Shreveport is a city in the U. S. state of Louisiana. It is the most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area. Shreveport ranks third in population in Louisiana after New Orleans and Baton Rouge and 126th in the U. S; the bulk of Shreveport is in Caddo Parish. Shreveport extends along the west bank of the Red River into neighboring Bossier Parish; the population of Shreveport was 199,311 as of the 2010 U. S. Census; the United States Census Bureau's 2017 estimate for the city's population decreased to 192,036. Shreveport was founded in 1836 by the Shreve Town Company, a corporation established to develop a town at the juncture of the newly navigable Red River and the Texas Trail, an overland route into the newly independent Republic of Texas. Prior to Texas becoming independent, this trail entered Mexico; the city grew throughout the 20th century and, after the discovery of oil in Louisiana, became a national center for the oil industry. Standard Oil of Louisiana and United Gas Corporation were headquartered in the city until the 1960s and 1980s.
After the loss of jobs in the oil industry, the close of Shreveport Operations, other economic problems the city struggled with a declining population, poverty and violent crime. Since Cedric Glover's tenure as mayor of Shreveport, the city has revitalized its neighborhoods and roads to end its population decline, revive the economy through diversification, lower crime. Shreveport is the educational and cultural center of the Ark-La-Tex region, where Arkansas and Texas meet, it is the location of Centenary College of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Louisiana Tech University Shreveport, Southern University at Shreveport, Louisiana Baptist University. Its neighboring city Bossier is the location of Bossier Parish Community College; the city forms part of the I-20 Cyber Corridor linking Shreveport, Bossier and Monroe to Dallas and Tyler and Atlanta, Georgia. Companies with significant operations or headquarters in Shreveport are AT&T, Chase Bank, Capital One, Regions Financial Corporation, SWEPCO, UPS, General Electric, UOP LLC, Calumet Specialty Products Partners, APS Payroll.
Shreveport was established to launch a town at the meeting point of the Brown Bricks and the Texas Trail. The Red River was made navigable by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, who led the United States Army Corps of Engineers effort to clear the Red River. A 180-mile-long natural log jam, the Great Raft, had obstructed passage to shipping. Shreve used the Heliopolis, to remove the log jam; the company and the village of Shreve Town were named in Shreve's honor. Shreve Town was contained within the boundaries of a section of land sold to the company in 1835 by the indigenous Caddo Indians. In 1838 Caddo Parish was created from the large Natchitoches Parish, Shreve Town became its parish seat. On March 20, 1839, the town was incorporated as Shreveport; the town consisted of 64 city blocks, created by eight streets running west from the Red River and eight streets running south from Cross Bayou, one of its tributaries. Shreveport soon became a center of steamboat commerce, carrying cotton and agricultural crops from the plantations of Caddo Parish.
Shreveport had a slave market, though slave trading was not as widespread as in other parts of the state. Steamboats plied the Red River, stevedores loaded and unloaded cargo. By 1860, Shreveport had a population of 1,300 slaves within the city limits. During the American Civil War, Shreveport was the capital of Louisiana from 1863 to 1865, having succeeded Baton Rouge and Opelousas after each fell under Union control; the city was a Confederate stronghold throughout the war and was the site of the headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. Fort Albert Sidney Johnston was built on a ridge northwest of the city; because of limited development in that area, the site is undisturbed in the 21st century. Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several weeks after Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, the Trans-Mississippi was the last Confederate command to surrender, on May 26, 1865. "The period May 13-21, 1865, was filled with great uncertainly after soldiers learned of the surrenders of Lee and Johnston, the Good Friday assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the rapid departure of their own generals."
In the confusion there was a breakdown of military rioting by soldiers. They destroyed buildings containing service records, a loss that made it difficult for many to gain Confederate pensions from state governments. Throughout the war, women in Shreveport did much to assist the soldiers fighting far to the east. Historian John D. Winters writes of them in The Civil War in Louisiana: "The women of Shreveport and vicinity labored long hours over their sewing machines to provide their men with adequate underclothing and uniforms. After the excitement of Fort Sumter, there was a great rush to get the volunteer companies ready and off to New Orleans... Forming a Military Aid Society, the ladies of Shreveport requested donations of wool and cotton yarn for knitting socks. Joined by others, the Society collected blankets for the wounded and gave concerts and tableaux to raise funds. Tickets were sold for a diamond ring given by the mercantile house of Hyams and Brothers..."A Confederate minstrel show gave two performances to raise mon
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Interstate 70 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the United States that runs from I-15 near Cove Fort, Utah, to I-695 near Baltimore, Maryland. I-70 traces the path of U. S. Route 40 east of the Rocky Mountains. West of the Rockies, the route of I-70 was derived from multiple sources; the Interstate runs through or near many major cities, including Denver, Kansas City, St. Louis, Columbus and Baltimore; the sections of the interstate in Missouri and Kansas have laid claim to be the first interstate in the United States. The Federal Highway Administration has claimed the section of I-70 through Glenwood Canyon, completed in 1992, was the last piece of the Interstate Highway system, as planned, to open to traffic; the construction of I-70 in Colorado and Utah is considered an engineering marvel, as the route passes through the Eisenhower Tunnel, Glenwood Canyon, the San Rafael Swell. The Eisenhower Tunnel is the highest point along the Interstate Highway system, with an elevation of 11,158 ft. Interstate 70 begins at an interchange with Interstate 15 near Cove Fort.
Heading east, I-70 crosses between the Tushar and Pahvant ranges via Clear Creek Canyon and descends into the Sevier Valley, where I-70 serves Richfield, the only town of more than a few hundred people along I-70's path in Utah. Upon leaving the valley near Salina, I-70 crosses the 7,923 ft Salina Summit and crosses a massive geologic formation called the San Rafael Swell. Prior to the construction of I-70, the swell was inaccessible via paved roads and undiscovered. Once this 108 mi section was opened to traffic in 1970, it became the longest stretch of interstate highway with no services and the first highway in the U. S. built over a new route since the Alaska Highway. It became the longest piece of interstate highway to be opened at one time. Although opened in 1970, this section was not formally complete until 1990, when a second steel arch bridge spanning Eagle Canyon was opened to traffic. Since I-70's construction, the swell has been noted for its desolate beauty; the swell has since been nominated for National Park or National Monument status on multiple occasions.
If the swell is granted this status, it arguably would be the first time a National Park owes its existence to an interstate highway. Most of the exits in this span are rest areas, brake check areas, runaway truck ramps with few traditional freeway exits. I-70 exits the swell near Green River. From Green River to the Colorado state line, I-70 follows the southern edge of the Book Cliffs. Entering from Utah, I-70 descends into the Grand Valley, where it meets the Colorado River, which provides its path up the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. Here I-70 serves the Grand Junction metro area before traversing more mountainous terrain; the last section of I-70 to be completed was the 15-mile Glenwood Canyon. This stretch was completed in 1992 and was an engineering marvel, due to the difficult terrain and narrow space in the canyon, which requires corners that are sharper than normal Interstate standards. Construction was delayed for many years due to environmental concerns; the difficulties in building the road in the canyon were compounded by the fact the Denver & Rio Grande Western railroad occupied the south bank, many temporary construction projects took place to keep US 6 open, at the time the only east–west road in the area.
Much of the highway is elevated above the Colorado River. The speed limit in this section is due to the limited sight distance and sharp corners; the Eisenhower–Johnson Memorial Tunnel, the highest vehicular tunnel in North America and the longest tunnel built under the Interstate program, passes through the Continental Divide. Because of the rugged and narrow terrain of the Rocky Mountains, I-70 is one of few roads connecting Colorado's ski resorts with Denver. Descending through the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains, one can see the Denver skyline on a clear day; this can fool truckers and other unsuspecting drivers, because one must still traverse 10 miles of steep grade road before reaching the city. A series of signs warns truckers of the steep grade; as I-70 leaves the foothills, it goes through Denver and intersects Interstate 25, serving as the central east-west artery through the city. Leaving Denver, I-70 levels out and traverses the wide plains through eastern Colorado. East of Denver, I-70 makes a broad turn to the south-southeast for 30 miles before reaching Limon and resuming its eastward journey toward Kansas.
Coming from Colorado, I-70 enters the prairie and rolling hills of Kansas. This portion of I-70 was the first segment to start being paved and to be completed in the Interstate Highway System, it is given the nickname "Main Street of Kansas", as the interstate extends from the western border to the eastern border of the state, covering 424 miles and passing through most of the state's principal cities in the process. In Salina, I-70 intersects with I-135, the longest "spur" route in the Interstate system, forming the latter's northern terminus. In Topeka, I-70 intersects I-470, twice. At the eastern intersection, the Kansas Turnpike merges, with I-70 becoming a toll road; this is one of only two sections of I-70. I-70 carries this designation from Topeka to the eastern terminus of the turnpike. About halfway between Topeka and Kansas City, Kansas, I-70 passes through Lawrence; the tolled portion of the turnpike ends near Bonner Springs, just west of Kansas City. There is a third child route in Topeka, I-335, which runs from I-470 south to meet up wit
The Louisiana Maneuvers were a series of major U. S. Army exercises held in 1941 in northern and west-central Louisiana, an area bounded by the Sabine River to the west, the Calcasieu River to the east, by the city of Shreveport to the north; the area included Camp Claiborne and Camp Livingston. The exercises, which involved some 400,000 troops, were designed to evaluate U. S. training, logistics and commanders. Similar U. S. Army field exercises carried out in the fall of 1941 included the Arkansas Maneuvers in August and the Carolina Maneuvers in November.. Many Army officers present at the maneuvers rose to senior roles in World War II, including Omar Bradley, Mark Clark, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Walter Krueger, Samuel E. Anderson, Lesley J. McNair, Joseph Stilwell, George Patton; when Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939, starting World War II, the U. S. Army was an infantry force with supporting artillery and cavalry, as well as combat support and combat service supporting arms, it was far smaller than most European armies, few units were motorized or mechanized.
As war approached, there was a need to both modernize and conduct large-scale maneuvers to test all aspects of a fast-growing, inexperienced force. General George C. Marshall, Army Chief of Staff, appointed General Lesley McNair as director of Army training, he and Colonel Mark Wayne Clark picked thousands of acres of unused land in Louisiana as a good place for large-scale training. The war games were conducted while the British awaited an expected German invasion of the United Kingdom, some speculated that the National Guard units used in the maneuvers would not be demobilized afterwards. Around 400,000 troops were divided into equal armies of two fictitious countries: Kotmk called the Red Army; the troops were organized into a total of 19 divisions. From August to September 1941, the war game was conducted over 3,400 square miles of Louisiana; the area was bounded on the west by the Sabine River, on the east by the Calcasieu River, on the north by the Red River at Shreveport. The two fictitious factions were at war over Mississippi River rights.
There were two phases to the Louisiana Maneuvers. In Phase 1 of the exercise, both sides were given offensive missions; the Red 2nd Army would invade the Blue homeland. The Blue 3rd Army would move north to intercept the invaders and drive the Red force back across the river. In Phase 2, the Blue Army was both twice as large as the Red and equipped with its own armored division, the 2nd, which had switched sides since Phase 1. Blue's mission was to seize Shreveport, Louisiana; the Red force was much smaller and tasked with positional defense for a 100-mile zone south of the city. The Blue Army emerged victorious, due chiefly to General George S. Patton, who commanded the Blue 2nd Armored Division.. Omar Bradley, who participated in the exercises said that Louisianans welcomed the soldiers with open arms; some soldiers slept in some of the residents' houses. Bradley said it was so crowded in those houses sometimes when the soldiers were sleeping, there would hardly be any walking room. Bradley said a few of the troops were disrespectful towards the residents' land and crops, would tear down crops for extra food.
However, for the most part and soldiers established good relations. During the exercises, 26 men died, most from drowning in vehicle accidents. One died when struck by lightning, one had a heart attack at age 24; this exercise led to the creation of Fort Polk, named for the Confederate General Leonidas Polk. Second Army 5th Division 35th Division VII Corps 107th Cavalry Regiment 6th Division 27th Division 33rd Division I Armored Corps 4th Cavalry Regiment 2nd Cavalry Division 1st Armored Division 2nd Armored Division 2nd Air Task Force 17th Bombardment Wing 6th Pursuit Wing Third Army 1st Cavalry Division 56th Cavalry Brigade 1st Antitank Group 2nd Antitank Group 3rd Antitank Group 1st Tank Group Company A, 502nd Parachute Battalion IV Corps 6th Cavalry Regiment 31st Division 38th Division 43rd Division V Corps 106th Cavalry Regiment 32nd Division 34th Division 37th Division VIII Corps 113th Cavalry Regiment 2nd Division 36th Division 45th Division 3rd Air Task Force 2nd Bombardment Wing 10th Pursuit Wing Second Army 2nd Cavalry Division 4th Cavalry Regiment 1st Antitank Group 2nd Antitank Group 5th Division 6th Division 1st Armored Division (Major General Bruce Magruder Co
Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial
The Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial is a United States presidential memorial under construction, honoring Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during World War II and the 34th President of the United States. On October 25, 1999, the United States Congress created the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, charged it with creating "...an appropriate permanent memorial to Dwight D. Eisenhower...to perpetuate his memory and his contributions to the United States." A preliminary design by architect Frank Gehry proved controversial. After several years of hearings and several design changes, a revised preliminary design won approval from the United States Commission of Fine Arts in the summer of 2013. After additional changes, another revised preliminary design was approved by the National Capital Planning Commission in October 2014. Final detailed design approvals were given in June and July 2015. After more than a decade and a half of planning and controversy, Congress appropriated $150 million to the memorial in 2017 and on November 2, dignitaries held a groundbreaking ceremony at the four-acre site in Washington DC.
Construction is ongoing, with the dedication tentatively scheduled for May 8, 2020, the seventy-fifth anniversary of Victory in Europe Day. Three individuals were behind the successful effort to establish a memorial to President Dwight D. Eisenhower: Rocco Siciliano, Senator Daniel Inouye, Senator Ted Stevens. Siciliano, a Roman Catholic, Italian American born in Utah, was called to active duty as a Private in 1943 while a ROTC student. Promoted to first lieutenant in the United States Army, he was awarded a Bronze Star for valor for his actions as part of the 87th Mountain Infantry Regiment during the Italian Campaign. A graduate of Georgetown Law School, he worked for the National Labor Relations Board from 1948 to 1950, was appointed by Eisenhower in 1953 to be the Assistant Secretary of Labor for employment and manpower activities. In 1957, Eisenhower made Siciliano his Special Assistant to the President for Personnel Management. In 1958, he engineered a meeting between Eisenhower and African American civil rights leaders Lester Granger, Martin Luther King, Jr. A.
Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins. After decades of public service, Siciliano became head of the Eisenhower Institute in the 1990s; the 50th anniversary of the Normandy landings and the approach of the 50th anniversary of Eisenhower's election as president increased interest in the 34th President. In 1999, his last year as the institute's chairman, Siciliano decided to push for a memorial to Eisenhower. Siciliano had a link to Senator Stevens, a decorated World War II Army Air Forces pilot who had worked in the Department of the Interior during the Eisenhower administration and who had proved critical in winning statehood for Alaska; the Eisenhower Institute had honored Stevens with its Eisenhower Leadership Prize in 1999. Siciliano broached the idea of a memorial with Stevens. Stevens suggested a bipartisan effort, brought Senator Inouye into the effort. Inouye had served in Italy with the 442nd Infantry Combat Regiment, winning the Bronze Star and losing his right forearm in combat. Siciliano worked with Stevens and Inouye to write the legislation that would authorize a memorial and establish a memorial commission.
No bill was introduced in the 106th Congress, there was no debate about the memorial effort. Legislative language authorizing the memorial was inserted into the Department of Defense Appropriations Act. Neither H. R. 2561 nor S. 1122 contained memorial language. But Senators Stevens and Inouye were both appointed to the conference committee to reconcile the House and Senate bills; the conferees inserted language to authorize the memorial and establish the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission into the conference report; the House approved the appropriations act 372-to-55 on October 13, the Senate followed by a vote of 87-to-11 on October 14. President Bill Clinton signed the bill into law on October 25, 1999. P. L. 106-79 appropriated $300,000 to fund the commission's initial activities. The law established a 12-member commission, four of whom were to be appointed by the President, four by the Senate, four by the House; the law provided for a chair and vice chair, the appointment of new members in case of vacancy, a date for the initial meeting.
Members of the commission would receive no compensation. The commission had the power to spend money appropriated or donated to it, accept donations, hold hearings, enter into contracts, it was required to make annual reports to the President and Congress, make a report about the memorial plans as soon as possible. In 2008, Congress enhanced powers. Section 332 of the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 more defined the commission's ability to solicit donations and contract for specialized services, permitted it to do so outside of existing federal law; the commission was empowered to seek the assistance of any federal agency, enter into cooperative agreements with the same, to procure administrative and support services from the General Services Administration. A commission staff was established. An executive director was required to be employed, the commission was authorized to hire staff and accept volunteers. Commissioners (and staff and
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Eisenhower Executive Office Building
The Eisenhower Executive Office Building —formerly known as the Old Executive Office Building and earlier as the State and Navy Building—is a U. S. government building situated just west of the White House in the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Maintained by the General Services Administration, it is occupied by the Executive Office of the President, including the Office of the Vice President of the United States. Located on 17th Street NW, between Pennsylvania Avenue and State Place, West Executive Drive, the building was commissioned by President Ulysses S. Grant, it was built between 1871 and 1888, on the site of the original 1800 War/State/Navy Building and the White House stables, in the French Second Empire style. While the building exterior received substantial criticism at first, it has since been designated as a National Historic Landmark, it was for years the world's largest office building, with 566 rooms and about ten acres of floor space. Many White House employees have their offices in the EEOB.
In 1802, the Washington Jockey Club lay at the rear of what is now the site of Decatur House at H Street and Jackson Place, crossing Seventeenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue to Twentieth Street—today the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—having been completed only four years earlier in 1798, as the stonemasons had finished the brick and painters applied white paint to the President's House. The building—originally called the State and Navy Building because it housed the Departments of State and the Navy—was built between 1871 and 1888 in the French Second Empire style, it was designed by Alfred B. Mullett, Supervising Architect. Patterned after French Second Empire architecture that clashed with the neoclassical style of the other Federal buildings in the city, it was regarded with scorn and disdain, Mullett, the exterior architect, ended his life by suicide, while in litigation; the OEOB was referred to by Mark Twain as "the ugliest building in America." President Harry S. Truman called it "the greatest monstrosity in America."
Historian Henry Adams called it Mullett's “architectural infant asylum.”Much of the interior was designed by Richard von Ezdorf using fireproof cast-iron structural and decorative elements, including massive skylights above each of the major stairwells and doorknobs with cast patterns indicating which of the original three occupying departments occupied a particular space. The total cost to construct the building came in at $10,038,482.42 when construction ended in 1888, after 17 years. The original tenants of the building outgrew it and vacated it in the late 1930s; the building came to be seen as inefficient and was nearly demolished in 1957. In 1969, the building received the highest recognition possible, becoming a National Historic Landmark. In 1981, plans began to restore all the "secretary of" suites; the main office of the Secretary of the Navy was restored in 1987 and is now used as the ceremonial office of the Vice President of the United States. Shortly after September 11, 2001, the 17th Street side of the building was vacated and has since been modernized.
The building continues to house various agencies that compose the President's Executive Office, such as the Office of the Vice President, the Office of Management and Budget, the National Security Council. Its most public function is that of the Vice President's Ceremonial Office, used for special meetings and press conferences. Many celebrated national figures have participated in historical events that have taken place within the Old Executive Office Building. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush all had offices in this building before becoming President, it has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy, 21 Secretaries of War, 24 Secretaries of State. Sir Winston Churchill once walked its corridors and Japanese emissaries met there with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Presidents have occupied space in the EEOB as well. Herbert Hoover worked out of the Secretary of the Navy's office for a few months following a fire in the Oval Office on Christmas Eve 1929.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower held the first televised Presidential news conference in the building's Indian Treaty Room on January 19, 1955. President Richard Nixon maintained a private "hideaway" office in room 180 of the EEOB during his presidency, from where he preferred to work, using the Oval Office only for ceremonial occasions. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was the first in a succession of Vice Presidents who have had offices in the building; the first wife of a Vice President to have an office in the building was Marilyn Quayle, wife of Dan Quayle, Vice President to George H. W. Bush; the Old Executive Office Building was renamed the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building when President Bill Clinton approved legislation changing the name on November 9, 1999. President George W. Bush participated in a rededication ceremony on May 7, 2002. A small fire on December 19, 2007 damaged an office of the vice-president's staff and included the VP ceremonial office. According to media reporting, the office of the Vice President's Political Director, Amy Whitelaw, was damaged in the fire.
Theodore Roosevelt – while Assistant Secretary of the Navy William Howard Taft – while Secretary of War Herbert Hoover – temporary offices after White House fire Franklin Roosevelt – while Assistant Secretary of the Navy Harry S. Truman – temporary offices during reconstruction of the White House Dwight Eisenhower – while assigned to the Army General Staff Lyndon Johnson – while Vice President Richard Nixon – had "hideaway" office Gerald Ford – wh