This list of metro systems includes electrified rapid transit train systems worldwide. In some parts of the world, metro systems are referred to as subways, U-Bahnen or undergrounds; as of December 2017, 178 cities in 56 countries around the world host the 180 metro systems that are listed here. The London Underground first opened as an "underground railway" in 1863 and its first electrified underground line opened in 1890, making it the world's oldest metro system; the metro system with the longest route length is the Beijing Subway. China has the largest number of cities that have metro systems, with over 40 by 2019; the International Association of Public Transport defines metro systems as urban passenger transport systems, "operated on their own right of way and segregated from general road and pedestrian traffic". The terms Heavy rail and heavy urban rail are synonymous with the term "metro". Heavy rail systems are specifically defined as an "electric railway"; the dividing line between metro and other modes of public transport, such as light rail and commuter rail, is not always clear, while UITP only makes distinctions between "metros" and "light rail", the American Public Transportation Association and Federal Transit Administration distinguish all three modes.
A common way to distinguish metro from light rail is by their separation from other traffic. While light rail systems may share roads or have level crossings, a metro system runs always, on a grade-separated exclusive right-of-way, with no access for pedestrians and other traffic, and in contrast to commuter rail or light rail, metro systems are used for transport within a city, have higher service frequencies and higher passenger volume capacities. Furthermore, most metro systems do not share tracks with inter-city rail services, it is however not relevant whether the system runs on steel wheels or rubber tyres, or if the power supply is from a third rail or overhead line. The name of the system is not a criterion for exclusion; some cities use metro as a brand name for a transit line with no component of rapid transit whatsoever. There are systems branded light rail that meet every criterion for being a rapid transit system; some systems incorporate light metro or light rail lines as part of the larger system under a common name.
These are listed. Certain transit networks may match the service standards of metro systems, but reach far out of the city and are sometimes known as S-Bahn, regional or commuter rail; these are not included in this list. Neither are funicular systems, or people movers, such as amusement park, ski resort and airport transport systems; this list counts metros separately when multiple metros in one city or metropolitan area have separate owners or operating companies. This list expressly does not aim at representing the size and scope of the total rapid transit network of a certain city or metropolitan area; the data of this list should not be used to infer the size of a city's, region's, or country's urban rail transit systems, or to establish a ranking. City Primary city served by the metro system. Country Sovereign state. Name The most common English name of the metro system. Year opened The year. In other words, parts of the system may be older, but as parts of a former light rail or commuter rail network, so the year that the system obtained metro standards is the one listed.
Year of last expansion The last time the system length or number of stations in the metro system was expanded. Stations The number of stations in the metro network, with stations connected by transfer counted as one. System length The system length of a metro network is the sum of the lengths of all routes in the rail network in kilometers or miles; each route is counted only once, regardless of how many lines pass over it, regardless of whether it is single-track or multi-track, single carriageway or dual carriageway. Ridership The number of unique journeys on the metro system every year. There is a major discrepancy between the ridership figures: some metro systems count transferring between lines as multiple journeys, but others do not; this list is sortable. Click on the icon in the column header to change sort key and sort order. Table notes^* Indicates ridership figures based on the fiscal year rather than the calendar year; the following is a list of new worldwide metro systems that are actively under construction.
Note that in some cases it is not clear if the system will be considered a full metro system once it begins operational service. The countries of Bangladesh, Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Vietnam are constructing their first metro systems. "Metros: Keeping pace with 21st century cities". Uitp.org. International Association of Public Transport. 8 May 2014. Taplin, Michael. "A world of trams and urban transit". Lrta.org. Light Rail Transit Association. Schwandl, Robert. "UrbanRail. Net". UrbanRail. Net. "Metro, light rail and tram systems in Europe". European Rail Research Advisory Council & International Association of Public Transport. 2009
La Secta AllStar is the most prominent rock en Español band from Puerto Rico. The band members are Mark Kilpatrick, Gustavo Laureano, John Lengel, Mike Genao. Mark Kilpatrick and Gustavo Laureano met in Florida where they studied sound engineering. After graduating they moved to Miami Beach and started working, they began rehearsing in a local warehouse along with drummer John Lengel and guitarist Carlos Figueroa. They soon began writing and composing their songs and started playing at local clubs in Miami and Puerto Rico, it is during this time that artists like Ednita Nazario discovered them. In 1995, Martin recorded the song "Bombón de Azúcar" and in 1996, Nazario recorded "Ultima Vez" written by Laureano. José Fernández Camilo introduced them to producer Jorge Alvarez. Alvarez introduced them to Andrés Levin, La Secta Allstar signed a record deal with Fonovisa soon after, their debut album, was released in 1997 producing four Top 40 hit singles: "Se Acabó", "Recompensa", "Nunca Jamás" and "Bombón de Azúcar".
This album was re-released in 1999 under the title Bombón de Azúcar. The main difference is that the new album did not include the songs "Si Tú No Estás" and "Mar y Marea"; these were in turn substituted by the Spanglish version of "Bombón de Azúcar" and a new track titled "Luna de Día". Bombón de Azúcar was again re-released in 2007 with the addition of "Mar y Marea" while "Si Tú No Estás" has not been rereleased. In January 2001, the band presented a sold-out concert at the Roberto Clemente Coliseum in San Juan. After this and the success of this first album, the band released the follow-up titled La Secta Allstar in April 2001; this album was produced by the band itself. Four days after the release, the album had sold 25,000 copies; the single "Dame Lo Que Quieras" won an ASCAP Award. In 2004, the band released a fourth album titled Túnel; the album won a Premio Lo Nuestro award in the category of Best Rock Album. Shortly after guitarist Carlos Figueroa left the band, Mike Genao replaced him, the band released their fifth album, with Universal Latino.
Consejo is the most successful album from La Secta. The album was certified Platinum under the RIAA in only two months after its release; the mega hit "La Locura Automática", reached No. 1 in more than 13 countries. The album featured collaborations with many noted artists like Wilkins and reggaeton artists Wisin & Yandel. A remix of "La Locura Automática" can be found on 12 Discípulos, a reggaeton album produced by Eddie Dee, on the Deluxe Edition of Consejo. Consejo was nominated to a Grammy and a Premio Lo Nuestro award, won a Billboard Award in the Best Rock/Alternative Band category. On its first month, the album sold 80,000 copies. After touring for this album, the band decided to take a small break during which singer Gustavo Laureano released a solo project. In 2008, the band returned with their next album titled Fuego, which won the band a Premio Lo Nuestro in the Rock Album of The Year category, among other awards; the album was nominated for a Grammy for Best Latin Rock/Alternative Album that same year.
Gustavo Laureano – lead vocals Mark Kilpatrick – bass guitar, vocals John Lengel – drums, vocals Mike Genao – guitar, vocals Carlos Figueroa – guitar, vocals Giovanni Perdomo – guitar Aniquila Bombón de Azúcar AllStar Una Noche Túnel Consejo Fuego Súbelo SinglesSolo Quiero Hacer un Gol - Single, recorded for the Copa Libertadores Recompilatorios El Hit Parade Bombón de Azúcar Greatest Hits Part 2 Puerto Rican rock lasectallstar.com – official site
This article shows the rosters of all participating teams at the 2015 Asian Women's U23 Volleyball Championship in Pasig, Philippines. Head Coach: Xu JiandeThe following is the Chinese roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Vaishali PhadtareThe following is Indian roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Abbas BarghiThe following is the Iranian roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Kiyoshi AboThe following is the Japanese roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Lyudmila PerevertovaThe following is the Kazakhstani roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Hong Sung-jinThe following is the Korean roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Rogelio GorayebThe following is the Filipino roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Lin Ming-huiThe following is the Taiwanese roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship. Head Coach: Nataphon SrisamutnakThe following is the Thai roster in the 2015 Asian U23 Championship.
Georg Kolbe was the leading German figure sculptor of his generation, in a vigorous, simplified classical style similar to Aristide Maillol of France. Kolbe was born in Saxony. Trained as a painter in Dresden and Paris, he began sculpting during a stay in Rome at the turn of the century under the technical guidance of sculptor Louis Tuaillon. In 1905, Kolbe joined the'Berliner Sezession', which in 1913, he left to join the'Freie Sezession', his artistic breakthrough came in 1912 with his sculpture masterpiece "Die Tänzerin", his most famous work. As he was interested in Asian faces, D. N. Mazumdar, father of Indian novelist Anita Desai, sat for him, resulting in a bust and a torso. In 1929, he collaborated with Lilly Reich and Mies van der Rohe for his sculpture in the Barcelona Pavilion; as the last president of the Deutscher Künstlerbund, he devoted himself to the promotion of fellow artists who were classified "degenerate". Kolbe made ninety-nine prints, beginning with lithographs around 1900 literary illustrations.
In 1919-1920, Kolbe did not work as a sculptor. During this time small-size sculptures and drawings became central in his works. In the 1920s, encouraged by Cassirer, he made drypoints of dancers and nudes in motion, subjects he favored in his sculpture. Kolbe executed important commissions throughout his long career, including many for the National Socialists during the last 15 years of his life, although he refused invitation to sculpt a portrait of Adolf Hitler; the Nazis appropriated his late style of idealized athletic nudes. From 1937 to 1944, Kolbe participated at Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung, organized by the Haus der Kunst, Munich, his uncharacteristically bombastic Verkündigung was a focal point of the 1937 German Pavilion. Commissioned by the German-Spanish economic organization Hisma in 1939, Kolbe created a portrait bust of the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, given to Hitler as a birthday present the same year. In 1944, in the final stages of World War II, Hitler and Joseph Goebbels included Kolbe in the Gottbegnadeten list of the twelve most important visual artists.
Only after Kolbe's death, a Beethoven monument and the Ring der Statuen were installed in Frankfurt am Main. The realization of a Friedrich Nietzsche memorial in Weimar failed because of Hitler's appeal. Kolbe died of bladder cancer in St. Hedwig-Krankenhaus in Berlin on 20 November 1947. In 2009, an exhibition of Kolbe's Blue Ink Drawings was presented by the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. 2017 an exhibition about his artistic and social network at Georg Kolbe Museum, Berlin. Many of Kolbe's 1000 sculptures were destroyed by confiscation and melting for war purposes, his sculptures are in many museum collections in Europe, USA and Russia, among them the Museum of Modern Art, New York, the Moderna Museet, Stockholm. 1912 Die Bachnymphe, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Redoutenpark 1913 Monument for Heinrich Heine, Frankfurt am Main 1917/1918 Monument in Tarabya, Turkey 1924 Verkündigung, Bürgergärten, Lübeck 1925 Der Morgen and Der Abend, Ceciliengärten, Berlin 1926 Kriegerdenkmal 1914–1918, Buchschlag near Frankfurt am Main 1926–1947 Beethoven-Denkmal, Frankfurt am Main 1927 Kriechende, Hamburg 1928 Fliegender Genius, Ludwigshafen 1930 Rathenau-Brunnen, Volkspark Rehberge, Berlin 1931-1933 Aufsteigender Jüngling, Düsseldorf 1933, 1935 Zehnkämpfer and Ruhender Athlet, Olympic Stadium, Berlin 1936 Großer Wächter, Lüdenscheid The studio where Kolbe lived and worked from 1929 to 1947 is located in Berlin-Westend, in Sensburger Allee.
It was built in 1928/29 based on Kolbe's designs by Architect Ernst Rentsch and borders on a sculpture garden. Today it serves as the Georg Kolbe Museum, a museum dedicated to sculpture of the 20th century and contemporary art. Among others, the museum has in the past mounted solo exhibitions of Aristide Maillol, Bernhard Hoetger, Henry Moore, Karl Hartung, August Gaul, A. R. Penck, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Gerson Fehrenbach, Bernhard Heiliger, Wilhelm Loth, Michael Croissant, David Nash, Wieland Förster, Hermann Blumenthal, Max Klinger, Antony Gormley, Johannes Grützke, Otto Herbert Hajek, Ah Xian, Anton Henning, Renée Sintenis, Ruprecht von Kaufmann, Vanitas 2014, Jean Arp - The Navel of the Avant-Garde, Auguste Rodin and Madame Hanako 1905 Villa Romana prize The Georg Kolbe Museum Masters of 20th Century Figure Sculpture "Georg Kolbe", Artnet Newspaper clippings about Georg Kolbe in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
The number of states headed by Queen Elizabeth II has varied during her 68 years on the throne, altogether seeing her as sovereign of a total of 32 independent countries during this period. In her capacity as Queen of the United Kingdom, she is monarch of three Crown dependencies—Guernsey and Man—and, in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand, she is monarch of two associated states—the Cook Islands and Niue—since they acquired this status in 1965 and 1974, respectively. Two situations in two countries differ from the others; the government of the unrecognised state of Rhodesia proclaimed its allegiance to Elizabeth II as queen of Rhodesia from 1965 to 1970. However, she did not accept either the role or the title and it was not accepted or recognised by any other state. Fiji became a republic through a military coup in 1987, after which its Great Council of Chiefs continued to recognise Elizabeth II as queen, or Paramount Chief of Fiji, until the council's de-establishment on 14 March 2012. However, this was only a ceremonial title, with no role in government at all.
Timeline of country and capital changes List of prime ministers of Elizabeth II Country Personal union
Chen Ziming and Wang Juntao were arrested in late 1989 for their involvement in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Chinese authorities alleged. Both Chen and Wang rejected, they were sentenced to 13 years in prison. Before their arrest for the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and Wang were arrested for their involvement in the 1976 protests marking the death of Zhou Enlai, they were released however, after Deng Xiaoping reversed the verdict on the incident. Chen and Wang were active in the Democracy Wall movement in 1978-1979. In 1985, they helped found the Beijing Economic Sciences Research Institute. In November or October 1989, Chen and Wang were arrested in Southern Guangdong while trying to make their way to Guangzhou, they were following an escape route set up by an unidentified Hong Kong activist, arrested. It is believed that Wang spent the months after June 4th hiding in the city of Wuhan while Chen went underground in Inner Mongolia. On November 24, 1990, Wang was formally charged with intent to overthrow the Communist government and dissemination of counterrevolutionary propaganda.
Chen was charged on November 26, 1990. Authorities claimed that the two were the alleged masterminds or “black hands” behind the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. On December 10, 1990, in Montreal, Canada, activists campaigned in support of Wang and Chen. One of the organizers, Wu Chunmeng, expressed concern that, with international attention focused on the Persian Gulf crisis, the fate of Chinese political prisoners would be overlooked. According to the verdict in the Case of Chen Ziming, the Beijing Intermediate People’s Court concluded the following through “facts... attested to by witnesses’ testimony, by written evidence and by tape-recordings:”-On April 23, 1989, Chen Ziming convened a meeting at the Beijing Social and Economic Sciences Research Institute where he, Wang Juntao and Chen Xiaoping “molded the counterrevolutionary opinion to intensify the turmoil in an organized way.” At the meeting, Chen Xiaoping stated: “China’s problem today is not a matter of reform, but a matter of changing the government.”-On May 17 and 18, Chen Ziming, Wang Juntao and Chen Xiaoping “schemed” to form an “illegal organization to ‘unite all the various circles.’” At the meeting, Chen Ziming outlined his “tactic for conspiring to subvert the government” when he stated: “the words of the elite will influence the students, words of the students will influence people throughout the country.”
Read aloud at the meeting was the “May 17 Declaration” which stated that the government had “lost its capacity for human feeling,” and was “under the power of an autocrat.” It further characterized the 1989 Student protests as “a great patriotic and democratic movement which will bury autocracy and end the system of rule by emperor.”-On May 19, Chen Ziming convened a meeting where a “counterrevolutionary leaflet” was written which stated that “military rule is about to be enforced” and “incited the masses” to “begin a nationwide work strike, class boycott, market boycott.”-On the evening of May 23, Chen Ziming and Wang Juntao summoned the leaders of the “Command Headquarters of Tiananmen Square,” the “Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation,” the “Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation,” the “Beijing Citizens Autonomous Federation,” the “Citizens Dare-to-Die Squad,” and other organizations together and founded the “Joint Liaison Group of All Circles in the Capital for the Patriotic Upholding of the Constitution.”-In mid-May, Chen Ziming sent others to print several hundred copies of a “counterrevolutionary leaflet” which called China’s socialist system “politically and journalistically dark” and “vilified” the Chinese Communist Party.-At the end of May and beginning of June, Chen Ziming and Wang Juntao “secretly conspired to set up places where they could go into hiding.”The court ruled that “these acts constitute the crime of plotting to subvert the government and the crime of counterrevolutionary propaganda and incitement and must be punished according to law.”Wang’s Defence claimed Yan Mingfu, head of the United Front Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, sent Zheng Yefu to invite Wang and others to “get involved immediately” in the movement to “serve as a bridge between the students and the government.”
Thus, the Defence claimed Wang Juntao and Chen Ziming involved themselves in the movement to “fulfill the task assigned to them by the party.”At his trial, Chen Ziming rejected the charges against him as “unfair and incorrect.” On February 12, 1991, both Chen Ziming and Wang Juntao were sentenced to 13 years in prison. The Xinhua News Agency stated that the two “committed serious crimes but have so far shown no willingness to repent.” By comparison, Liu Gang, convicted of subversion, Chen Xiaoping, convicted on the same charges as Wang and Chen Ziming, received more lenient sentences. Liu received six years because, according to the Xinhua News Agency, “he acknowledged his crimes and showed willingness to repent." Chen Xiaoping was released “for voluntarily giving himself up to police and showing willingness to repent,” according to the news agency. Others have offered different reasons for the discrepancy in sentencing. Merle Goldman, a Boston University professor of Chinese history, argued that Wang and Chen “represent a new revolutionary class in China, and, why the regime is so worried about them.”
A Western diplomat argues that the Chinese government “needed somebody to blame for millions of people marching on the streets, in public it’s come down to blaming these two guys.” Andrew Higgins, a reporter covering the trial, suggested