George S. Patton
General George Smith Patton Jr. was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U. S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean and European theaters of World War II, Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Born in 1885 to a family with a military background, Patton attended the Virginia Military Institute. He studied fencing and designed the M1913 Cavalry Saber, more known as the Patton Sword. Patton first saw combat during the Pancho Villa Expedition in 1916, in the interwar period, Patton remained a central figure in the development of armored warfare doctrine in the U. S. Army, serving in numerous staff positions throughout the country. Rising through the ranks, he commanded the 2nd Armored Division at the time of the American entry into World War II, Seventh Army during the Allied invasion of Sicily, where he was the first Allied commander to reach Messina. Patton returned to command the Third Army following the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and he led the relief of beleaguered American troops at Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge, and advanced his Third Army into Nazi Germany by the end of the war.
After the war, Patton became the governor of Bavaria. He commanded the United States Fifteenth Army for slightly more than two months, Patton died in Germany on December 21,1945, as a result of injuries from an automobile accident twelve days earlier. Pattons colorful image, hard-driving personality and success as a commander were at times overshadowed by his public statements. His philosophy of leading from the front and his ability to inspire troops with vulgarity-ridden speeches, such as an address to the Third Army. His strong emphasis on rapid and aggressive offensive action proved effective, while Allied leaders held sharply differing opinions on Patton, he was regarded highly by his opponents in the German High Command. A popular, award-winning biographical film released in 1970 helped transform Patton into an American hero, George Smith Patton Jr. was born on November 11,1885 in San Gabriel, California, to George Smith Patton Sr. and his wife Ruth Wilson. Patton had a sister, who was nicknamed Nita.
The family was of Irish, Scots-Irish and Welsh ancestry and his great grandmother came from an aristocratic Welsh family, descended from many Welsh lords of Glamorgan, which had an extensive military background. Patton believed he had former lives as a soldier and took pride in mystical ties with his ancestors, though not directly descended from George Washington, Patton traced some of his English colonial roots to George Washingtons great-grandfather. He was descended from Englands King Edward I through Edwards son Edmund of Woodstock, family belief held the Pattons were descended from sixteen barons who had signed the Magna Carta. Patton believed in reincarnation, and his ancestry was very important to him, the first Patton in America was Robert Patton, born in Ayr, Scotland
Palermo is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence, Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The city was founded in 734 BC by the Phoenicians as Ziz, Palermo became a possession of Carthage, before becoming part of the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire and eventually part of the Byzantine Empire, for over a thousand years. The Greeks named the city Panormus meaning complete port, from 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily when the city first became a capital. The Arabs shifted the Greek name into Balarme, the root for Palermos present-day name, eventually Sicily would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. The population of Palermo urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 855,285, in the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people.
The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, panormiti, the languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Italian language, Sicilian language and the Palermitano dialect. Palermo is Sicilys cultural and touristic capital and it is a city rich in history, art and food. Palermo is the main Sicilian industrial and commercial center, the industrial sectors include tourism, commerce. Palermo currently has an airport, and a significant underground economy. In fact, for cultural and economic reasons, Palermo was one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean and is now among the top tourist destinations in both Italy and Europe. It is the seat of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Arab-Norman Palermo. The city is going through careful redevelopment, preparing to become one of the major cities of the Euro-Mediterranean area. Roman Catholicism is highly important in Palermitano culture, the Patron Saint of Palermo is Santa Rosalia whose Feast Day is celebrated on 15 July. The area attracts significant numbers of each year and is widely known for its colourful fruit and fish markets at the heart of Palermo, known as Vucciria, Ballarò.
Palermo lies in a basin, formed by the Papireto, the basin was named the Conca dOro by the Arabs in the 9th century. The city is surrounded by a range which is named after the city itself. These mountains face the Tyrrhenian Sea, Palermo is home to a natural port and offers excellent views to the sea, especially from Monte Pellegrino
Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and the best-known Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a commander in the Army of Northern Virginia. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2,1863, the general survived but lost an arm to amputation, he died of complications from pneumonia eight days later. His death was a setback for the Confederacy, affecting not only its military prospects. Jackson in death became an icon of Southern heroism and commitment, Military historians consider Jackson to be one of the most gifted tactical commanders in U. S. history. His Valley Campaign and his envelopment of the Union Armys right wing at Chancellorsville are studied worldwide, even today, as examples of innovative and bold leadership. He excelled as well in battles, the First Battle of Bull Run, where he received his famous nickname Stonewall, the Second Battle of Bull Run.
Jackson was not, universally successful as a commander as displayed by his arrival and confused efforts during the Seven Days Battles around Richmond. Thomas Jonathan Jackson was the great-grandson of John Jackson and Elizabeth Cummins, John Jackson was an Ulster Scots Protestant from Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ireland. While living in London, England, he was convicted of the crime of larceny for stealing £170. They both were transported on the merchant ship Litchfield, which departed London in May 1749 with 150 convicts and Elizabeth met on board and were in love by the time the ship arrived at Annapolis, Maryland. Although they were sent to different locations in Maryland for their bond service, the family migrated west across the Blue Ridge Mountains to settle near Moorefield, Virginia in 1758. In 1770, they moved farther west to the Tygart Valley and they began to acquire large parcels of virgin farming land near the present-day town of Buckhannon, including 3,000 acres in Elizabeths name.
While the men were in the Army, Elizabeth converted their home to a haven, Jacksons Fort and Elizabeth had eight children. Their second son was Edward Jackson, and Edwards third son was Jonathan Jackson, jonathans mother died in 1798 and his father remarried three years later. His father and stepmother had nine more children, Thomas Jackson was the third child of Julia Beckwith Jackson and Jonathan Jackson, an attorney. Both of Jacksons parents were natives of Virginia, the family already had two young children and were living in Clarksburg, in what is now West Virginia, when Thomas was born. He was named for his maternal grandfather, There is some dispute about the actual location of Jacksons birth
Clarksburg, West Virginia
Clarksburg is a city in and the county seat of Harrison County, West Virginia, United States, in the north-central region of the state. The population of the city was 16,578 at the 2010 census and it is the principal city of the Clarksburg, WV Micropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 94,221 in 2014. Clarksburg was named National Small City of the Year in 2011 by the National League of Cities, in 1773, Major Daniel Davisson took up 400 acres, upon which the principal part of the town is now located. Undoubtedly, there were located on these public lands of which no official records were made. Clarksburg was formed in 1785 in Virginia, in 1787, the Virginia General Assembly established the Randolph Academy at Clarksburg, the first such educational institution west of the Alleghenies. Construction of the first courthouse began in 1787 and that building was followed by four increasingly larger courthouses, the most recent one completed in 1932. The first Court House, stood on what is now the North East Corner of Second and Main Streets, poor transportation slowed development until the 1830s, when the Northwestern Turnpike was built from Winchester to Parkersburg via Romney and Clarksburg.
The arrival of the B&O Railroad in the mid-1850s opened the county to development, during the Civil War, the B&O line made Clarksburg an important Union supply base. In 1840 a daily line of stages and a mail service was established that connected with the Ohio River steamers at Parkersburg. Telephone service, the first in the state, began in Clarksburg in the mid-1880s, in 1887, the city laid its first six miles of water lines, downtown streets were lit by electricity in 1889. In 1900, the first sewer lines were installed and Pike streets were paved with brick, in August 1931, Harry Powers, the ‘‘Bluebeard of Quiet Dell, ’’ was charged with killing Dorothy Lemke of Massachusetts and Asta Eicher and her three children of Illinois. The bodies were found at Powers’s home in Quiet Dell, near Clarksburg, the sensational story of a serial killer attracted so much attention that Powers’s trial was held at the Moores Opera House in Clarksburg to accommodate the crowd of spectators. Powers was tried and convicted of Lemke’s murder and sentenced to death by hanging, plastic explosives were confiscated by law enforcement officials at five locations in West Virginia and Ohio.
Looker was taken into custody after arranging to sell the blueprints for $50,000 to an undercover FBI agent, in 1998 Looker was sentenced to 18 years in prison. Two other defendants were sentenced on charges, and the firefighter drew a year in prison for providing blueprints. On June 29,2012, a violent storm, called a derecho, raced across West Virginia, leaving downed trees, a derecho is a widespread wind storm that is associated with a band of rapidly moving storms. An American scientist first used the Spanish term in 1888 to describe this kind of weather event, the storm formed in Illinois about 11 a. m. traveled east. It reached West Virginia at about 6 p. m. the storm brought some rain, but it was the wind that proved the most damaging
Andrew Mark Cuomo is an American politician and attorney who has been the 56th Governor of New York since January 1,2011. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected in 2010, holding the position his father, Mario Cuomo. Born in Queens, New York City, Cuomo is a graduate of Fordham University and Albany Law School of Union University, New York in New York. He began his working as the campaign manager for his father. He founded HELP USA, and was appointed Chair of the New York City Homeless Commission, in 1993, Cuomo joined the Clinton Administration, when he was appointed Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development in the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. From 1997 to 2001, he was U. S. Secretary of Housing, in 2006, Cuomo was elected Attorney General of New York. In May 2010, Cuomo announced he was running for Governor in the 2010 election, during his first term, New York legalized same-sex marriage and toughened gun control. In 2014, he was elected to a term with 54% of the vote.
Cuomo was born on December 6,1957, in the New York City borough of Queens and his parents were both of Italian descent, his paternal grandparents were from Nocera Inferiore and Tramonti in South Italy, while his maternal grandparents were both from Sicily. His younger brother is CNN journalist Chris Cuomo and he graduated from St. Gerard Majellas School in 1971 and Archbishop Molloy High School in 1975. He received a B. A. from Fordham University in 1979, from 1984 to 1985, Cuomo was a New York assistant district attorney, and briefly worked at the law firm of Blutrich, Falcone & Miller. He founded Housing Enterprise for the Less Privileged in 1986 and left his law firm to run HELP full-time in 1988, budgets enacted during his term contained initiatives to increase the supply of affordable housing and home ownership, and to create jobs and economic development. During Cuomos tenure as HUD Secretary, he called for an increase in home ownership and he pushed government-sponsored lenders Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to buy more home loans issued to poor homeowners, in an attempt to end discrimination against minorities.
Some believe that this lead to the recent subprime mortgage crisis. Edward J. Pinto, former chief credit officer at Fannie Mae, Cuomo was pushing mortgage bankers to make loans and basically saying you have to offer a loan to everybody. But others disagree with the assessment that Cuomo caused the crisis, dean Baker, co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, said Cuomo was a contributor in terms of him being a cheerleader, but I dont think we can pin too much blame on him. He championed a new program called Community Builders, created without appropriation by Congress, in a June 16,1999, Cuomo declared that one purpose of the program was to fight against HUDs abolition. In August 1999, Community Builders distributed a letter to community groups to fight against proposed tax cuts, in 1999, Gaffneys office concluded that most Community Builders goals were activities rather than actual accomplishments
Stanford White was an American architect and partner in the architectural firm McKim, Mead & White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. He designed a series of houses for the rich, and numerous public, institutional. His design principles embodied the American Renaissance, in 1906, White was murdered by millionaire Harry Kendall Thaw over Whites relationship with Thaws wife, actress Evelyn Nesbit. This led to a case which was dubbed The Trial of the Century by contemporary reporters. White was the son of Shakespearean scholar Richard Grant White and Alexina Black Mease and his father was a dandy and Anglophile with no money, but a great many connections in New Yorks art world, including painter John LaFarge, Louis Comfort Tiffany, and Frederick Law Olmsted. He remained with Richardson for six years, in 1878, White embarked for a year and a half in Europe, and when he returned to New York in September 1879, he joined Charles Follen McKim and William Rutherford Mead to form McKim and White.
As part of the partnership, all designed by the architects were identified as being the work of the collective firm. In 1884, White married 22-year-old Bessie Springs Smith and his new wife hailed from a socially prominent Long Island family, her ancestors were early settlers of the area, and Smithtown, New York, was named for them. Their estate, Box Hill, was not only a home, a son, Lawrence Grant White, was born in 1887. In 1889, White designed the arch at Washington Square. White was the director of the Washington Centennial celebration and created a temporary triumphal arch which was so popular, outside of New York City, White designed the First Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore, now Lovely Lane United Methodist Church. He designed Cocke and Old Cabell halls at the University of Virginia, additionally, he designed the Blair Mansion at 7711 Eastern Ave. in Silver Spring, now being used as a restaurant. He was responsible for designing the Boston Public Library and the Boston Hotel Buckminster, in 1902, he designed the Benjamin Walworth Arnold House and Carriage House in Albany, New York, and he helped to develop Nikola Teslas Wardenclyffe Tower, his last design.
Just as his Washington Square Arch still stands, so do many of Whites clubhouses, which were focal points of New York society, the Century, Harmonie, Lambs and Players clubs. However, his clubhouse for the Atlantic Yacht Club, built in 1894 overlooking Gravesend Bay, sons of society families resided in Whites St. Anthony Hall Chapter House at Williams College, now occupied by college offices. In the division of projects within the firm, the sociable and his fluent draftsmanship was highly convincing to clients who might not get much visceral understanding from a floorplan, and his intuition and facility caught the mood. Whites Long Island houses have survived well, despite the loss of Harbor Hill in 1947 and he designed the Kate Annette Wetherill Estate in 1895. White designed a number of other New York mansions as well, including the Iselin family estate All View, White was active designing country estate homes in Greenwich, Connecticut
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise, to create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, and monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the form from the field. There is sunk relief, which was restricted to Ancient Egypt. However the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, and these two are generally the only used to discuss most work.
Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, works in the technique are described as in relief, especially in monumental sculpture, the work itself is a relief. Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of settings. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with figures and very active poses, such as battles. Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief. Rock reliefs are carved into solid rock in the open air. This type is found in cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a standing stone, many of these carry reliefs. The distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, and the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most high reliefs contain sections in low relief, a low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief.
Other versions distort depth much less and it is a technique which requires less work, and is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required
New York University
New York University is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU is considered one of the worlds most influential research universities, University rankings compiled by Times Higher Education, U. S. News & World Report, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities all rank NYU amongst the top 32 universities in the world. NYU is a part of the creativity and vibrancy that is Manhattan, located with its core in Greenwich Village. Among its faculty and alumni are 37 Nobel Laureates, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 30 Academy Award winners, alumni include heads of state, eminent mathematicians, media figures, Olympic medalists, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and astronauts. NYU alumni are among the wealthiest in the world, according to The Princeton Review, NYU is consistently considered by students and parents as a Top Dream College. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish in this immense, a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all.
A three-day-long literary and scientific convention held in City Hall in 1830 and these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18,1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the merchants, bankers. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institutions first president, the university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was officially renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, in 1835, the School of Law, NYUs first professional school, was established. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU and it became one of the nations largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding, the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus.
NYU had a desire to follow New York Citys development further uptown, NYUs move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken. The University Heights campus was far more spacious than its predecessor was, as a result, most of the universitys operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYUs administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead and this extension would become a fully independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the citys institutions, including NYU
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, within the U. S. state of New York. Since 1914, the Bronx has had the boundaries as Bronx County, a county of New York. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a section in the west, closer to Manhattan. East and west street addresses are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattans Fifth Avenue, the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, and the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914, about a quarter of the Bronxs area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, and the Bronx Zoo in the boroughs north and center. These open spaces are situated primarily on land reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north. The name Bronx originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639, the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers.
This cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of both Latin music and hip hop. The Bronx, particularly the South Bronx, saw a decline in population, livable housing, and the quality of life in the late 1960s. Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today, the Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck. It was divided by the Aquahung River, the origin of Jonas Bronck is contested. Some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the now known as the Bronx and built a farm named Emmanus close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue. He leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem. He eventually accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which known as Broncks River or the Bronx.
Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Broncks Land, the American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Broncks son or his younger brother. More recent research indicates that Pieter was probably Jonas nephew or cousin, the Bronx is referred to with the definite article as The Bronx, both legally and colloquially. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the Annexed District of The Bronx created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond Region and it was incorporated in 1742, and has been an independent city since 1871. As of the 2010 census, the population was 204,214, in 2015, the population was estimated to be 220,289, the Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the line of the James River,44 miles west of Williamsburg,66 miles east of Charlottesville. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast. The site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, and was settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609. The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737 and it became the capital of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1780.
During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the capital of the Confederate States of America, the city entered the 20th century with one of the worlds first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a hub of African-American commerce. Richmonds economy is driven by law and government, with federal, state. Dominion Resources and MeadWestvaco, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, in 1737, planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. The settlement was laid out in April 1737, and was incorporated as a town in 1742, Richmond recovered quickly from the war, and by 1782 was once again a thriving city. A permanent home for the new government, the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, after the American Revolutionary War, Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. The legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag, on April 17,1861, five days after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the legislature voted to secede from the United States and joined the Confederacy.
Official action came in May, after the Confederacy promised to move its capital to Richmond. It became the target of Union armies, especially in the campaigns of 1862. The Seven Days Battles followed in late June and early July 1862, during which Union General McClellan threatened to take Richmond, three years later, as March 1865 ended, the Confederate capitol became indefensible. On March 25, Confederate General John B, gordons desperate attack on Fort Stedman east of Petersburg failed
Charlottesville, colloquially Cville and formally the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,210 and it is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities. It is named after the British Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with the County of Albemarle for statistical purposes, bringing its steadily growing population to approximately 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Greene, Charlottesville was the home of two Presidents, Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. While both served as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, and traveled to and from Richmond, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the citys border with Albemarle.
Monticello, located 3 miles southeast of the city, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, located on a hilltop overlooking Charlottesville, Monticello attracts thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough, Charlottesville was formed in 1762 by an Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee and it was along a trade route called Three Notched Road which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. It was named for Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen consort of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George III, during the American Revolutionary War, the Convention Army was imprisoned in Charlottesville between 1779 and 1781 at the Albemarle Barracks. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War, the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer briefly engaged local Confederate home guards before he retreated.
The mayor surrendered the city to Custers men to keep the town from being burned, 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridans 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woollen clothing for the soldiers. It caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the railroad bridge had been dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt immediately and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962, the first black church in Charlottesville was established in 1864. Previously, it was illegal for African-Americans to have their own churches, a current predominantly African-American church can trace its lineage to that first church. Congregation Beth Israels 1882 building is the oldest synagogue building standing in Virginia. The closures were required by a series of laws collectively known as the Stanley plan
Bronx Community College
The Bronx Community College of The City University of New York is a community college located in the University Heights neighborhood of The Bronx on a landmarked campus. It is part of the City University of New York system, the college was established in 1957 through the efforts of civic-minded groups who felt that there was a growing need for more higher education facilities in the Bronx. Classes began at Hunter College, and at the site of the Bronx High School of Science. In 1973, the Dormitory Authority of the State of New York acquired the University Heights campus from New York University, beginning in the fall of that year, the BCC moved its operations to the 55 acres site overlooking the Harlem River. The college is home to the Center for Sustainable Energy, which was founded in 2003 as an resource for students pursuing careers in alternative energy. Bronx Community College offers an array of workforce community development and personal enrichment courses. CPS delivers customized training for local employers, CPS works closely with unions, city and federal agencies and accepts vouchers and other forms of financial aid for individual students.
Since 1987, the college is the administrator of the SUNY Bronx Educational Opportunity Center. In 2012, the North Hall and Library opened, the building is designed to resemble many of the historic buildings on campus, and on one end is located next to an entrance of the Hall of Fame for Great Americans. Other buildings – such as South Hall, formerly the Gustav H. Schwab House, Butler Hall, mall House, and MacCracken Hall, originally the Loring Andrews House – are repurposed mansions which predate the campus. The original landscaping for the campus was by Vaux & Co, the BCC campus is notably home to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, founded in 1900 by Henry Mitchell MacCracken, Chancellor of NYU from 1891 to 1910. It was the first such hall of fame in the United States and it includes bronze busts of Alexander Graham Bell, Eli Whitney, and George Westinghouse along with many others. The Hall has not had any new inductees since 1973, Bronx Community College teams participate as a member of the National Junior College Athletic Association.
The Broncos are a member of the community section of the City University of New York Athletic Conference. Mens sports include baseball, cross country and track & field, while womens sports include basketball, cross country, track & field and volleyball. Among the distinguished alumni of BCC is Richard Carmona, who served as the Surgeon General of the United States from 2002 to 2006. In 2001, parts of the film A Beautiful Mind that depicted MIT were instead filmed in the BCC, the dome at BCC was used in the filming of The Good Shepherd. The Meister Hall building at BCC by architect Marcel Breuer was featured as a Russian Embassy in the 2008 film Burn After Reading by the Coen brothers