Van Buren County, Michigan
Van Buren County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 76,258; the county seat is Paw Paw. The county was founded in 1829 and organized in 1837. Van Buren County is included in MI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was named for Martin Van Buren. He was US Secretary of State and Vice President under President Andrew Jackson, thus Van Buren is one of Michigan's "Cabinet counties"; the Van Buren County Courthouse was built by a prominent southern Michigan architect. Van Buren County has voted Republican in national elections. Since 1884, the county's voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 79% of the national elections through 2016. However, the county has become a swing county as well as a bellwether in recent years, voting for the overall winner in every presidential election from 1980 to the present day. Van Buren County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,090 square miles, of which 607 square miles is land and 482 square miles is water. Much of the county is farmland dotted with small towns. Areas near Kalamazoo County Antwerp Township and Almena Township, are becoming suburbanized. Many of the inland lakes are ringed with homes, either by people living year-round or cottagers people who live the rest of the time in Chicago. Tourism is a major industry in the areas near Lake Michigan. Paw Paw River Black River Dunes Parkway, an 84-acre preserve of dunes in Covert Township Hamilton Township Coastal Plain Marsh Nature Sanctuary, a 79-acre preserve of coastal plain marsh in Hamilton Township owned by the Michigan Nature Association Jeptha Lake Fen Preserve, a 49-acre preserve in Columbia Township Kal-Haven Trail, a multi-use trail converted from old rail line that runs from Kalamazoo to South Haven Keeler State Game Area, 400 acres in Keeler Township North Point Park - high dunes on 17 acres on Lake Michigan, north of Van Buren State Park Ross Preserve, a 1,449 acre preserve of coastal plain marsh in Covert Township owned by The Nature Conservancy Van Buren State Park Van Buren Trail State Park is adjacent to Kal-Haven Trail Pere Marquette Van Buren Public Transit Amtrak CSX Transportation Norfolk Southern, through Amtrak owned Michigan Line West Michigan Railroad The 2010 United States Census indicates Van Buren County had a 2010 population of 76,258.
This decrease of -5 people from the 2000 United States Census indicated a nearly-zero population change in the decade. In 2010 there were 28,928 households and 20,434 families in the county; the population density was 125.5 per square mile. There were 36,785 housing units at an average density of 60.6 per square mile. The racial and ethnic makeup of the county was 82.7% White, 3.9% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 10.2% Hispanic or Latino, 0.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. There were 28,928 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were husband and wife families, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families, 24.0% were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.07. The county population contained 25.5% under age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96 males; the 2010 American Community Survey 1-year estimate indicates the median income for a household in the county was $44,242 and the median income for a family was $53,642. Males had a median income of $28,079 versus $18,124 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,495. About 10.0% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.1% of those under the age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. Bangor Gobles Hartford South Haven List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Van Buren County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Van Buren County, Michigan Van Buren County - Official Site "Bibliography on Van Buren County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 29, 2013
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin, it traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, is part of the international boundary between Ontario and the U. S. state of New York. This river provides the basis for the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Saint Lawrence River begins at the outflow of Lake Ontario and flows adjacent to Gananoque, Morristown, Massena, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City before draining into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the largest estuary in the world. The estuary begins at the eastern tip of just downstream from Quebec City; the river becomes tidal around Quebec City. The Saint Lawrence River runs 3,058 kilometres from the farthest headwater to the mouth and 1,197 km from the outflow of Lake Ontario; these numbers include the estuary. The farthest headwater is the North River in the Mesabi Range at Minnesota.
Its drainage area, which includes the Great Lakes, the world's largest system of freshwater lakes, is 1,344,200 square kilometres, of which 839,200 km2 is in Canada and 505,000 km2 is in the United States. The basin covers parts of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, parts of Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, nearly the entirety of the state of Michigan in the United States; the average discharge below the Saguenay River is 16,800 cubic metres per second. At Quebec City, it is 12,101 m3/s; the average discharge at the river's source, the outflow of Lake Ontario, is 7,410 m3/s. The Saint Lawrence River includes Lake Saint-Louis south of Montreal, Lake Saint Francis at Salaberry-de-Valleyfield and Lac Saint-Pierre east of Montreal, it encompasses four archipelagoes: the Thousand Islands chain near Alexandria Bay, New York and Kingston, Ontario. Other islands include Île d'Orléans near Quebec City and Anticosti Island north of the Gaspé, it is the second longest river in Canada.
Lake Champlain and the Ottawa, Saint-Maurice, Saint-François and Saguenay rivers drain into the Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is in a seismically active zone where fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean; the faults in the area comprise the Saint Lawrence rift system. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Saint Lawrence Valley is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division, containing the Champlain and Northern physiographic section. However, in Canada, where most of the valley is, it is instead considered part of a distinct Saint Lawrence Lowlands physiographic division, not part of the Appalachian division at all; the Norse explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the 11th century and were followed by fifteenth and early sixteenth century European mariners, such as John Cabot, the brothers Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real. The first European explorer known to have sailed up the Saint Lawrence River itself was Jacques Cartier.
At that time, the land along the river was inhabited by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians; because Cartier arrived in the estuary on Saint Lawrence's feast day, he named it the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is within the U. S. and as such is that country's sixth oldest surviving European place-name. The earliest regular Europeans in the area were the Basques, who came to the St Lawrence Gulf and River in pursuit of whales from the early 16th century; the Basque whalers and fishermen traded with indigenous Americans and set up settlements, leaving vestiges all over the coast of eastern Canada and deep into the Saint Lawrence River. Basque commercial and fishing activity reached its peak before the Armada Invencible's disaster, when the Spanish Basque whaling fleet was confiscated by King Philip II of Spain and destroyed; the whaling galleons from Labourd were not affected by the Spanish defeat. Until the early 17th century, the French used the name Rivière du Canada to designate the Saint Lawrence upstream to Montreal and the Ottawa River after Montreal.
The Saint Lawrence River served as the main route for European exploration of the North American interior, first pioneered by French explorer Samuel de Champlain. Control of the river was crucial to British strategy to capture New France in the Seven Years' War. Having captured Louisbourg in 1758, the British sailed up to Quebec the following year thanks to charts drawn up by James Cook. British troops were ferried via the Saint Lawrence to attack the city from the west, which they did at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham; the river was used again by the British to defeat the French siege of Quebec under the Chevalier de Lévis in 1760. In 1809, the first steamboat to ply its trade on the St. Lawrence was built and operated by John Molson and associates, a scant two years after Fulton's steam-powered navigation of the Hudson River; the Accommodation with ten passengers made her maiden voyage from Montreal to Quebec City in 66 hours, for 30 of which she was at anch
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Livingston Parish, Louisiana
Livingston Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 128,026, its parish seat is Livingston. Livingston Parish is part of LA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Livingston Parish was created by the state legislature in 1832 from part of St. Helena Parish; the historical parish seats were Van Buren, Port Vincent, Centerville. Livingston became the seat of government in 1941; the name Livingston is an eponym honoring Edward Livingston, a prominent American and Louisianan, a jurist and statesman who assisted in the drafting of the Louisiana Civil Code of 1825. Livingston Parish is one of the Florida Parishes. During the 2016 Louisiana floods, Livingston Parish was one of the hardest hit areas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 703 square miles, of which 648 square miles is land and 55 square miles is water. Tickfaw State Park, on the Tickfaw River St. Helena Parish Tangipahoa Parish St. John the Baptist Parish Ascension Parish East Baton Rouge Parish Together with the parishes of St. Helena and Tangipahoa, Livingston Parish forms Louisiana's 21st judicial district.
As of the census of 2000, there were 91,814 people, 32,630 households, 25,549 families residing in the parish. The population density was 142 people per square mile. There were 36,212 housing units at an average density of 56 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 94.35% White, 4.22% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. 1.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 32,630 households out of which 41.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.10% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.70% were non-families. 18.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.17. In the parish the population was spread out with 29.50% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 8.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $38,887, the median income for a family was $44,071. Males had a median income of $36,508 versus $22,325 for females; the per capita income for the parish was $16,282. As of August 2001, about 43,800 people were employed in the parish; the unemployment rate was 4.8%. About 9.10% of families and 11.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.70% of those under age 18 and 15.80% of those age 65 or over. Hurricane Katrina had a dramatic effect on the population in Livingston Parish. Many displaced families of the affected Parishes have moved into the area and as a result, the population of the parish has increased significantly. On June 6, 2007, the Census Bureau published a report "Special Population Estimates for Impacted Counties in the Gulf Coast Area" which shows a population increase for Livingston Parish to 111,863 as of January 1, 2006.
Livingston Parish is home of one of two installations for a gravitational wave observatory, a facility dedicated to the detection of cosmic gravitational waves and the harnessing of these waves for scientific research. As of January 2015, Livingston Parish is Louisiana's fastest-growing parish. Livingston Parish is a Council-President parish governed by a Home Rule Charter and enforced by a Parish Council and Parish President; the Parish President is the head of the executive branch of government, the Parish Council comprises the legislative branch. Livingston Parish is divided into nine council districts; the borders of each district are drawn so as to out the population in each district. At the end of 2014, the construction of a new Livingston Parish Courthouse was completed, with the ribbon-cutting scheduled for mid-February 2015; the new facility contains over 100,000 square feet. In its early history, Livingston Parish was “Solid South” Democratic, although it demonstrated Piney Woods voting behaviour in 1928 when it was Herbert Hoover’s best parish in Louisiana.
Like other parishes in the Baton Rouge metropolitan area, Livingston remained loyal to Harry S. Truman in 1948 and to Adlai Stevenson II in 1956 when Louisiana’s electoral votes went to Strom Thurmond and Dwight D. Eisenhower respectively. Barry Goldwater became the first Republican to win the parish in 1964, in recent years, Livingston Parish has been one of the most Republican parishes in Louisiana, one of the most Republican county-equivalents in the nation, it has gone Republican in every presidential election since 1984. In the 2004 election, George W. Bush received 33,976 votes, or 77% of the parish’s total, more than three times the 9,895 votes his opponent, John Kerry, received; the Republicans fared better still in the 2008 election, in which John McCain received 43,269 votes to just 6,681 votes for Democrat Barack Obama. The Livingston Parish Public Schools operates all public schools in the parish. Denham Springs Walker Livingston Springfield Albany French Settlement Killian Port Vincent Watson Van Buren Mike Branch Tickfaw State Park National Register of Historic Places listi
Van Buren County, Iowa
Van Buren County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,570; the county seat is Keosauqua, which contains the oldest continuously operational courthouse in the state of Iowa, second oldest in the United States. Van Buren County was formed on December 7, 1836 as a part of Wisconsin Territory, was split off from Des Moines County, it was named for President Martin Van Buren. It became a part of Iowa Territory when that territory was organized on July 4, 1838; the county's courthouse was built in September 1843 in the style of Greek Revival and stands as Iowa's oldest, the nation's second oldest, courthouse in operation. "The Honey War" refers to a colorful episode in Van Buren County's history when the State of Missouri and Wisconsin Territory border came into dispute. Missouri attempted to collect taxes from residents north of the disputed Sullivan Line of 1816, which residents said was not rightfully theirs to tax; the sheriff of Van Buren County subsequently arrested and jailed the sheriff from Kahoka and Missourians were charged with "stealing honey from bee trees in what in now Lacey-Keosauqua State Park.
Each governor sent troops to resolve the problem but no bloodshed resulted. The matter was turned over to the U. S. Congress for arbitration"; the dispute, was not resolved until 1846, when Iowa became a state. Congress ruled "in favor of Iowa, allowing the original Sullivan line of 1816 to remain intact". Van Buren County is home to Iowa's oldest community theater group still in operation, the "Van Buren Players," founded in 1963. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 491 square miles, of which 485 square miles is land and 5.7 square miles is water. Iowa Highway 1 Iowa Highway 2 Iowa Highway 16 Iowa Highway 98 Jefferson County Henry County Lee County Clark County, Missouri Scotland County, Missouri Davis County As of the census of 2010, there were 7,570 people, 3,108 households, 2,058 families residing in the county; the population density was 15.614/sq mi people per square mile. There were 3,670 housing units at an average density of 7.570/sq mi per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.3% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races.
1.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,108 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 33.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18 and 19.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.3 years. For every 100 females there were 100.6 males. As of the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the county was $31,094, the median income for a family was $36,420. Males had a median income of $27,379 versus $20,925 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,748. About 8.70% of families and 12.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.00% of those under age 18 and 15.60% of those age 65 or over.
Douds Leando Mount Sterling Iowaville Lebanon Mt. Zion Pittsburg Selma Winchester According to the 1850 US Census Records; the population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Van Buren County.† county seat Van Buren County has been predominantly Republican throughout its history, only voting for the Democratic candidate only six times in presidential elections from 1896 onward. However, the county was a national bellwether between 1964 & 2004, but voted Republican by wide margins in years the nation went Republican. Aside from Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide victory in 1964, the margins of victory Democrats won the county by in this 40 year period were narrow, with the difference being less than one hundred votes when Jimmy Carter & Bill Clinton won the county. From 2000 on, the county has trended Republican in 2016 where Hillary Clinton received the lowest percentage by a Democratic candidate in 60 years. Clinton failed to win 1,000 votes, a feat which every major party candidate prior to 2016 had been able to accomplish in the county.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Van Buren County, Iowa Villages of Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren was an American statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841. He was the first president born after the independence of the United States from the British Empire. A founder of the Democratic Party, he served as the ninth governor of New York, the tenth United States secretary of state, the eighth vice president of the United States, he won the 1836 presidential election with the endorsement of popular outgoing President Andrew Jackson and the organizational strength of the Democratic Party. He lost his 1840 reelection bid to Whig Party nominee William Henry Harrison, due in part to the poor economic conditions of the Panic of 1837. In his life, Van Buren emerged as an elder statesman and important anti-slavery leader, who led the Free Soil Party ticket in the 1848 presidential election. Van Buren was born in New York to a family of Dutch Americans, he was raised speaking Dutch and learned English at school, making him the only U. S. president who spoke English as a second language.
He trained as a lawyer and became involved in politics as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. He won election to the New York State Senate and became the leader of the Bucktails, the faction of Democratic-Republicans opposed to Governor DeWitt Clinton. Van Buren established a political machine known as the Albany Regency and in the 1820s emerged as the most influential politician in his home state, he was elected to the United States Senate in 1821 and supported William H. Crawford in the 1824 presidential election. John Quincy Adams won the 1824 election and Van Buren opposed his proposals for federally funded internal improvements and other measures. Van Buren's major political goal was to re-establish a two-party system with partisan differences based on ideology rather than personalities or sectional differences, he supported Jackson's candidacy against Adams in the 1828 presidential election with this goal in mind. To support Jackson's candidacy, Van Buren ran for Governor of New York and resigned a few months after assuming the position to accept appointment as U.
S. Secretary of State after Jackson took office in 1829. Van Buren was a key advisor during Jackson's eight years as President of the United States and he built the organizational structure for the coalescing Democratic Party in New York, he resigned from his position to help resolve the Petticoat affair briefly served as the U. S. ambassador to the United Kingdom. At Jackson's behest, the 1832 Democratic National Convention nominated Van Buren for Vice President of the United States, he took office after the Democratic ticket won the 1832 presidential election. With Jackson's strong support, Van Buren faced little opposition for the presidential nomination at the 1835 Democratic National Convention, he defeated several Whig opponents in the 1836 presidential election. Van Buren's response to the Panic of 1837 centered on his Independent Treasury system, a plan under which the Federal government of the United States would store its funds in vaults rather than in banks, he continued Jackson's policy of Indian removal.
In the 1840 election, the Whigs rallied around Harrison's military record and ridiculed Van Buren as "Martin Van Ruin", a surge of new voters helped turn him out of office. At the opening of the Democratic convention in 1844, Van Buren was the leading candidate for the party's nomination for the presidency. Southern Democrats, were angered by his continued opposition to the annexation of Texas, the party nominated James K. Polk. Van Buren grew opposed to slavery after he left office, he agreed to lead a third party ticket in the 1848 presidential election, motivated additionally by intra-party differences at the state and national level, he finished in a distant third nationally, but his presence in the race most helped Whig nominee Zachary Taylor defeat Democrat Lewis Cass. Van Buren returned to the Democratic fold after the 1848 election, but he supported Abraham Lincoln's policies during the American Civil War, his health began to fail in 1861 and he died in July 1862 at age 79. He has been ranked as an average or below-average U.
S. president by historians and political scientists. Van Buren was born on December 5, 1782, in the village of Kinderhook, New York, about 20 miles south of Albany on the Hudson River. By American law, he was the first U. S. president not born a British subject, nor of British ancestry. However, because he was born during the American Revolution and before the Peace of Paris, he was for the purposes of British law a British subject at birth, his birth name was Maarten Van Buren. His father, Abraham Van Buren, was a descendant of Cornelis Maessen of the village of Buurmalsen, who had come to North America in 1631 and purchased a plot of land on Manhattan Island. Abraham Van Buren had been a Patriot during the American Revolution, he joined the Democratic-Republican Party, he served as Kinderhook's town clerk for several years. In 1776, he married Maria Hoes "Goes" Van Alen of Dutch extraction and the widow of Johannes Van Alen, she had three children from her first marriage, including future U. S.
Representative James I. Van Alen, her second marriage produced five children, including Martin. Van Buren spoke English unlike any other president. Van Buren received a basic education at the village sc
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses