the newly established party, the “Lower Saxony”, but due to an illness he left the bureau in December 1945
Timeline of Hanover
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Hanover, Germany. 1333 - Kreuzkirche consecrated. 1347 - Aegidienkirche built. 1366 - Marktkirche built. 1369 - Welfs in power. 1382 - Döhrener Tower built near city. 1400 - Public clock installed. 1410 - Town Hall building expanded. 1440 - Stadtbibliothek Hannover founded. 1529 - Hanover Schützenfest established. 1550 - Alter Jüdischer Friedhof an der Oberstraße established. 1640 - Royal Palace built. 1698 - Leibniz house in use. 1670 - Neustädter Kirche built. 1689 - Population: 11,373. 1698 - Schloss Herrenhausen built near city. 1720 - Royal Public Library active. 1726 - Herrenhäuser Allee laid out. 1755 - Population: 17,432. 1797 - Hanover Natural History Society founded. 1798 - Adressbuch der Stadt Hannover begins publication. 1810 - Hanover becomes part of the Kingdom of Westphalia. 1815 - City becomes capital of the Kingdom of Hanover. 1821 - Population: 33,255. 1824 - Calenberger Neustadt becomes part of city. 1826 - Gas lighting installed. 1832 - Kunstverein Hannover formed.
1835 - Historischer Verein für Niedersachsen founded. 1838 - Artilleriekaserne am Steintor built. 1844 - Hanover–Braunschweig Railway in operation. 1847 Bremen–Hanover railway begins operating. Development of Ernst-August-Stadt area begins. 1851 - Thalia Society founded. 1852 Royal Theatre built. Hannoversches Tageblatt newspaper in publication. 1853 - Hanoverian Southern Railway begins operating. 1854 - Hannoversche Courier newspaper begins publication. 1856 - Museum of Art and Science built. 1861 - Population: 71,170. 1864 Hanover–Hamburg railway in operation. Stadtfriedhof Engesohde and Jüdischer Friedhof An der Strangriede established. 1865 - Hanover Zoo established. 1866 Hanover becomes part of Prussia. Hanover Military Riding Institute active. Welfenschloss built. X Army Corps headquartered in Hanover. Hanover Chamber of Industry and Commerce established. 1870 - New Synagogue, Hanover built. 1871 - Continental rubber manufacturer in business. 1872 Horse-drawn tram begins operating. Goethe Bridge built.
1879 - Hannover Hauptbahnhof rebuilt. 1885 - Population: 139,731. 1886 - Cumberlandsche Galerie built. 1888 - Photographischer Verein founded. 1889 Mellini-Theater opens. Kestner Museum established. 1891 - Hainholz, Herrenhausen and Vahrenwald become part of city. 1893 Electric tram begins operating. Hannoverscher Anzeiger newspaper begins publication. 1895 - Lister Tower and Flusswasserkunst built. 1896 Hannover 96 football club formed. Holzmarkt Fountain installed. 1897 - Music Conservatory established. 1898 - Hannoversche Waggonfabrik in business. 1902 - Provincial museum built. 1903 - Vaterländisches Museum opens. 1904 - Bismarck Tower erected. 1907 - Bothfeld, Groß-Buchholz, Klein-Buchholz, Döhren, Mecklenheide, Stöcken, Wülfel become part of city. 1908 - Anti-noise society formed. 1911 - Schauburg opens. 1913 - New City Hall built in the Maschpark. 1914 Stadthalle built. Stadtpark opens. 1916 Kestnergesellschaft formed. Duve-Brunnen installed in the Neustädter Markt. 1918 November: German Revolution of 1918–19.
Robert Leinert becomes mayor. 1919 Deutsche Luft-Reederei begins operating its Berlin-Hannover airplane route. Population: 310,431. 1920 Linden becomes part of city. Hanover Calvary School established. 1921 Nazi Party branch established. Überlandwerke und Straßenbahnen Hannover AG active. Hindenburg Villa in use. 1923 German Völkisch Freedom Party branch established. Nazi Niedersächsischer Beobachter weekly newspaper begins publication. 1924 - Gustav Fink becomes mayor. 1925 Arthur Menge becomes mayor. Population: 422,745. 1927 - Botanischer Schulgarten Burg established. 1936 - Maschsee created. 1937 - Henricus Haltenhoff becomes mayor. 1938 - November: Kristallnacht pogrom against Jews. 1939 September: Bombing of Hanover in World War II by Allied forces begins. Population: 472,527. 1942 - Ludwig Hoffmeister becomes Staatskommissare. 1944 August: Hanover-Limmer concentration camp begins operating. September: Hanover-Stöcken concentration camp begins operating. November: Hanover-Ahlem concentration camp established.
Egon Bönner becomes Staatskommissare. 1945 February: Hanover-Mühlenberg concentration camp begins operating. 10 April: Allied forces arrive. April–May: Mayor, Regierungspräsident, Oberpräsident appointed. 1946 - February: Flood. 1947 1 April: Food protest. Hannover Messe begins. 1949 Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung in publication. Europa-Haus built. 1950s - Hannover War Cemetery established. 1951 - Youth House built. 1952 Landesbühne Hannover established. Trade union building built. 1954 Niedersachsenstadion opens. Mannesmann Tower erected. Frühlingsfest Hannover begins. Markthalle Hannover rebuilt. 1965 - Oktoberfest Hannover begins. 1965 - Population: 555,228. 1969 - IBM-Haus built. 1970 - Norddeutsche Landesbank headquartered in city. 1972 - Herbert Schmalstieg becomes mayor. 1974 - Ahelm, Bemerode, Vinnhorst, Wülferode become part of city. 1975 Hanover Stadtbahn begins operating. Eilenriedehalle built in the Hannover Congress Centrum. 1979 - Sprengel Museum opens. 1987 - Klecks-Theater Hannover founded. 1991 - Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway built.
1992 - Hanover City Archive moves to Bokemahle in Südstadt-Bult. 2000 June: Expo 2000 opens. Hanover S-Bahn commuter rail begins operating. 2001 - Gehry Tower built. 2002 - Nord/LB headquarters built. 2005 - Regional Lower Saxony State Archives established, including its Hanover office. 2006 - St
Stefan Schostok is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party and has been Mayor of Hanover since 6 October 2013. From 2008 to January 2013 he served as a member of the Lower Saxony Legislative Assembly. During that time, he was elected chairman of the SPD group in the Lower Saxony Legislative Assembly in 2010, a position which he vacated in 2013. Schostok has lived in Hanover since 1971. In 1985 he obtained the Fachhochschulreife in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gymnasium Hannover, in the following two years, Schostok underwent his alternative civilian service in Isernhagen. Subsequently, he studied social pedagogy and in 1991 graduated as a trained social educator. From 1991 to 1995, Schostok was employed at the Bildungsnetzwerk Niedersächsischer Volkshochschulen. In 1995 and 1996, he worked as a scientific employee at the political magazine SPW. From 1996 to 1999, he was a research assistant at the Foundation for Labour and Environment of the IG BCE trade union. In 1999, whilst at the Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz, he conducted public relations work on behalf of the ministry.
In 2000, Stefan Schostok was elected chairman of the SPD district Hanover, one of the largest and most influential regions within the Social Democrats in Lower Saxony - he served in this position until October 2009. Schostok has been a member of the SPD since 1983. Since 1995 he has been a member of the executive of the SPD district Hanover. In the years from 1991 to 1995 he was chairman of the Juso district Hanover. On October 31 2009 he was elected as the chairman of the SPD district Hanover. From 2001 to 2005 he was a council member of the municipal council Isernhagen, in which he served on the economy and finance committees. From 2008 to 2013 Schostok was a member of the Landtag in Lower Saxony. Schostok was leader of the integration work group. From June 14 2010 to January 22 2013, he served as chairman of his party's parliamentary group in the Landtag. Towards the end of 2011, he decided not to seek reelection to the State Parliament and instead announced his candidacy for the office of Mayor of Hanover, in order to succeed incumbent Stephan Weil.
In April 2012, Schostok became the Social Democrat nominee for Mayor, obtaining the support of 96% of the delegates of the Hanover Social Democrats. In the first round of the mayoral election, on September 22 2013, he missed the required absolute majority with 48.9% of the votes against the Christian Democratic candidate Matthias Waldraff, who had 33.8% of the votes. The second round saw, he is the third Mayor of Hannover to be elected directly by the citizens. Schostok is the deputy chairman of the SPD in Lower Saxony. Deutsche Messe AG, Ex-Officio Member of the Supervisory Board Sparkasse Hannover, Ex-Officio Member of the Supervisory Board Evangelische Akademie Loccum, Member of the Council Deutsch-Türkischen Gesellschaft, Member IG Bergbau, Energie, Member Stefan Schostok is a bachelor and lives in the Hanover-List district. Jüttner, Wolfgang. Politik für die Sozialdemokratie. Erinnerung an Peter von Oertzen. Berlin: Vorwärts-Buch. ISBN 978-3-86602-924-8. Publications of the institute for social history Braunschweig.
Brandt, Arno. Kurs.wechselpolitik-in-niedersachsen.de. Der Kompass für Wirtschaft und Qualifikation in Niedersachsen. Berlin: Vorwärts-Buch. ISBN 978-3-942972-12-3