Marta Teresa Smith de Vasconcelos Suplicy is a Brazilian politician and psychologist. She was Mayor of São Paulo from 2001 to 2004, she served as the Brazilian Minister of Tourism between March 14, 2007 and June 4, 2008, when she resigned to run again for mayor of São Paulo. In 2015, she left the Brazilian Workers' Party. Marta Suplicy attended Michigan State University, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo. Suplicy started her career as a TV anchorwoman, providing sex advice on a popular show named TV Mulher, broadcast by Rede Globo. While serving as Congresswoman she proposed a gay civil unions act. After running for governor of São Paulo and losing to Mário Covas of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party in 1998, she was elected mayor of the state capital, São Paulo, in 2000, her administration of the city is marked by the changes she made to the city's bus system, creating a ticket, valid for a period of two hours, called bilhete único. In the public educational system she created large schools and cultural centers, called "CEU", which were built in the poorest districts of the city.
Towards the end of her administration, she began the construction of several underpasses which alleviated traffic in certain points of the city. She increased many existing municipal taxes as well as creating new ones. In 2004 she ran for a second term, but was unseated by former PSDB presidential candidate José Serra. On March 14, 2007, Suplicy accepted the Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's invitation to become the new Minister of Tourism; that same year, on June 13, 2007, when interviewed about the 2006–2007 Brazilian aviation crisis, Suplicy suggested that users of the Congonhas Airport in São Paulo who suffered long delays while heading for vacation should "relax and enjoy because they will forget the troubles afterwards". Her speech included a double entendre, as the word she used for "enjoy" can refer to an orgasm. On October 3, 2010, Suplicy was elected for the Federal Senate of Brazil, becoming the top voted female Senator receiving over 8.2 million votes. She is the first female elected Senator from São Paulo, the most populous state of Brazil.
She promised to fight for the approval of PLC 122, a bill criminalizing homophobia, reintroduced the same-sex civil unions bill. The latter received its first victory in the Senate Human Rights Committee on May 24, 2012. In 2016, after leaving the PT and joining the PMDB, Suplicy vigorously supported the impeachment, led by Vice President Michel Temer and President of Congress and Eduardo Cunha, against president Dilma Rousseff of her former political party; this social disgrace was so grand, saw her own son, Supla proclaim: "Minha mãe é golpista, meu pai é petista e eu sou anarquista. Momentos políticos difíceis, né" My mother is a coup-plotter, my father a member of the PT, I am an anarchist. Difficult times, aye?" Suplicy has three sons. She was married to Eduardo Suplicy, a Brazilian senator from the state of São Paulo, from 1965 to 2001, she married Luis Favre, whom she divorced after a relationship of nearly eight years. She dates Márcio Toledo, ex-president of the Jockey Club of São Paulo
Francisco Prestes Maia
Francisco Prestes Maia was a Brazilian architect, civil engineer, urban planner, professor, who served three terms as mayor of the city of São Paulo. Francisco Prestes Maia was born to Manuel Azevedo Maia and Carolina Prestes on March 19, 1896 in Amparo, São Paulo, a small town 120 km north of the capital city. In 1917, Prestes Maia completed his engineering and architecture degree at the POLI, Polytechnic School of São Paulo. In 1918, he set up a real estate office and began working for the São Paulo state government. From 1924 to 1927, Prestes Maia taught architectural drawing courses part-time at his alma mater, POLI, he was taught for another ten years. In 1937, he left the university. From 1926 to 1930, he served as the city's Secretary of Public Works. In 1930, Prestes Maia published his “Study for a Plan of Avenues for the City of São Paulo”; the Plano de Avenidas was given an award at the Fourth Pan-American Congress of Architects at Rio de Janeiro in July 1930. He met Maria de Lourdes Costa Cabral e Abreu in 1930 in Rio de Janeiro, where she was on tour with an opera troupe from Portugal.
The couple where not able to live together until the death of Prestes Maia’s mother in 1935, since Maria had been divorced and Carolina Prestes did not approve of their relationship. The two were not able to marry until late in his life, given that divorce was still illegal in Brazil and her ex-husband was still alive, they had no children. In 1938 Prestes Maia was named mayor of São Paulo for the first time by Ademar de Barros, the interventor for the state of São Paulo at the time, he would be appointed again by Lucas Nogueira Garcez in 1942 following his first term. After completing his second term, he left office on November 10, 1945 — the same time that the same time that the Estado Novo was ending and democracy was restored to the country. Prestes Maia had two unsuccessful bids for political office following the overthrow of Getúlio Vargas. In 1961, Prestes Maia was elected by popular vote and began his third term as mayor of São Paulo in 1961. Francisco Prestes Maia died in São Paulo on 26 April 1965.
Prestes Maia and his Plano de Avenidas had a lasting impact on the geography of São Paulo. On August 27, 1997 the city of São Paulo passed a law creating the Prestes Maia Urbanism Award to be awarded every four years with the idea of proposing initiatives in urban planning and engineering; the Prestes Maia Award has only been given twice, in 1998 and in 2006. Francisco Prestes Maia has many streets named for him throughout his home state of São Paulo; the largest of these is Avenida Prestes Maia, an arterial expressway in downtown São Paulo, part of the North-South Corredor. Many municipalities in Greater São Paulo — as well as some in the so-called interior of the state — have at least one street named, Avenida Prestes Maia or some derivation thereof, e.g. Avenida Francisco Prestes Maia, Avenida Doutor Francisco Prestes Maia, etc.: Brazil’s longest highway, BR-101, is still popularly known as Rodovia Prestes Maia for much of its 4,800 km, despite having been renamed more than a decade ago to honor another politician from São Paulo, Mário Covas.
Rodovia Governador Mário Covas, as BR-101 has been known since 2001, passes through twelve Brazilian coastal states in three of the country’s five geographic regions: Northeast Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Bahia Southeast Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo South Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul In addition to the many public roads named for Francisco Prestes Maia in the state of São Paulo and throughout Brazil, several buildings and cultural institutions bear his name, either as an honor to him or because they are located on or near a roadway named “Prestes Maia.” One noteworthy building, referred to as Prestes Maia is a 22-story abandoned factory in downtown São Paulo, located near the Luz train station. The two tower blocks at 911 Avenida Prestes Maia are still registered to the long-defunct former owner, National Cloth Company. In 1994 the building was purchased by Jorge Nacle Hamuche. Since the 2000s there have been successive occupations by poor and/or homeless individuals connected to squatter’s rights groups such as the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem Teto, a local homeless rights group affiliated with the national Landless Workers' Movement, or Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem Terra.
These occupations have been the subject of international media documentary filmmakers. The Mayor Prestes Maia Library is a multi-story public library located at 822 João Dias Avenue in the Santo Amaro district of São Paulo; the building itself was designed by Prestes Maia. Since December 2012, the library’s collection of more than 53,000 items has been focused on architecture and urbanism, including fiction and non-fiction books, atlases and multimedia items; the lower three floors contain the reference and circulation areas. The upper floors are made up of offices and exhibition space, the archives of the former mayor; the special collection, Coleção Prestes Maia, of 12,000 items includes rare books about architecture, urbanism and history, as well as a collection of personal objects, works of art, Prestes Maia’s papers. The majority of t
Uiraúna is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Paraíba. It is said that the town starts with the Indians Icós, branch of the tribe of Cariris Old, who chose the region that today is Uiraúna by the presence of fish from the river, which at the time was the main means of survival. Around 1768 was donated to Alferes Moreira and Joao Nunes Leitão sesmaria of the number 323, in the colonial period at the time of capitanias hereditary, thus began arriving cattle farmers who have settled in the region where they developed their business. The coming of creators had as the main reason the sugar competition with the West, who made several captains and colonels clearing the sertão go in search of the area for planting, but instead plant began to encourage more livestock and the front door would be of entry for the expansion of cotton growing. In the period of slavery was born in Brazil in the states of the Northeast and South, a new class of workers, the tropeiros, which had role of extreme importance to the towns and cities of the interior, because in the absence of trucks they were going in the conduct of troops of mules in other cities seek products that the interior needed.
The tropeiros uiraunenses were known as "Tropeiros of the Hinterland" and went to Mossoró in search of rapadura and flour. Following a jump in time and arrive in a period known as Old Republic is Bethlehem, land well developed in that era was the scene of two major rebellions famous until today, they are the Column Prestes and Lampião. Column Miguel Costa Prestes, better known by Column Prestes was a politico-military movement that preached the dissatisfaction with the Old Republic, the requirement of secret ballots and the defense of public education, led by Luis Carlos Prestes rebellion passing through the land of Father France, first by the community of Aparecida, shortly after arriving at Luis Gomes and returning to the land uiraunenses vai d'Water Dry Eye to Santa Umbelina and to Quixaba, when part toward the city of Vieirópolis. Lampião was the most famous cangaceiro the history of Brazil, in Uiraúna their visits were faster and both the first and second did the same path. A curious fact is the comment, from the rearward of Lampião in the region which began to lose in their battles until eleven years was dead.
In the corresponding period the Old Republic was a fact that influenced the formation of the city, this event was the uprising of Juazeiro, an armed confrontation between the oligarchies cearenses and the federal government caused by interference from the central power in state politics, or in 1911 the mayor of Juazeiro do Norte Father Cicero decided not to accept some orders of the federal government, in response the government sent troops establishing a genuine internal conflict throughout cearense, so many people with fear of what could happen if refuge in other cities, thus four musicians from the town of Old Mission in Uiraúna stop and came in search of employment sought Father Costa that together had the idea of teaching music to uiraunenses thus was born in 1914 in Banda Costa Correia, which today is called Banda Jesus and Joseph and gives the council the title of land of musicians. You cannot stop speaking in that rescue the past, cotton, as it had said before were the cattle farmers of the nineteenth century that gave great contribution to its development in these lands.
The "white gold" as it was called if adequou to the ground and uiraunense Paraíba, as there were several high yield cotton plants came to Uiraúna, as SAMBRA and ALGASA. The city lived on cotton and its development came through it by bringing the PARAIBAN as banks, Caixa Economica Federal and Bradesco, but an insect from Central America, the bicudo, infested the entire Brazil bringing high losses for the city as the prime example end of all these companies mentioned above and the loss of all production, leading Uiraúna and all Brazil to a serious crisis. Chegando in 1953, he seo former district, now emancipated and new name - Uiraúna - the first being appointed mayor by the governor of Paraiba, at the time, Joao Fernandes de Lima; the first elections were to happen was born in 1955 when the first parties and their respective lideranças. Comandado by Osvaldo Bezerra Cascudo the Social Democratic Party was characterised on the national level, for its broad representation throughout Brazil and to be formed by politicians Conservatives associated with Getúlio Vargas, because the National Democratic Union was led by Olinto Pinheiro, characterised by the representation of the opposition in the city and in Brazil.
In a similar policy between the Brazilian and uiraunense, it is noted that both had similar characteristics, as in the period from 1945 to 1960 in Brazil only won the party linked to Vargas and only by his populism in 1961 Jânio Quadros was elected Uiraúna, from 1956 to 1963 it won only candidates linked to the PSD of Cascudo in 1964 and only the opposition Joaquim Moreira is elected by his populism and his innovative ideas. In 1964 Brazil was through enormous transformations generated by the coup, leading to military dictatorship, which shook the nation and brought profound changes; because at the time a city of small, the impact of the scheme were not as large in area, only on the wheels of society was discussed the matter and some students and teachers protested what was happening, but not entusiasmaram to rebel. The changes were small, only the PSD of Cascudo has been called MDB and UDN, Olinto became the ARENA; the struggle for political autonomy began around 1942, completed only on December 2, 1
Antônio Salim Curiati
Antônio Salim Curiati is a Brazilian physician, politician. He was Mayor of São Paulo from 13 May 1982 to 14 March 1983, he is the son of Lebanese immigrants. He studied at Scholar Group "Matilde Vieira" in Avaré, but moved to São Paulo and attended the Colégio Marista Arquidiocesano, he joined the Escola Paulista de Medicina where he could become an otolaryngologist. He was State Deputy for São Paulo in 1966 for the first time, he served as Federal Deputy from 1987 to 1991, during which time he participated in the Constituent Assembly of 1988, which drew up Brazil’s first democratic after the military dictatorship. In 2006 he was elected for his eighth term as State Deputy, he was Mayor of São Paulo from 13 May 1982 to 14 March 1983 and is one of the main characters of the Progressive Party, in São Paulo. He served as State Secretary of Social Promotion during Paulo Maluf term as Governor of São Paulo from 1979 to 1982, City Secretary of Family and Social Welfare, City Secretary of Community Affairs
José Serra is a Brazilian politician who has served as a Congressman, Minister of Planning, Minister of Health, Mayor of São Paulo, Governor of São Paulo state, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil. José Serra was born in São Paulo's neighbourhood called Mooca to Francesco Serra, an Italian immigrant from Corigliano Calabro and Serafina Chirico, a Brazilian born to Italian parents. Serra comes from a lower middle class family, his father was semi-illiterate and worked as a fruit vendor in a market of São Paulo, but he was able to enroll his only child in college. In the early 1960s, he was a prominent member of the socio-political movement Ação Popular which opposed the conservative political system that existed at the time. Serra interrupted his studies in engineering at age 22 and left the country in 1964, after the coup that established the military government era in Brazil. Serra had come to the attention of the authorities having served as President of the União Nacional dos Estudantes, which opposed the conservative regime existing while he was a 4th year engineering student at the Polytechnic School at the University of São Paulo.
José Serra was in exile from 1964 to 1978 in Bolivia, France and the United States. In Chile, he taught Economics at the University of Chile. There he married Monica Allende a top ballerina at the National Ballet of Chile, they had two children and Luciano. In the United States José Serra was awarded a Masters and Ph. D. in economics at Cornell University and spent 2 years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ. On returning to Brazil after the political amnesty in 1978, Serra lectured economics at the University of Campinas, did research for Cebrap, wrote for the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo. In 1982 he was appointed São Paulo's State Secretary for Economics and Planning under Franco Montoro's governorship, became an influential secretary of Montoro's government. In 1986 and 1990 he was elected reelected to Congress. In 1994 he was elected Senator for the State of São Paulo with more than 6.5 million votes. His first bid for the mayorship of the City of São Paulo came in 1988 in an election won for the Worker's Party by Luiza Erundina.
He ran again in 1996, resigning as Minister of Planning to participate in the election for mayor, won by Celso Pitta. Pitta was the designated successor of mayor Paulo Maluf, who headed the right-wing populist Progressive Party. After another stint as minister in the federal government, Serra ran for president on behalf of the PSDB party in 2002, he was beaten by PT founder Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the second round. In every elections since 1988 Serra represented the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, which he helped found in 1988 alongside former and future São Paulo State governors Franco Montoro and Mario Covas and future Brazilian president Fernando Henrique Cardoso, from a split in the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party. PSDB was seen as a coalition of democrats and social democrats with more centrist outlook than the leftist Workers' Party of presidents Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff. Both parties have great support in São Paulo state, but the state has been governed by the PSDB since 1994.
Serra came to political prominence under Fernando Henrique Cardoso's presidency, when he was appointed minister of planning, minister of health. During Serra's tenure in the Health Ministry, the generic drug industry, which gave wider access to medicines to a poor population, ANVISA, the Brazilian food and drug regulatory agency, were both created. All forms of tobacco advertising were banned, cigarette packages were required to display images of smoking-related diseases. Serra was elected mayor of São Paulo in 2004. Serra created a 24-hour cultural festival inspired by the French Nuit Blanche, he established the Bilhete Único system in the São Paulo Metro subway system. Serra sought nomination as the PSDB candidate for president in the 2006 elections, but on March 14, 2006 decided to run instead for governor of the state of São Paulo, he resigned as mayor of São Paulo. Gilberto Kassab, the deputy mayor, took office and remained the mayor until 2012. Serra on January 1, 2007 took office as the Governor of São Paulo State.
Cases of corruption and cartel formation involving José Serra are old, both in Brazil and abroad. Two interlinked controversies: the so-called Alstom case, Collusion between companies in the construction of the São Paulo subway. Serra's campaign was supported by American oil companies such as Exxon Chevron, he secretly promised to sell the rights to Brazil's newest petroleum discoveries in the pre-salt layer to those companies, reversing the model of da Silva. Serra ended state-owned oil company Petrobras' role as the chief operator of the pre-salt oil fields, which have an estimated value of three trillion dollars – twice the size of Brazil's gross domestic product. WikiLeaks released several documents showing that Serra promised protection to Chevron in order to transfer control from Petrobras in case of election victory. Serra was the presidential candidate of the incumbent Brazilian Social Democracy Party party in 2002, an election he lost to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. In 2004, he was elected mayor of São Paulo in a run-off election with 55% of the votes after he signed a public commitment to stay in office for the full term.
Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa was a Brazilian politician who served as the 13th President of Brazil, the last of the First Brazilian Republic. His family was of Portuguese Romani descent, he was born in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, moved to São Paulo, where he became a lawyer. Elected governor of São Paulo state in 1920 and president of Brazil in 1926, Washington Luís belonged to the Republican Party of São Paulo and served as the last president of the First Brazilian Republic. Facing the 1929 crisis, the president lost all his support, he selected his friend Júlio Prestes as his successor in 1930, but just three weeks before the end of his term, Luís was overthrown in a coup d'etat during the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 and was succeeded as president by the short-lived Brazilian Military Junta in the last few months of 1930. A lawyer, Luís graduated from the University of São Paulo Law School in 1891, he was appointed prosecutor in Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro in 1892, but resigned to devote himself to law in Batatais, São Paulo, where he began his political career.
Luís was an alderman in Batatais with Federal Republican Party and became President of the Municipal Chamber in 1897. Luís was mayor of Batatais from 1898 to 1899, he was elected congressman from the Farmer's Party in 1900. Luís was a state representative for the Paulista Republican Party between 1904 and 1906, participating in the Constituent Assembly of São Paulo, which revised the Constitution of the State in 1905, he resigned as representative to take the office of Secretary of State of Justice and Public Safety from 1906–1912. He was the leader of the situationists and again became a state representative for the Paulista Republican Party from 1912 to 1913, he interrupted his mandate to become mayor of São Paulo, when he faced the general strike of 1917. He was governor of the state of São Paulo from 1920–1924. In 1924, Luís led the 3rd Battalion organized in Batatais to fight the rebels of São Paulo, which in 1925 became the Miguel Costa-Prestes Column. From 1925 to 1926, Luís served as a senator for the PRP.
Through direct election, Luís went on to hold the Presidency of the Republic on 15 November 1926. He was deposed by the Revolution of 1930 on 24 October and went into exile in Europe and the United States, returning to Brazil after seventeen years in 1947. After returning from exile, he devoted himself to historical studies, he was a worthy member of the philanthropic hospital Santa Casa de São Paulo. The Rodovia Washington Luís in the state of São Paulo is named in his honor. Luís died in São Paulo on 4 August 1957. Throughout the 1920s, the Old Republic suffered a deep wear due to demonstrations of opposition from the urban middle class, the lieutenants' and workers' movements and dissident oligarchies. Early in his administration, came to an end the Prestes Column, with 620 men who went into Bolivian territory and subsequently dissolved; the government of Washington Luís was no longer threatened by the lieutenants' rebellions and for the advancement of the labor movement, however, to restrain new opposition movements he created Celerada Act in 1927, which imposed press censorship and restricted the right of assembly, leading to underground the Brazilian Communist Party, recognized by the government earlier that year.
The global economic crisis of 1929, triggered with the stock markest crash on 24 October, was the largest in the history of capitalism, reaching many countries and paralyzing economic activities. Its effects in Brazil overthrew the valuation policy of coffee, started in 1906 with the signing of the "Convênio de Taubaté". Coffee, which accounted for 70% of Brazilian exports, had its price reduced in the international market; the crisis threatened the stability of the government of Washington Luís, who did not allow the new currency devaluation, pleaded by farmers before the disaster on the New York Stock Exchange. Under the system of café com leite politics that prevailed for most of the Old Republic, a man from Minas Gerais should have succeeded Washington Luís as president. However, Washington Luís supported another paulista, his friend Júlio Prestes, for president in 1930. Prestes' victory in the presidential elections of 1 March 1930 was questioned on suspicion of fraud; the assassination of João Pessoa, governor of Paraíba and candidate for vice president on the plate of Getúlio Vargas on 26 July 1930, was a decisive factor for the worsening of movements opposed to the government of Washington Luís strained by the coffee crisis.
The assassination proved, did not have any political purposes. Reassuming the government of Rio Grande do Sul and other politician such as Osvaldo Aranha began the political conspiracy that led to the movement of 3 October 1930, the Revolution of 1930, as became known the episode. President Washington Luís was deposed on 24 October by the heads of the armed forces, a provisional government junta took power, composed of generals Tasso Fragoso and Mena Barreto and by admiral Isaías de Noronha. Newspaper clippings about Washington Luís in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Luiza Erundina de Sousa is a Brazilian politician, born in Uiraúna, a small city in the interior of the Brazilian state of Paraíba. From 1980 to 1997 she was affiliated with the PT party. In 1997 she changed to the PSB party. Due to disagreements within PSB that decided to support the impeachment process against president Dilma Rousseff, Erundina switched to party PSOL in March 2016. Erundina served on the São Paulo city council from 1983–1987. From 1987–1988 she was a state deputy for the state of São Paulo, she was São Paulo's mayor from 1989 to 1992, is a federal deputy from São Paulo. She was re-elected in 2002 and again in 2006, in 2010, in 2014 and in 2018. Erundina was born to a poor family. Notwithstanding with the obstacles, she managed to pursue a Bachelor's degree in Social Service from Federal University of Paraíba, she holds a Master's degree in Sociology from University of São Paulo. Information in Portuguese from the Brazilian congress [