Avilés is a city in Asturias, Spain. Avilés is with one of the main towns in the Principality of Asturias; the town occupies the flattest land in the municipality, in a land that belonged to the sea, surrounded by small promontories, all of them having an altitude of less than 140 metres. Situated in the Avilés estuary, in the Northern Central area of the Asturian coast, west of Peñas Cape, it has a national seaport and is an industrial city, it is close to popular beaches such as Salinas. It has important churches like St. Thomas of Canterbury. Avilés has the Centro Cultural Oscar Niemeyer, too. Archaeological excavations have shown that the area was settled in the upper palaeolithic era; the existence of the town proper date is documented only in the early Middle Ages, although the name "Avilés" is thought to come from a local Roman landowner, Abilius. The first well known document is an endowment of two churches by Asturias King Alfonso III, in 905. During the Middle Ages, it was one of the most important ports of the Biscay Bay, trading with French ports, the main trade was salt.
At this time, it had two nuclei: a fishermen's district and the aristocratic centre, La Villa, standing each other across a small water inlet at the site of present-day Avilés' main Park. La Villa was surrounded by strong walls, which demonstrated its commercial importance. On 15 January 1479 the Catholic Monarchs granted a free market on each Monday of the year, which still takes place; the importance of the town as a naval centre is supported by the building of ships with wood harvested from nearby forests, with the participation of local sailors in the conquest of Seville by the Castilian army, reflected in Avilés's coat of arms. It is the birthplace of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, a soldier on the army of Felipe II, who explored Florida in the 16th century and founded in 1565 the first successful European town in what is now the United States, San Augustín. St. Augustine and Avilés are now sister cities. Avilés is the birthplace of Juan Carreño Miranda, court painter to the king Charles II.
The estuary, closed to navigation since the early modern era, was drained and cleared in the 19th century. The water inlet dividing the place was covered, so that the two nuclei, Sabugo and La Villa, could be joined together; the city began to grow outside the medieval wall, demolished in 1818. In the 20th century, there was an enormous growth in population due to the arrival of several large factories to the town. In 1953 were started the first earthworks for the construction of the factory of ENSIDESA, a large steel mill Aceralia. Nowadays, the city is trying to focus on new industries cultural tourism, recover its antique flavour. Sights include: St. Thomas of Canterbury church Church of Saint Nicholas of Bari, in Romanesque style Palacio de Valdecarzana, the sole example of civil medieval architecture in the town Palacio de Llano Ponte Baroque Palacio de Camposagrado, fortified in its north façade against the English pirates Capilla de los Alas, a 14th-century funerary monument in Romanesque-Gothic transition style Old church of Sabugo Palacio de Balsera, in Modernist style Palacio Valdés Theatre, in Neobaroque style.
Museum of Avilés Urban History Black Pottery Museum Alfercam Museum, where visitors can find a combination of world musical instrumentas and vintage cars. "Casa de Cultura", including the Bances Candamo public library, art gallery and study areas. CMAE - Centro municipal de arte y exposiciones - arts and exhibicion centre in El Arbolón area, not far from the town centre. Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre,designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer, it is a magnet for different personalities, including winners of the Prince of Asturias Awards, the Nobel prize, actors, the United Nations, etc. Throughout the town there are sculptures in various styles: the set of sculptures in El Muelle park, specially the Pedro Menendez sculpture and La foca; some of the most famous are: In autumn: Feast of the Amagüestu. In winter: The Antroxu which includes the Descenso Fluvial de Galiana. In spring: Feast of the Bollo. Comida en la Calle. In summer: Feast of Saint Augustine, Avilés' patron saint.
The Interceltic Festival of Avilés, which takes place in summer, with people coming from Brittany, Wales, Scotland and Asturias itself. "La Mar de Ruido" rock festival. Interceltic Festival of Avilés, which takes place in summer, with people coming from Brittany, Wales, Scotland and Asturias itself. Avilés International Cinema and Architecture Festival Beer Festival Aviles Acción international short-film festival Sol Celta organized from Sol Street. IndieGo Alley Festival, International Creative Commons film and music festival organized in Palacio Valdés street, it takes place during just one evening. The area experiences warm summers with both overcast and sunny days. In winter the weather is moderate
Palma de Mallorca
Palma de Mallorca, since December 2016 Palma, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situated on the south coast of Mallorca on the Bay of Palma; the Cabrera Archipelago, though separated from Palma proper, is administratively considered part of the municipality. As of 2018, Palma de Mallorca Airport serves over 29 million passengers per year. Palma was founded as a Roman camp upon the remains of a Talaiotic settlement; the city was subjected to several Vandal raids during the fall of the Western Roman Empire reconquered by the Byzantine Empire colonised by the Moors and, in the 13th century, by James I of Aragon. After the conquest of Mallorca, the city was loosely incorporated into the province of Tarraconensis by 123 BC. Whilst Pollentia acted as a port to Roman cities on the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, Palma was the port used for destinations in Africa, such as Carthage, Hispania, such as Saguntum and Carthago Nova. Though present-day Palma has no significant remains from this period, occasional archaeological finds are made in city centre excavations.
For example, the remains of the Roman Wall can be seen at Can Bordils, the Municipal Archive, below it, at the Maimó ben Faraig Center. Though the period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Muslim conquest is not well understood, there is clear evidence of a Byzantine presence in the city, as indicated by mosaics found in the oldest parts of the Cathedral, in early medieval times part of a paleo-Christian temple. Between 902 and 1229, the city was under Islamic control, it remained the capital of the island and it was known as Medina Mayurqa, which in Arabic means "City of Majorca". The arrival of the Moors in the Balearic Islands occurred at the beginning of the 8th century. During this period, the population developed an economy based on self-sufficiency and piracy, showed evidence of a relative hierarchy; the dominant groups took advantage of the Byzantine withdrawal due to Islamic expansion across the Mediterranean, to reinforce their domination upon the rest of the population, thus ensuring their power and the gradual abandonment of Imperial political structures.
In 707, a Muslim fleet, under the command of Abd Allgaht ibn Musa, son of the governor of Ifriqiya, Musa ibn Nusayr, stopped off at the island. It appears; this treaty was granted in exchange for a tax, respect for social and political structures to the communities that subscribed to it, as well as the continuity of their religious beliefs. After 707, the city was inhabited by Christians who were nominally in allegiance to the sovereignty of the Umayyad Caliphate, yet who, de facto, enjoyed absolute autonomy; the city, being in Mallorca, constituted an enclave between western Christian and Islamic territories, this attracted and encouraged increased levels of piracy in the surrounding waters. For wide sectors of the city's population, the sacking of ships which passed through Balearic waters was a source of riches over the next fifteen decades. Continued piracy in the region lead to a retaliation by Al-Andalus which launched a naval fleet against the city and the whole of the Islands; the Islands were defended by the emperor Charlemagne in 799 from a Muslim pirate incursion.
In 848, four years after the first Viking incursions had sacked the whole island, an attack from Córdoba forced the authorities to ratify the treaty to which the city had submitted in 707. As the city still occupied an eccentric position regarding the commerce network established by the Moors in the western Mediterranean, the enclave was not incorporated into Al-Andalus. While the Emirate of Córdoba reinforced its influence upon the Mediterranean, Al-Andalus increased its interest in the city; the consequence of this was the substitution of the submission treaty for the effective incorporation of the islands to the Islamic state. A squad under the command of Isam al-Jawlani took advantage of instability caused by several Viking incursions and disembarked in Mallorca, after destroying any resistance, incorporated Mallorca, with Palma as its capital, to the Córdoban state; the incorporation of the city into the Emirate set the basis for a new society. Commerce and manufacturing developed in a manner, unknown.
This caused considerable demographic growth, thereby establishing Medina Mayurqa as one of the major ports for trading goods in and out of the Emirate of Córdoba. The Umayyad regime, despite its administrative centralisation, mercenary army and struggle to gain wider social support, could neither harmonise the various ethnic groups inside al-Andalus nor dissolve the old tribes which still organised sporadic ethnic fighting. During the 11th century, the Caliphate's control waned considerably. Provinces broke free from the central Cordoban administration, became sovereign states — taifas — under the same governors, named by the last Umayyad Caliphs. According to their origin, these "taifas" can be grouped under three broad categories: people of Arab, Berber or Slavic origin. Palma was part of the taifa of Dénia; the founder of this state was a client of the Al-Mansur family, Muyahid ibn Yusuf ibn Ali, who could profit from the progressive crumbling of the Caliphate's superstructure to gain control over the province of Dénia.
Subsequently, Muyahid organised a campaign throughout the Balearic Islands to consolidate the district
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)
The National Statistics Institute is the official agency in Spain that collects statistics about demography and Spanish society. It is an autonomous organization in Spain responsible for overall coordination of statistical services of the General State Administration in monitoring and supervision of technical procedures; every 10 years, this organisation conducts a national census. The last census took place in 2011. Through the official website one can follow all the updates of different fields of study; the oldest statistics agency of Spain and the predecessor of the current agency was the General Statistics Commission of the Kingdom, created on November 3, 1856 during the reign of Isabella II. The so-then Prime Minister Narváez approved a decree creating this body and ordering that people with recognized ability in this matter were part of it. On May 1, 1861, the Commission change its name to General Statistics Board and their first work was to do a population census. By a decree of September 12, 1870, Prime Minister Serrano created the Geographic Institute and in 1873 this Institute change its name to Geographic and Statistic Institute assuming the competences of the General Statistics Board.
In 1890, the titularity of the agency was transferred from the Prime Minister's Office to the Ministry of Development. Between 1921 and 1939, change its name many times. In the same way, the agency was transferred from a ministry to another, passing through the Deputy Prime Minister's Office, the Ministry of the Presidency and the Ministry of Labour; the National Statistics Institute was created following the Law of December 31, 1945, published in the BOE of January 3, 1946, with a mission to develop and refine the demographic and social statistics existing, creating new statistics and coordination with the statistical offices of provincial and municipal areas. At the end of 1964 the first computer was installed at the INE, it was a first-generation IBM 1401, for which a team was formed consisting of four statistics faculty and ten technicians. In the four years following it was possible that said. INE Website
Las Palmas Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital, the most populous city in the autonomous community of the Canary Islands, the ninth-largest city in Spain with a population of 383,308 in 2010, it is the fifth-most populous urban area in Spain and ninth- or tenth-most populous metropolitan area in Spain. Las Palmas is located in the northeastern part of the island of Gran Canaria, about 150 km off the Moroccan coast in the Atlantic Ocean. Las Palmas experiences a hot desert climate, offset by the local cooler Canary Current, with warm temperatures throughout the year, it has an average annual temperature of 21.2 °C. According to a study carried out by Thomas Whitmore, director of research on climatology at Syracuse University in the U. S. Las Palmas enjoys "the best climate in the world"; the city was founded in 1478, considered the de facto capital of the Canary Islands until the seventeenth century.
It is the home of the Canarian Ministry of Presidency, as well as half of the ministries and boards of the Canarian government, the High Court of Justice of the Canary Islands. The city was founded by Juan Rejón on 24 June 1478, with the name "Real de Las Palmas". Rejón was head of the invading Castilian army, which engaged in war with the locals. In 1492, Christopher Columbus anchored in the port of Las Palmas and spent some time on the island on his first trip to the Americas, he stopped there on the way back to Spain. The Colón House museum in the Vegueta area of the city is named after him. In 1595, Francis Drake tried to plunder the town, leading to the Battle of Las Palmas. A Dutch raid under vice-admiral Pieter van der Does in 1599 was only more successful. Las Palmas' seaport, Puerto de la Luz, benefited from the closure of the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. Many foreign workers migrated to the city at this time. Las Palmas is a sister city of San Antonio, Texas, in the United States, founded in 1718 by about 25 Canary Islanders.
Las Palmas is divided into five administrative districts, which in turn are subdivided into districts, not consistent with the traditional neighborhoods. Las Palmas has a desert climate with warm dry summers and warm enough winters to classify it as a Tropical climate, its average annual temperature is 21.2 °C –28 °C during the day and 18 °C at night. In January, the coldest month, the temperature ranges from 19 to 23 °C during the day, around 15 to 16 °C at night, with an average sea temperature at 20 °C. In the warmest months — August and September — the temperature ranges from 27 to 30 °C during the day, above 21 °C at night, with the average sea temperature at 23 °C. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. August 1990 was the warmest month on record, with the average maximum temperature of the month during the day being 30.6 °C. The highest temperature recorded was 44.2 °C, the coldest temperature recorded was 9.4 °C. The highest wind speed recorded was on 28 November 2005, measuring 113 km/h.
Las Palmas city has never recorded any snow or sleet. Annual average relative humidity is 66%, ranging from 64% in March to 69% in October; the amount of annual sunshine hours is above 2,800 per year, from around 190 in winter to around 300 in summer. It rains on average only 22 days a year, with total precipitation per year of only 151 mm; as of 2008, nearly half of Gran Canaria's inhabitants live in Las Palmas, as well as 18.35% of the Canary Islands' total population. According to a study by the National Statistics Institute of Spain Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has a life expectancy of 80.9 years. Throughout history, Las Palmas received waves of immigrants from mainland Spain and countries from every continent; the majority of the population is Spanish, although large North- and sub-Saharan African and Latin American communities exist, as well as important historical minorities such as Indians and Koreans and a growing Chinese population. Ethnically, most autochthonous Canarians are descendants of a mixture of aboriginal people of the Canary Islands, the Spanish conquistadores and European colonizers.
Las Palmas is home to University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria with about 25,000 students. The city has a wide variety of state and public primary and secondary schools. International schools include: Deutsche Schule Las Palmas The British School of Gran Canaria The American School of Las Palmas Lycée Français René-Verneau, the French international school, is in the city limits of Telde Colegio Japonés de Las Palmas, a Japanese international school, was located within Tafira Alta in the city; the Escuela Complementaria Japonesa de Las Palmas provided a weekend supplementary Japanese programme. Las Palmas offers a variety of theater, opera, visual arts and dance performances; the city hosts the Canary Islands Music Festival, the Theatre and Dance and the International Film Festi
Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 447,182 inhabitants in 2018. The population of the metropolitan area was 689,591 in 2010, it is located on the Segura River, in the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, noted by a climate with hot summers, mild winters, low precipitation. Murcia was founded by the emir of Cordoba Abd ar-Rahman II in 825 with the name Mursiyah. Nowadays, it is a services city and a university town. Highlights for visitors include the Cathedral of Murcia and a number of baroque buildings, renowned local cuisine, Holy Week procession works of art by the famous Murcian sculptor Francisco Salzillo, the Fiestas de Primavera; the city, as the capital of the comarca Huerta de Murcia is called Europe's orchard due to its long agricultural tradition and its fruit and flower production and exports. Murcia is located near the center of a low-lying fertile plain known as the huerta of Murcia.
The Segura River and its right-hand tributary, the Guadalentín, run through the area. The city has an elevation of 43 metres above sea level and its municipality covers 882 square kilometres; the best known and most dominant aspect of the municipal area's landscape is the orchard. In addition to the orchard and urban zones, the great expanse of the municipal area is made up of different landscapes: badlands, groves of Carrasco pine trees in the precoastal mountain ranges and, towards the south, a semi-steppe region. A large natural park, the Parque Regional de Carrascoy y el Valle, lies just to the south of the city, it is believed that Murcia's name is derived from the Latin words of Myrtea or Murtea, meaning land of myrtle, although it may be a derivation of the word Murtia, which would mean Murtius Village. Other research suggests that it may owe its name to the Latin Murtae, which covered the regional landscape for many centuries; the Latin name changed into the Arabic Mursiya, Murcia. The city in its present location was founded with the name Madinat Mursiyah in AD 825 by Abd ar-Rahman II, the emir of Córdoba.
Umayyad planners, taking advantage of the course of the river Segura, created a complex network of irrigation channels that made the town's agricultural existence prosperous. In the 12th century the traveler and writer Muhammad al-Idrisi described the city of Murcia as populous and fortified. After the fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031, Murcia passed under the successive rules of the powers seated variously at Almería and Toledo, but became capital of its own kingdom with Ibn Tahir. After the fall of the Almoravide empire, Muhammad Ibn Mardanis made Murcia the capital of a new independent kingdom. At this time, Murcia was a prosperous city, famous for its ceramics, exported to Italian towns, as well as for silk and paper industries, the first in Europe; the coinage of Murcia was considered as model in all the continent. The mystic Ibn Arabi and the poet Ibn al-Jinan were born in Murcia during this period. In 1172 Murcia was conquered by the north African based Almohades, the last Muslim empire to rule southern Spain, as the forces of the Christian Reconquista gained the upper hand, was the capital of a small Muslim emirate from 1223 to 1243.
By the treaty of Alcaraz, in 1243, the Christian king Ferdinand III of Castile made Murcia a protectorate, getting access to the Mediterranean sea while Murcia was protected against Granada and Aragon. The Christian population of the town became the majority as immigrants poured in from all parts of the Iberian Peninsula. Christian immigration was encouraged with the goal of establishing a loyal Christian base; these measures led to the Muslim popular revolt in 1264, quelled by James I of Aragon in 1266, conquering Murcia and bringing Aragonese and Catalan immigrants with him. After this, during the reign of Alfonso X of Castile, Murcia was one of his capitals with Toledo and Seville; the Murcian duality: Catalan population in a Castillian territory, brought the subsequent conquest of the city by James II of Aragon in 1296. In 1304, Murcia was incorporated into Castile under the Treaty of Torrellas. Murcia's prosperity declined as the Mediterranean lost trade to the ocean routes and from the wars between the Christians and the Ottoman Empire.
The old prosperity of Murcia became crises during 14th century because of its border location with the neighbouring Muslim kingdom of Granada, but flourished after its conquest in 1492 and again in the 18th century, benefiting from a boom in the silk industry. Most of the modern city's landmark churches and old architecture date from this period. In this century, Murcia lived an important role in Bourbon victory in the War of the Spanish Succession, thanks to Cardinal Belluga. In 1810, Murcia was looted by Napoleonic troops. According to contemporaneous accounts, an estimated 6,000 people died from the disaster's effects across the province. Plague and cholera followed; the town and surrounding area suffered badly from floods in 1651, 1879, 1907, though the construction of a levee helped to stave off the repeated floods from the Segura. A popular pedestrian walkway, the Malecon, runs along the top of the levee. Murcia has been the capital of the province of Murcia since 1833 and, with its creation by the central government in 1982, capital of th
San Sebastián metropolitan area
San Sebastián metropolitan area is an area in the province of Gipuzkoa which extends into France. It includes, besides the city of San Sebastián, a number of nearby municipalities, some of them bordering, its total population is 405,099 inhabitants, with its extension of 372.86 square kilometres. It is the 19 th urban agglomeration of Spain in terms of population