Eduard Schmid was Lord Mayor of Munich from 1919 to 1924. He was the first SPD politician to hold this position. A joiner by trade, after his apprenticeship Schmid spent a few years as journeyman until he settled in Munich, where he became a member of the Deutscher Holzarbeiterverband, he worked as an editor for the SPD affiliated newspaper Münchener Post. In 1899 Schmid became the first Social Democrat member of the City of Munich Magistrate. In 1907 he became member of the Second Chamber of the Bavarian Parliament. In a time of severe domestic disputes, a few weeks after the defeat of the Bavarian Council Republic, Schmid was elected to Lord Mayor of Munich on 26 June 1919, in which he became the first Social Democrat to hold the highest position in the city until 1924. Living conditions in Munich were determined at that time by strikes, economic difficulties and party strife. Schmid's tenure was marked by efforts to improve the water supply; the further expansion of the middle Isar for energy production was initiated by him.
Through the purchases of land areas in the source well area of the Taubenberg he secured Munich's water supply. Other major projects which he promoted or initiated were the tram workshop in Perlach and the St. Joseph retirement home in Mittersendling. Two unpleasant historical events happened during Schmid’s term in office. In 1923, due to the general economic crisis, the sharp decline in the value of money, resulting in inflation; because of this many citizens were deprived of their last savings, causing many to fall into a state of misery and despair. The second event was the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. Schmid was an important opponent of Adolf Hitler. On 9 November 1923, he was arrested during the putsch by the SA and escaped death by hanging. On 31 December 1924 Schmid resigned from his position as First Mayor. On his 70s birthday, on 15 October 1931, he was named the 32nd Honorary Citizen of the City of Munich. A few months after the Nazis’ seizure of power, Schmid died on 8 June 1933 in Munich.
Bruno Effinger: Historische Persönlichkeiten. In: Otto Kasper: Der Landkreis Sigmaringen. 1981, Sigmaringen. P. 281f Literature by and about Eduard Schmid in the German National Library catalogue
Christian Social Union in Bavaria
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany. The CSU operates only in Bavaria while its larger counterpart, the Christian Democratic Union, operates in the other fifteen states of Germany, it differs from the CDU by being somewhat more conservative in social matters. The CSU is considered an effective successor of the Weimar-era Catholic Bavarian People's Party. At the federal level, the CSU forms a common faction in the Bundestag with the CDU, referred to as the Union Faction; the CSU has had 46 seats in the Bundestag since the 2017 federal election, making it the smallest of the seven parties represented. The CSU is a member of the International Democrat Union; the CSU has three ministers in the cabinet of Germany of the federal government in Berlin, including party leader Horst Seehofer, Federal Minister of the Interior while party member Markus Söder serves as Minister-President of Bavaria, a position that CSU representatives have held from 1946 to 1954 and again since 1957.
Franz Josef Strauß had left behind the strongest legacy as a leader of the party, having led the party from 1961 until his death in 1988. His political career in the federal cabinet was unique in that he had served four ministerial posts in the years between 1953 and 1969. From 1978 until his death in 1988, Strauß served as the Minister-President of Bavaria. Strauß was the first leader of the CSU to be a candidate for the German chancellery in 1980. In the 1980 federal election, Strauß ran against the incumbent Helmut Schmidt of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but lost thereafter as the SPD and the Free Democratic Party managed to secure an absolute majority together, forming a social-liberal coalition; the CSU has led the Bavarian state government since it came into existence in 1946, save from 1954 to 1957 when the SPD formed a state government in coalition with the Bavaria Party and the state branches of the GB/BHE and FDP. Before the 2008 elections in Bavaria, the CSU perennially achieved absolute majorities at the state level by itself.
This level of dominance is unique among Germany's 16 states. Edmund Stoiber took over the CSU leadership in 1999, he ran for Chancellor of Germany in 2002, but his preferred CDU/CSU–FDP coalition lost against the SPD candidate Gerhard Schröder's SPD–Green alliance. In the 2003 Bavarian state election, the CSU won 60.7% of the vote and 124 of 180 seats in the state parliament. This was the first time; the Economist suggested that this exceptional result was due to a backlash against Schröder's government in Berlin. The CSU's popularity declined in subsequent years. Stoiber stepped down from the posts of Minister-President and CSU chairman in September 2007. A year the CSU lost its majority in the 2008 Bavarian state election, with its vote share dropping from 60.7% to 43.4%. The CSU remained in power by forming a coalition with the FDP. In the 2009 general election, the CSU received only 42.5% of the vote in Bavaria in the 2009 election, which constitutes its weakest showing in the party's history.
The CSU made gains in the 2013 Bavarian state election and the 2013 federal election, which were held a week apart in September 2013. The CSU remained in government in Berlin, they have three ministers in Angela Merkel's current cabinet, namely Horst Seehofer, Andreas Scheuer and Gerd Müller. The CSU forms after Bavarian state election, 2018 on October 14, 2018 a new government with partner Free Voters of Bavaria; the CSU is the sister party of the Christian Democratic Union. Together, they are called The Union; the CSU operates only within Bavaria and the CDU operates in all other states, but not Bavaria. While independent, at the federal level the parties form a common CDU/CSU faction. No Chancellor has come from the CSU, although Strauß and Edmund Stoiber were CDU/CSU candidates for Chancellor in the 1980 federal election and the 2002 federal election which were both won by the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Below the federal level, the parties are independent. Since its formation, the CSU has been more conservative than the CDU.
The CSU and the state of Bavaria decided not to sign the Grundgesetz of the Federal Republic of Germany as they could not agree with the division of Germany into two states after World War II. Although Bavaria like all German states has a separate police and justice system, the CSU has participated in all political affairs of the German Parliament, the German government, the German Bundesrat, the parliamentary elections of the German President, the European Parliament and meetings with Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia; the CSU has contributed eleven of the twelve Ministers-President of Bavaria since 1945, with only Wilhelm Hoegner of the SPD holding the office. List of Christian Social Union of Bavaria politicians Politics of Germany Alf Mintzel. Die CSU. Anatomie einer konservativen Partei 1945-1972. Opladen. Christlich-Soziale Union – official site Christian-Social Union Christian-Social Union of Bavaria
Hans-Jochen Vogel is a retired German politician and lawyer. Hans-Jochen Vogel was born in Göttingen, he attended grammar school in Göttingen and in Gießen, where he did his A-levels in 1943. Although he was an active Catholic, he joined the Hitler Youth and became one of its squad leaders. "… in spite of all my doubts about details it did not occur to me at the time that you can, or must, resist the state. If I consider the biographies of other young people, for instance and Hans Scholl, who came to different conclusions. I lived with my parents in Gießen I saw the synagogue burn, and nobody helped, on the contrary, the police and the firebrigade made the fire worse. But not that opened my eyes." In July 1943, at the age of 17, Vogel volunteered for service in the Wehrmacht. Twice wounded at the Italian Front, he was an Unteroffizier at the end of the war. On his return from prison camp he worked as a transport worker for a short while, before he was able to study law in Marburg and Munich, he received his doctorate in 1950.
His professional career began in February 1952, when he became a junior official in the Bavarian Ministry of Justice. At the age of 28 he was a county court judge, in the following year he was appointed chairman of a commission in the Bavarian Prime Minister's Office, to review Bavarian law for a new survey published by the Bavarian state parliament. Munich City Council made him their legal secretary in 1958. Hans-Jochen Vogel became a member of the SPD in 1950. Although he was only 34 years old, he was elected Mayor of Munich as the candidate of the SPD on 27 March 1960, with 64.3% of the vote. His popularity increased more due to his success in tackling the city's traffic problems, he was re-elected in 1966 with 77.9%. The fact that Munich was chosen as the venue of the 1972 Olympic Games, which had additional beneficial effects on town planning and traffic projects, was to a large extent a result of his efforts; when Vogel became the leader of the Bavarian Social Democrats and a member of the executive of the Social Democratic Party of Germany in 1972, he resigned as Mayor of Munich and passed this office on to Georg Kronawitter.
He describes his Munich years in his book Die Amtskette, published in the same year. In the General Elections of 19 November 1972, Vogel was the top candidate of the Bavarian SPD. Whereas he could not prevent a resounding victory of the CSU, he himself gained the best result for any SPD politician in Bavaria after the Second World War, his popularity showed itself in the General Elections of 1976, when he alone of all the SPD Munich candidates did not lose his Munich North constituency to the CSU. A new challenge arose in 1981. Dietrich Stobbe stepped down as Mayor of Berlin, Hans-Jochen Vogel was asked to be his successor and take charge of a divided Berlin SPD, he created a unique "Berlin way" of dealing with the problem of "occupied" houses by granting contracts to the occupiers, while preventing any new occupations at the same time. Although he managed to deal with his party's difficulties to a large extent, the SPD lost the following Berlin elections, which took place only a few months after Vogel had taken office.
During the following year Vogel was Leader of the Opposition in the parliament of Berlin, before becoming the SPD's top candidate for the German General Elections of 6 March 1983. Helmut Schmidt had been toppled as chancellor by the CDU leader, Helmut Kohl, did not want to be the SPD's top candidate again. Vogel filled the breach. Disarmament and the problems of the labour market were at the centre of his campaign, but Kohl won the elections. In December 1972 Chancellor Willy Brandt made Vogel Minister for Regional Planning and Urban Development. After the elections of 1983 Vogel was one of the Berlin MPs in the German parliament. Herbert Wehner, the previous Leader of the Parliamentary SPD, nominated him as his successor, he held that office until 1991. Under his leadership the Parliamentary SPD turned against atomic energy after the Chernobyl disaster of 1986. From 1987 to 1991 Vogel was the Leader of the Social Democratic Party, he was an MP in the Bundestag until 1994. "I've never pushed myself into the foreground", he said of himself.
After 1994 Vogel withdrew from active politics. But he has continued to be a member of the project "Against forgetting, in favour of democracy", which tries to spread basic democratic values, as a contrast to the dictatorships of the Nazis and of the SED. Vogel was one of its founders in its first chairman, he received the Galinsky Prize for promoting a better understanding between the Jewish community and its social surroundings and the highest prize of the Central Council of the Jews in Germany, the Leo Baeck Prize. From 2001 to 2005 Vogel belonged to the National Ethics Council on the ethical aspects of the questions of biotechnology and its consequences for individuals and society. On the right wing of the SPD, Hans-Jochen Vogel became more and more liberal in his views, for instance, with regard to the legislation about asylum-seekers, referenda, or the protection of personal data from the state. A fact-finding mission to twelve successor states of the former Soviet Union in 1992, when he met numerous presidents, but leaders of the opposition, of the Orthodox Church, of Islam, broadened his outlook, too.
As far as his party was concerned
Georg Kronawitter was a German politician of the SPD. He was mayor of Munich from 1972 to 1978 and from 1984 to 1993. Kronawitter was born in a part of Schweitenkirchen, in the district of Pfaffenhofen, he became an elementary school teacher in 1949, earned his certification as a Diplom-Handelslehrer in 1956. He joined the SPD in 1961 and was elected to the Landtag of Bavaria in 1966. In the 1972 local elections, he was elected Mayor of Munich with 55.9 percent of the votes, succeeding Hans-Jochen Vogel. Due to conflicts within his party, he did not run for mayorship in the 1978 elections, was succeeded by the CSU's Erich Kiesl. Six years he was elected mayor again in the 1 April 1984 run-off election, with 58.1 percent of the votes. In 1990, he was reelected with 61.64 percent of the votes. After his mayoral career, Kronawitter was a major supporter of the successful Initiative-Unser-München petition, which stipulates that no high rise buildings whose height exceeds that of the Frauenkirche may be built in Munich.
In 1978, he was honored with the Ludwig-Thoma medal. In 1993, Kronawitter was honored by the city of Munich for his commitment to social justice and his early awareness of ecological possibilities of fiscal policy. In July 2014 he was honoured with the freedom of Munich prize, aimed at highlighting the work of political figures. Homepage of Georg Kronawitter Georg Kronawitter in the German National Library catalogue
Johannes von Widenmayer
Johannes von Widenmayer was a German lawyer and Mayor of Munich from 1888 to 1893. Widenmayer first attended the St. Anna-Gymnasium in Augsburg. After graduating from high school, he became a scholarship holder of the Maximilianeum Foundation in 1858 and began to study law at the University of Munich, where he became a member of the Arminia/Algovia Fraternity in 1855, he moved to the University of Heidelberg, where he received his doctorate in 1863. In July of the same year, Widenmayer was elected mayor of Lindau. On June 4, 1870, he was elected second mayor of the city of Munich by the newly elected municipal council as deputy to Alois von Erhardt. After Erhardt resigned, Widenmayer succeeded him on 16 February 1888, he held this office until his death in March 1893. The tomb of Johannes Widenmayer is located at the Old Southern Cemetery in Munich; the tomb was designed by Hans Grässel. Anton Weigel created the model of the bronze elements by the sculptor Anton Pruska. Widenmayer's term of office was marked by the rapid increase in the population in the course of industrialisation.
His short period of office included the reform of the city's elementary schools, the construction of the alluvial sewage system, the incorporation of Schwabing and Neuhausen in 1890 and the founding of the market Wiener Markt. Just three years after his death, the street Äußere Isarstraße in Munich, which had just begun to become a magnificent avenue, was renamed Widenmayerstraße in his honour. Helge Dvorak: Biographisches Lexikon der Deutschen Burschenschaft. Band I: Politiker. Teilband 6: T–Z. Winter, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-8253-5063-0, S. 290
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany, or SPD, is a social-democratic political party in Germany. Led by Andrea Nahles since 2018, the party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union; the Social Democrats have governed at the federal level in Germany as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 and 2017 federal elections. The party participates in 14 state governments and 7 of them are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents; the SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and initiated the founding of the Progressive Alliance international for social-democratic parties on 22 May 2013 after criticising the Socialist International for its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.
The General German Workers' Association founded in 1863 and the Social Democratic Workers' Party founded in 1869 merged in 1875 under the name Socialist Workers' Party of Germany. From 1878 to 1890, any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles was banned under the Anti-Socialist Laws, but the party still gained support in elections. In 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists the party adopted its current name. In the years leading up to World War I, the party remained ideologically radical in official principle, although many party officials tended to be moderate in everyday politics. By 1912, the party claimed the most votes of any German party. Despite the agreement of the Second International to oppose World War I, the Social Democrats voted in favor of war in 1914. In response to this and the Bolshevik Revolution, members of the left-wing and of the far-left of the SPD formed alternative parties, first the Spartacus League the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany while the more conservative faction was known as the Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany.
After 1918, the SPD played an important role in the political system of the Weimar Republic, although it took part in coalition governments only in few years. Adolf Hitler prohibited the party in 1933 under the Enabling Act and party officials were imprisoned, killed or went into exile. In exile, the party used the name Sopade; the Social Democrats had been the only party to vote against the Enabling Act while the Communist Party was blocked from voting. In 1945, the Allied occupants in the Western zones allowed four parties to be established, which led to the Christian Democratic Union, the Free Democratic Party, the Communist Party and the SPD being established. In the Soviet zone of occupation, the Soviets forced the Social Democrats to form a common party with the Communists. In the Western zones, the Communist Party was banned by West Germany's Federal Constitutional Court in 1956. Since 1949, the SPD has been one of the two major parties in the Federal Republic of Germany, with the other being the Christian Democratic Union.
From 1969 to 1982 and 1998 to 2005, the Chancellors of Germany were Social Democrats whereas the other years the Chancellors were Christian Democrats. Shortly before the reunification of Germany in 1990, the East German Social Democratic Party merged into the West German SPD; the SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. However, the Social Democrats underwent a major shift in policies reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925 which "called for the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership" and the Godesberg Program of 1959 which aimed to broaden its voter base and move its political position toward the centre. After World War II, under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher the SPD re-established itself as a socialist party representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions. However, with the Godesberg Program the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within liberal capitalism.
The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, seen as a vision of a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. According to the party platform, freedom and social solidarity form the basis of social democracy; the coordinated social market economy should be strengthened and its output should be distributed fairly. The party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population; the SPD tries to protect the society's poor with a welfare state. Concurrently, it advocates a sustainable fiscal policy that does not place a burden on future generations while eradicating budget deficits. In social policy, the Social Democrats stand for political rights in an open society. In foreign policy, the party aims at ensuring global peace by balancing global interests with democratic means, thus European integration is one of the main priorities of the party; the SPD supports economic regulations to limit potential losses for people.
They support a common European economic and financial policy and to prevent speculative bubbles as well as environmentally sustainable growth. The SPD is composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings, namely the Keynesian social democrats and Third Way mod
Dieter Reiter is a German politician and the current mayor of Munich, the capital of the state of Bavaria. He is a member of the Social Democratic Party. Reiter studied at the Fachhochschule für öffentliche Verwaltung und Rechtspflege in Hof, where he finished 1981. On the 30. March 2014 he was voted with 56.7% of votes Lord Mayor of Munich. He succeeded Christian Ude, Lord Mayor from 1993-2014. Reiter was a SPD delegate to the Federal Convention for the purpose of electing the President of Germany in 2017. Stadtwerke München, Ex-Officio Chairman of the Supervisory Board Munich Airport, Ex-Officio Member of the Supervisory Board Messe München, Ex-Officio Member of the Supervisory Board Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Member of the Board of Trustees Technische Universität München, Member of the Board of Trustees Deutsches Museum, Member of the Board of Trustees Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Member of the Board of Trustees ver.di, Member Reiter has been married twice, is the father of a son from his first marriage.
His second wife, has two children of her own from a previous relationship