Houston is the most populous city in the state of Texas and the fourth-most populous city in the United States. With a census-estimated 2014 population of 2.239 million within an area of 667 square miles, it is the largest city in the southern United States and the seat of Harris County. Located in Southeast Texas near the Gulf of Mexico, it is the city of Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land. Houston was founded on August 28,1836, near the banks of Buffalo Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5,1837. The city was named after former General Sam Houston, who was president of the Republic of Texas and had commanded, the burgeoning port and railroad industry, combined with oil discovery in 1901, has induced continual surges in the citys population. Houstons economy has an industrial base in energy, aeronautics. Leading in health care sectors and building equipment, Houston has more Fortune 500 headquarters within its city limits than any city except for New York City. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled, the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community.
Houston is the most diverse city in Texas and has described as the most diverse in the United States. It is home to cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has a visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District. In August 1836, two real estate entrepreneurs from New York, Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen, purchased 6,642 acres of land along Buffalo Bayou with the intent of founding a city. The Allen brothers decided to name the city after Sam Houston, the general at the Battle of San Jacinto. The great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the slave trade. New Orleans was the center of trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved African Americans lived near the city before the Civil War, many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. Houston was granted incorporation on June 5,1837, with James S.
Holman becoming its first mayor, in the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County and the temporary capital of the Republic of Texas
Biloxi, officially the City of Biloxi, is a city in Harrison County, Mississippi. The 2010 United States Census recorded the population as 44,054, along with the adjoining city of Gulfport, Biloxi is a county seat of Harrison County. The city is part of the Gulfport-Biloxi metropolitan area and the Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, pre-Katrina, Biloxi was the third largest city in Mississippi behind Jackson and Gulfport. Post-Katrina, the population of Biloxi decreased, and it became the fifth largest city in the state, being surpassed by Hattiesburg, the beachfront of Biloxi lies directly on the Mississippi Sound, with barrier islands scattered off the coast and into the Gulf of Mexico. Keesler Air Force Base lies within the city and is home to the 81st Training Wing, the name of Biloxi in French was Bilocci, on maps dated circa year 1710/1725 the name was sometimes translated into English as Fort Bilocci. In 1720, the capital of French Louisiana was moved to Biloxi from Mobile. French Louisiana was known in French as La Louisiane in colonial times, at that same time, Louisiana west of the Mississippi, including New Orleans, was ceded to Spain as part of the Treaty of Fontainebleau.
British rule persisted from 1763 to 1779, followed by Spanish rule from 1779 to 1810, despite this, the character of Biloxi remained mostly French. In 1811, Biloxi came under United States of America control as part of the Mississippi Territory and Biloxi with it, were admitted to the union in 1817. It became a resort, with the advantages of close proximity to New Orleans. Summer homes were built by farmers and commercial figures. Hotels and rental cottages came into existence to serve those who could not afford their own homes, one of Biloxis most known features has been the Biloxi Lighthouse, which was built in Baltimore and shipped south and completed in May 1848. In the early stages of the Civil War, Ship Island was captured by Union forces, no major battles were fought in the area, and Biloxi did not suffer direct damage from the war. Some local Union sentiment could be discerned following the wars conclusion, in the postbellum period, Biloxi again emerged as a vacation spot. Its popularity as a destination increased with railroad access, in 1881, the first cannery was built in the town, leading to others soon joining the location.
Biloxi grew again, and as different ethnic groups came to work in the seafood factories, during World War II, the United States Army Air Forces built Keesler Field, now Keesler Air Force Base, which became a major basic training site and site for aircraft maintenance. The Biloxi economy boomed as a result, again bringing more diverse groups to the area, by 1958, the first Jewish synagogue had been built in the town. Biloxis casino history dates back to a period in the 1940s, open gambling ended during the 1950s
University of Texas at Austin
Founded in 1881 as The University of Texas, its campus is in Austin, Texas—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the nations seventh-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty, UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $550 million for the 2014–2015 school year. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory, among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Emmy Award, the Turing Award, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards. UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference and its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The first mention of a university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas.
Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish education in the arts and sciences. On April 18,1838, An Act to Establish the University of Texas was referred to a committee of the Texas Congress. On January 26,1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land towards the establishment of a publicly funded university, in addition,40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated College Hill. In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States, the states Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11,1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B,102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the states first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the universitys endowment, Texas secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants, the more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general education in the state. The legislature additionally appropriated $256,272.57 to repay the funds taken from the university in 1860 to pay for frontier defense, the 1883 grant of land increased the land in the Permanent University Fund to almost 2.2 million acres. Under the Act of 1858, the university was entitled to just over 1,000 acres of land for every mile of railroad built in the state. On March 30,1881, the legislature set forth the structure and organization. By popular election on September 6,1881, Austin was chosen as the site, having come in second in the election was designated the location of the medical department. On November 17,1882, on the original College Hill, smite the earth, smite the rocks with the rod of knowledge and fountains of unstinted wealth will gush forth
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building or Capitol Hill, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the end of the National Mall in Washington. Though not at the center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the Districts street-numbering system. The original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded, like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors. In 2014, scaffolding was erected around the dome for a project scheduled to be completed by early 2017. All exterior scaffolding was removed by the end of summer 2016, prior to establishing the nations capital in Washington, D. C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, and a number of other locations.
In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21,1783, and met in Annapolis, the United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4,1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a capital for ten years, until the nations capital in Washington. Pierre Charles LEnfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city, in reviewing LEnfants plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the Capitol rather than Congress House.
The word Capitol comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the Presidents House. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the Federal City, the most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect. However, Hallets designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, a late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31,1793, to much praise for its Grandeur and Beauty by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the portion of the design
Mississippi /ˌmɪsᵻˈsɪpi/ is a state in the southern region of the United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico. Its western border is formed by the Mississippi River, the state has a population of approximately 3 million. It is the 32nd most extensive and the 32nd most populous of the 50 United States, located in the center of the state, Jackson is the state capital and largest city, with a population of approximately 175,000 people. The state is heavily forested outside of the Mississippi Delta area, before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, where slaves worked on cotton plantations. After the war, the bottomlands to the interior were cleared, by the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Deltas property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after a financial crisis. Clearing altered the Deltas ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi, much land is now held by agribusinesses.
The states catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States, since the 1930s and the Great Migration, Mississippi has been majority white, albeit with the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were mostly black, whites retained political power through Jim Crow laws. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state, since gaining enforcement of their voting franchise in the late 1960s, most African Americans support Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party, African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic settlement during the plantation era. Since 2011 Mississippi has been ranked as the most religious state in the country, the states name is derived from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary.
Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi, in addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, and the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Mississippi is entirely composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains,807 feet above sea level. The lowest point is sea level at the Gulf coast, the states mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain, the coastal plain is generally composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations, yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state. The northeast is a region of black earth that extends into the Alabama Black Belt. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St.
Louis, the northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain
Jackson, officially the City of Jackson, is the capital city and largest urban center of the U. S. state of Mississippi. It is the seat of Hinds County, equally sharing its county power with the Town of Raymond. The City of Jackson owns more than 3,000 acres, Jackson is on the Pearl River, which drains into the Gulf of Mexico, and it is part of the Jackson Prairie region of the state. The city is named after General Andrew Jackson, who was honored for his role in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812, the current slogan for the city is The City with Soul. It has had numerous musicians prominent in blues, gospel and jazz, the city is the anchor for the metropolitan statistical area. While its population declined from 184,256 at the 2000 census to 173,514 at the 2010 census, the 2010 census ascribed a population of 539,057 to the five-county Jackson metropolitan area. The Choctaw name for the locale was Chisha Foka, the area now called Jackson was obtained by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Doaks Stand in 1820, by which the Choctaw ceded some of their land.
After the treaty was ratified, European-American settlers began to move into the area, under pressure from the U. S. government, the Choctaw Native Americans agreed to removal after 1830 from all their lands east of the Mississippi River under the terms of several treaties. They gave up their membership and became state and United States citizens at the time. Today, most Choctaw in Mississippi have reorganized and are part of the federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians and they live in several majority-Indian communities located throughout the state. The largest community is located in Choctaw 100 mi northeast of Jackson, the village became known as LeFleurs Bluff. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, this site had a trading post and it was connected to markets in Tennessee. Tennessee soldiers returning from the military campaigns near New Orleans in 1815 built a road that connected Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana to this district. A United States treaty with the Choctaw, the Treaty of Doaks Stand in 1820, LeFleurs Bluff was developed when it was chosen as the site for the new states capital city.
The Mississippi General Assembly decided in 1821 that the state needed a centrally located capital and they commissioned Thomas Hinds, James Patton, and William Lattimore to look for a suitable site. The absolute center of the state was a swamp, so the group had to widen their search, after surveying areas north and east of Jackson, they proceeded southwest along the Pearl River until they reached LeFleurs Bluff in todays Hinds County. The Assembly passed an act on November 28,1821, authorizing the site as the permanent seat of the government of the state of Mississippi, One Whig politician lamented the new capital as a serious violation of principle because it was not at the absolute center of the state. The capital was named for General Andrew Jackson, to honor his victory at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 and he was elected as the seventh President of the United States
Sons of Confederate Veterans
The Sons of Confederate Veterans, Inc. is an association of male descendants of Confederate veterans established on July 1,1896, at Richmond, Virginia. Membership can be obtained through either lineal or collateral family lines, the minimum age for full membership is 12, but there is no minimum for Cadet membership. Its aims and purposes were ″not to create or foster, in any manner, any feeling against the North, in the 1990s, disagreements over the purpose of the organization emerged within the SCV. At issue was a shift in the SCVs mission from maintaining gravestones, erecting monuments. The SCVs new concerns included fight for the right to display Confederate symbols everywhere from schools to statehouses, the more activist members of the SCV gained electoral support and were increasingly elected to its leadership positions. Members of the more traditionalist camp alleged that the League of the South had influenced their organizations new direction, one ally of the activist wing claimed that thousands of SCV members are League of the South members.
News reports state that the activists advocate picketing, aggressive lobbying, issue campaigning, the SCV defines those as any attack upon our Confederate Heritage, or the flags and symbols which represent it. In 2002, SCV dissidents formed a new organization, Save the Sons of Confederate Veterans, composed of members, one of the main figures in that new SCV leadership, South Carolina politician and investment advisor Ron Wilson, served as Commander-in-Chief from 2002 to 2004. In 2012, he was sentenced to prison for running a Ponzi scheme as part of his investment business, ironically, in early 2005, the SCV council sued to expel SCV Commander-in-Chief Dennis Sweeney from office. The court initially granted the temporary control of the organization. Thirteen of the 25 council members were expelled from the council shortly after Sweeney regained control, nine of the council members expelled were former Commanders-in-Chief of the SCV, a status that heretofore had come with a life membership on the council.
In February, Cathey wrote in the Southern Mercury that most of the SCVs members had united against the War on Southern Culture, by the SCVs summer 2005 convention, activists firmly controlled the council. They severed much of the SCVs long-standing relationship with the more traditionalist Military Order of the Stars and Bars, MOSB, founded in 1938, had been closely involved with the SCV, sharing its headquarters since 1992 and co-publishing Southern Mercury. In 2006, for the first time, the two organizations held separate conventions, in 2011, the Mississippi Division, SCV, launched a campaign to honor Confederate Lieutenant-General Nathan Bedford Forrest with a specialty license plate. The same year, the organization awarded Arizona Sheriff Joe Arpaio its Law, in 2013, Texas denied a request for a Confederate Battle Flag specialty license plate, a decision upheld in State court. In 2014, the State of Georgia approved a battle flag specialty license plate, the Virginia General Assembly had approved a specialty license plate for the Sons of Confederate Veterans in 1999, but lawmakers forbade the group from displaying the Confederate insignia.
The organization sued for the right to display the Confederate Battle Flag on the plate. The Sons of Confederate Veterans sponsors the Bonnie Blue Society for authors of southern literature dealing with the veterans of the Confederate States of America
National Statuary Hall
National Statuary Hall is a chamber in the United States Capitol devoted to sculptures of prominent Americans. The hall, known as the Old Hall of the House, is a large, two-story and it is located immediately south of the Rotunda. The meeting place of the U. S. House of Representatives for nearly 50 years, the Hall is built in the shape of an ancient amphitheater and is one of the earliest examples of Neoclassical architecture in America. While most wall surfaces are painted plaster, the low gallery walls, around the rooms perimeter stand colossal columns of variegated breccia marble quarried along the Potomac River. The Corinthian capitals of white marble were carved in Carrara, Italy, a lantern in the fireproof cast-steel ceiling admits natural light into the Hall. The chamber floor is laid with black and white marble tiles, only two of the many statues presently in the room were commissioned for display in the original Hall of the House. Enrico Causicis neoclassical plaster Liberty and the Eagle looks out over the Hall from a niche above the colonnade behind what was once the Speakers rostrum, the sandstone relief eagle in the frieze of the entablature below was carved by Giuseppe Valaperta.
Above the door leading into the Rotunda is the Car of History by Carlo Franzoni and this neoclassical marble sculpture depicts Clio, the Muse of History, riding in the chariot of Time and recording events in the chamber below. The wheel of the chariot contains the clock, the works are by Simon Willard. It has been said that John Quincy Adams took advantage of the Halls acoustics to eavesdrop on other members conversing on the side of the room. To test the acoustics today, one party should stand near the floor plaque marking Adams desk on the West side of the Hall while the party stands at the corresponding spot on the East side. However, this is only a myth, as the current half dome, the Adams story began long after Adams death as a tourist gimmick, according to Capitol historian William C. Though echoes were a significant problem, there is no documentation of a whisper spot prior to the twentieth century. This chamber is the hall and third meeting place built for the House of Representatives in this location.
Prior to this, the House members met in a squat, temporary building known as the Oven, which had been hastily erected in 1801. The first permanent Hall, designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, was completed in 1807, the Hall was rebuilt in its present form by Latrobe and his successor, Charles Bulfinch, between 1815 and 1819. Unfortunately, the smooth, curved ceiling promoted annoying echoes, making it difficult to conduct business, various attempts to improve the acoustics, including hanging draperies and reversing the seating arrangement, proved unsuccessful. The only solution to this problem was to build an entirely new Hall, in 1850, a new Hall was authorized, and the House moved into its present chamber in the new House wing in 1857
West Palm Beach, Florida
West Palm Beach is a city in and the county seat of Palm Beach County, United States. It is one of the three cities in South Florida. The population was 100,343 at the 2010 census, the University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research estimates a 2016 population of 108,896, a 7. 9% increase from 2010. It is the oldest municipality in the Miami metropolitan area, having incorporated as a city two years before Miami in November 1894. The estimated population of the Miami Metropolitan area, which all of Palm Beach County, was 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. The beginning of the period in south Florida is marked by Juan Ponce de Leóns first contact with native people in 1513. When the Spanish arrived, there were perhaps about 20,000 Native Americans in south Florida, by 1763, when the English gained control of Florida, the native peoples had all but been wiped out through war, enslavement, or European diseases. Other native peoples from Alabama and Georgia moved into Florida in the early 18th century and they were of varied ancestry, but Europeans called them all Creeks.
In Florida, they were known as the Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, the Seminoles clashed with American settlers over land and over escaped slaves who found refuge among them. They resisted the efforts to move them to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi. Between 1818 and 1858, three wars were fought between Seminoles and the United States government, by 1858, there were very few Seminoles remaining in Florida. The area that was to become West Palm Beach was settled in the late 1870s and 1880s by a few hundred settlers who called the vicinity Lake Worth Country and these settlers were a diverse community from different parts of the United States and the world. They included founding families such at the Potters and the Lainharts, most settlers engaged in the growing of tropical fruits and vegetables for shipment the north via Lake Worth and the Indian River. By 1890, the U. S. Census counted over 200 people settled along Lake Worth in the vicinity of what would become West Palm Beach, the area at this time boasted a hotel, the Cocoanut House, a church, and a post office.
Flagler paid two area settlers, Captain Porter and Louie Hillhouse, a sum of $45,000 for the original town site. On November 5,1894,78 people met at the Calaboose and this made West Palm Beach the first incorporated municipality in Dade County and in South Florida. The town council quickly addressed the building codes and the tents and shanties were replaced by brick, brick veneer, in 1909, Palm Beach County was formed by the Florida State Legislature and West Palm Beach became the county seat. In 1916, a new courthouse was opened, which has been painstakingly restored back to its original condition
Metairie Cemetery is a cemetery in New Orleans, United States. The name has caused people to mistakenly presume that the cemetery is located in Metairie, Louisiana. This site was previously a horse racing track, Metairie Race Course, the race track was the site of the famous Lexington-Lecomte Race, April 1,1854, billed as the North against the South race. While racing was suspended because of the American Civil War, it was used as a Confederate Camp until David Farragut took New Orleans for the Union in April 1862, Metairie Cemetery was built upon the grounds of the old Metairie Race Course after it went bankrupt. The race track, which was owned by the Metairie Jockey Club, refused membership to Charles T. Howard, after being refused membership, Howard vowed that the race course would become a cemetery. Sure enough, after the Civil War and Reconstruction, the track went bankrupt, Howard is buried in his tomb located on Central Avenue in the cemetery, which was built following the original oval layout of the track itself.
Mr. Howard died in 1885 in Dobbs Ferry, New York when he fell from a newly purchased horse, Metairie Cemetery was previously owned and operated by Stewart Enterprises, Inc. of Jefferson, Louisiana. However, in December 2013, Service Corporation International bought Metairie Cemetery, Metairie Cemetery has the largest collection of elaborate marble tombs and funeral statuary in the city. One of the most famous is the Army of Tennessee, Louisiana Division monument, general Johnston was for a time entombed here, but the remains were removed to Texas. To the right of the entrance to the tomb is an 1885 life size statue represents a Confederate officer about to read the roll of the dead during the American Civil War. The statue is said to be modeled after Sergeant William Brunet of the Louisiana Guard Battery, the initial construction of at least one of these elaborate final resting places – restaurateur Ruth Fertel’s mausoleum – is estimated to have cost between $125,000 to $500,000. Algernon Sidney Badger, New Orleans government official during and after Reconstruction T. L.
Bayne, first Tulane University football coach, renato Cellini, operatic conductor William C. C. In that role, he became a figure in the devastating Galveston Hurricane of 1900. Hamilton D. Coleman was a businessman who held Louisianas 2nd congressional district seat from 1889 to 1891 and he was the last Republican member of the U. S. House from Louisiana until 1973. Al Copeland, founder of Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits and several other restaurants, Jefferson Davis was buried at Metairie Cemetery, but his remains were moved to Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia. Dorothy Dell, film actress of the 1930s Dorothy Dix, advice columnist Charles E. Dunbar, New Orleans attorney and civil service reformer Joachim O. Fernández, representative from Louisianas 1st congressional district from 1931 to 1941 Ruth U
Stuart, Jefferson Davis, Thomas Stonewall Jackson, and Matthew Fontaine Maury, as well as Arthur Ashe, a Richmond native and international tennis star. The first monument, a statue of Robert E. Lee, was erected in 1890, between 1900 and 1925, Monument Avenue exploded with architecturally significant houses and apartment buildings. Monument Avenue is the site of annual events, particularly in the spring, including an annual Monument Avenue 10K race. At various times the Sons of Confederate Veterans gather along Monument Avenue in period military costumes, Monument Avenue is the site of Easter on Parade, another spring tradition during which many Richmonders stroll the avenue wearing Easter bonnets and other finery. In 2007, the American Planning Association named Monument Avenue one of the 10 Great Streets in the country, Monument Avenue was conceived during a site search for a memorial statue of General Robert E. Lee after Lees death in 1870. City plans as early as 1887 show the site, a circle of land, just past the end of West Franklin Street.
The land was owned by a wealthy Richmonder, Otway C, the plan for the statue included building a grand avenue extending west lined with trees along a central grassy median. The plan shows building plots which Allen intended to sell to developers, on May 29,1890, crowds were estimated at 100,000 to view the unveiling of the first monument, to Robert E. Lee. Speculative builders such as W. J. Payne, Harvey C. Brown, the street was originally, and continues to be, a favored living area for Richmonds upper class. It is lined with enormous mansions from the end of the gilded age, the Museum District part of Monument Avenue includes a combination of such houses, apartment buildings and smaller single-family houses. West of Interstate 195, Monument Avenue becomes a more commonplace suburban avenue, through the decades the avenue has had its ups and downs. As early as 1910, but mostly during the 1950s and 60s, many of the houses were subdivided into apartments, or interior rooms. A few houses were demolished to make way for parking lots or building expansions, but protections put in place by the city by designating Monument Avenue as an Old and Historic Neighborhood have helped maintain the integrity of the neighborhood.
In 1970 the group changed its name to the Monument Avenue Preservation Society, Robert E. Lee – equestrian sculpture by Antonin Mercié, unveiled May 29,1890 J. E. B. Lee Monument was the first and is the largest of the streets monuments, in 1876 the Lee Monument Association commissioned the adaption of a painting done by artist Adalbert Volck into a lithograph. The lithograph, depicting Lee on his horse, was the basis for the statue created by French sculptor Antonin Mercié. The cornerstone was placed on October 27,1887, the statue was cast in several pieces separately and the assembled statue was displayed in Paris before it was shipped to Richmond, where it finally arrived by rail on May 4. Newspaper accounts indicate that 10,000 people helped pull four wagons with the pieces of the monument, the completed statue was unveiled on May 29,1890