Lima is a district of Lima Province in Peru. It is, not the Central business district of Lima, the country's capital city: this is San Isidro District. Lima district is the oldest in Lima and as such, vestiges of the city's colonial era remain today in the Historic centre of Lima, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 and contains the foundational area known as Cercado de Lima; the mayor of the Lima District is Jorge Muñoz Wells. The district has a total land area of 21.98 km². Its administrative center is located at 154 meters above sea level. North: The Rímac River marks the district's border with the San Martín de Porres and Rímac districts. East: El Agustino South: La Victoria, Jesús María, Breña and Pueblo Libre. West: San Miguel District. According to a 2005 estimate by the INEI, the district has 278,804 inhabitants and a population density of 15,736.9 persons/km². In 1999, there were 75,595 households in the district; the high point of Lima's religious calendar for the masses is a month of festivities in October dedicated to the Lord of Miracles, during which take place several processions in the city.
Central Lima is limited by Avenida Alfonso Ugarte on Jirón Huánuco on the east. It is divided into West and East sides by Jirón de la Unión, from which cuadras are numbered beginning at 100 and changing the first numbers at the next block. Unlike New York's Fifth Avenue, Jirón de la Unión is not paved for cars, but entirely a shopping and pedestrian street. Both are separated from Jirón de la Unión by 4 blocks; the Plaza de Armas, the main square, is located on block 2 of Jirón de la Unión, facing the Peruvian government palace and the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima. It's known as Damero de Pizarro. East of the center is the Barrios Altos neighborhood. Here the oldest, though least stable, buildings in Central Lima are located. Two cemeteries, El Angel and Presbítero Maestro, form the eastern border with El Agustino. Parts of the long-demolished colonial city walls can be seen here. Abutting this to the southwest is the Barrio chino neighborhood, dating from the mid-1800s. South of the West Side is Santa Beatriz section, which contains residential buildings and the Parque de la Reserva.
Santa Beatriz is locally famous for containing the buildings for the state TV network TNP, the top two private TV networks, America Television and Panamericana Television. Its main thoroughfare is a narrow boulevard lined with trees of all sizes. Santa Beatriz is home to the city's main football stadium, the Estadio Nacional. West of the center is the Industrial Area, an industrial belt extending into neighboring Callao Region, home to the main industries in both city and country. Most of the area is covered by large blocks containing large factories. At its northern and southern edges, there are clusters of residential areas in the southern zone bordering Pueblo Libre, San Miguel and Callao Region's Bellavista District. Administrative divisions of Peru Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima - Metropolitan Lima Municipal Council official website
Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru. It is Peru's second most populous city with 861,145 inhabitants, as well as its second most populous metropolitan area as of 2016, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics Arequipa is the second most industrialized and commercialized city in Peru, its industrial activity camelid wool products for export. The city has close trade ties with Chile and Brazil; the city was founded on 15 August 1540, by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal as "Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción". During the Colonial period, Arequipa became important for its economic prosperity and for its loyalty to the Spanish Crown. After Peru gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Arequipa acquired greater political significance, was declared the capital city of Peru from 1835 to 1883; the historic center of Arequipa is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its historic heritage, natural scenery and cultural sites make the city a major tourist destination.
Its religious and republican architectural styles blend European and native characteristics into a unique style called "Escuela Arequipeña". A local tradition states that Inca Mayta Capac received a petition from his subjects to reach the valley of the River Chili, they asked him for permission to stay in the region as they were impressed by the beauty of the landscape and the mild climate. The Inca answered "Ari qhipay". However, another similar tale states that when the first Europeans arrived to the valley, they pointed at the ground and asked for the name of the land; the local chief, not understanding the question, assumed they were asking for a permission to sit down and gave a positive answer, which sounded like "Arequipa". Chroniclers Blas Valera and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega suggested that the name of the city came from an ancient Aymara phrase, "ari qquepan" meaning "trumpet sound", in reference to the sound produced from blowing into an empty conch-like seashell. Another possible origin of the city's name comes from the Aymara language phrase "qhipaya ari" or "Ari qipa", which translates to "behind the peak," referring to the nearby volcano, Misti.
The early inhabitants of the Arequipa City area were nomadic people who relied on activities such as hunting and gathering for survival. Pre-Inca cultures domesticated llamas and became sedentary with the development of agriculture. During this time, major irrigation channels were built within the valley of the Chili river, which allowed the development of agriculture by means of terraces built on both sides of the valley; the Yarabaya and Chimbe tribes settled in the city's current location, together with the Cabana and Collagua tribes they developed an agrarian economy in the valley. When the Inca Mayta Capac arrived in the valley of the Chili river, he didn't build cities. A Hispanic version of the events, detailed by chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, described as inaccurate, suggests that around 1170 Huayna Capac stopped with his army in the valley of the Chili River, which he called Ari qepay – an expression meaning "let's stay here". Lands were distributed among three thousand families who founded the towns of Yanahuara, Tiabaya, Socabaya and others, towns that still exist nowadays.
The Spanish foundation of Arequipa was performed on 15 August 1540 by Garci Manuel de Carbajal in the valley of the Chili river as "Villa de la Asunción de Nuestra Señora del Valle Hermoso de Arequipa" in an area occupied by some Native American villages. At the time of its foundation, Arequipa had a city council, because the foundation of the town occurred in part as a relocation of Villa Hermosa de Camana, a coastal city; the name was conserved as Villa Hermosa de Arequipa. Charles V of Germany and I of Spain gave the town a status of'city' by Royal Decree on 22 September 1541; the relocation efforts were led by Garci Manuel de Carbajal, selected as the political authority for the foundation of the new town. Among the first public works carried out in the city are the Main Church, the City Hall, the bridge on the Chili River and the monastery of Nuestra Señora de Gracia. Since its Spanish founding and over three centuries, the population of the city was of Spanish origin, which represented a strong following of Spain.
One aspect that distinguished Arequipa from the rest of the country was the explicit and public commitment of the city to the Spanish Crown, a phenomenon called fidelismo. Among its most remarkable defenders were Francisco de Paula Quiroz, Mariano de Rivero, Nicolás Fernández, José Miguel de Lastarria; as a result, the Spanish Monarchy gave the city the title of Faithful by Royal Charter in 1805. Because of its distance from other Peruvian cities, Arequipa was not influenced by libertarian movements Although those libertarian movements and pro-independence military troops entered Arequipa, the city remained under Spaniard control until the Battle of Ayacucho, due to struggles for local political power, its privileged location at the crossroads of the trade route of silver during colonial times and, after independence, the wool trade route, allowed Arequipa to accumulate administrative and industrial power. Moreover, f
Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática
The Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática is a semi-autonomous Peruvian government agency which coordinates and evaluates statistical information for the country. Its current director is Renán Quispe Llanos; as stated on its website, the INEI eases decision-making with the help of quality statistical information and the use of information technology and thus helps develop the society. The latest census performed by the INEI is the 2017 Census, conducted from August 22 through November 5 of that year, its preliminary results will be released to the public in 3 months, final results in January 2018. An earlier census is the 2007 Census. In its reports INEI uses standard coding systems for geographical location and classification of economical activities: UBIGEO ClaNAE Census in Peru INEI website
Lima metropolitan area
The Lima metropolitan area, is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian city-provinces of Lima and Callao. It is the largest of the metropolitan areas of Peru, the seventh largest in the Americas, the fourth largest in Latin America, among the thirty largest in the world; the conurbation process started to be evident in the 1980s. The metropolitan area is composed of six subregions; these are Lima Norte, Lima Sur, Lima Este, Residential Lima, Central Lima, Callao. Its estimated 2018 population is 12 million according to INEI statistics; the city of Lima was founded by Spanish colonists on January 18, 1535. The port of Callao was founded two years later; the city of Lima began when Francisco Pizarro declared it at what is known in Christianity as the Epiphany. He declared it at the center of the Plaza Mayor, it would become the most important city in South America. The city of Callao has been important, as for hundreds of years it was the only port in all of the Viceroyalty of Peru allowed to ship anything to the rest of the world.
For hundreds of years and Callao were separated by a desert. This did not diminish the importance of the union between the two cities, it was not until the 19th century. The metropolitan linkage between these two cities did not start until they both grew enough to, in essence, crash into each other. In the present day, Lima is the most important metropolis in Peru and is the largest in the Andean region; the area's financial district is San Isidro. It is home to a large concentration of business centers and commerce. Miraflores and Barranco are two districts where the city's nightlife is based in. Parts of the metropolis can be lively. Today different areas of the city have differing aspects and showcase variations in culture caused by varying times of settlement, differences in socio-economic level and immigration from other parts of Peru; the downtown area, unlike many downtowns in other major cities, is a historic district, is home to many cathedrals and churches built during the Spanish colonial period.
In the latter half of the 20th century, the city has grown by migration from other regions of Peru. Many of these migrants began to form new communities called pueblos jovenes and asentamientos humanos young towns and human settlements; these towns are similar to the favelas of Brazil but smaller. Many of them have no running water or electricity and the city has been unable to provide the infrastructure to all the new residents. Many of the communities, such as Comas, Villa El Salvador have evolved into modern districts, where residents have found the better life they were searching for; the conurbation has an area of 2,819.26 km2. It is concentrated in the coastal area and runs north-south along the Pacific coast for 200 km, beginning in the district of Ancón, on the border with the Huaral Province of the Lima region, ending in the district of Pucusana, on the border with the Cañete Province in the Lima region; the Rímac, Chillón and Lurín rivers pass through the area. It is made up of in 7 in Callao.
Most of the area is located in the desert whereas the eastern portion is located in the foothills of the Andes. It is the world's second largest desert city after Egypt; the Lima metropolitan area is informally divided into six general areas. They are the Cono Norte, Cono Sur, Eastern Lima, the upscale commercial districts, the Port of Callao, Lima's historical district. Today Lima and Callao have conurbanized to the point. Hundreds of streets and highways link the two cities. Taxicabs vary in quality of price. Most can be stopped at any street, private taxi companies can be called to pick up passengers at a certain address. To improve the quality of taxis running in Lima, a new law was passed to prohibit importing used cars. BusNumerous inter-urban bus companies offer transportation to other cities in Peru. Quality varies depending on the price, from luxury express buses to ill-maintained and crowded micros. Mass-transit systems:El Metropolitano The newly completed bus system called Metropolitano is an above-ground mass-transit system which traverses the downtown area, the financial district, other residential districts, the upper reaches of the Cono Sur.
The system finishes in Comas. Plans for additional lines were abandoned in favor of adding complimentary lines to the existing route. Lima Metro In 2010 the government of Alan García renewed the project of Lima Metro, starting with the construction of Line 1, it calls for the construction and implementation of 11.7 kilometres of viaduct elevated of double ramp from the Atocongo Bridge to downtown Lima. The Lima Metro Line 1 is being built by a consortium made up by two engineering and construction companies, it is estimated that construction will be complete by December 2010, with remaining work the electrification of the line. Siemens Engineering has responsibility for that portion; the first part of Line 1 must be completed in June 2011 and starts daily operations in July 2011. Air transportLima's main passenger gateway for national and international air travelers is Jorge Chávez International Airport located in Callao. % of the metro area's total
Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. Its capital is Lima, the nation's capital. Despite its small area, this province is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Peruvian economy, it concentrates one-third of the country's population and 50% of Peru's GDP in 2012. The province was created in 1821 as Peru's territory was divided into departments, provinces and parishes; the province was part of the Lima Department, formed by the territories of present-day Lima and Ica regions, the provinces of Casma and Santa, which would be part of the La Costa Department. The department was further subdivided as time passed but the Lima Province kept being part of it. Due to the massive migration from other areas of the country, the need to separate the province from the rest of the department was forecast by experts. In 2002, the new regionalization law passed by President Alejandro Toledo made the Lima Province a separate entity from the rest of the newly created Lima Region.
The province is divided into 43 districts. Each of them is headed by a mayor, although the Metropolitan Lima Municipal Council, led by the mayor of Lima exercises its authority in these districts. All the districts of Lima province are fused together in a continuous urban area, with the exception of the beach resorts of Ancon and Santa Rosa in the north and Pachacamac, Punta Hermosa, Punta Negra, San Bartolo, Santa Maria del Mar and Pucusana in the south. North: Huaral Province Northeast: Canta Province East: Huarochirí Province South: Cañete Province West: Callao Region and the Pacific Ocean Lima Province is administered by the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima, which administers the city of Lima, its current mayor is Jorge Muñoz Wells
The Cono Norte is one of the six areas that make up the Lima Metropolitan Area. It is located in the northern part of the metropolis, hence its name; the socioeconomic levels of its residents are varied. Ancón and Santa Rosa are popular beach resorts for wealthier residents of Lima; the rest of the population comprises lower class residents. It is one of the most populated areas of Peru; the following districts are part of the Cono Norte: Ancón Carabayllo Comas Independencia Los Olivos Puente Piedra San Martín de Porres Santa Rosa Northern Lima travel guide from Wikivoyage
Iquitos known as City of Iquitos, is the capital city of Peru's Maynas Province and Loreto Region. The largest metropolis in the Peruvian Amazon, east of the Andes, it is the ninth most populous city of Peru, it is known as the "capital of the Peruvian Amazon". The city is located in the Great Plains of the Amazon Basin, fed by the Amazon and Itaya rivers. Overall, it constitutes the Iquitos metropolitan area, a conurbation of 471,993 inhabitants consisting of four districts: Iquitos, Belén, San Juan Bautista, it is the largest city in the world that cannot be reached by road – it is accessible only by river and air. The area was long inhabited by indigenous peoples; the founding date of the European city is uncertain. Spanish historical documents state that it was set up around 1757 as a Spanish Jesuit reduction by the banks of the Nanay River; the Jesuits gathered local Napeano and Iquito natives to live here, they named it San Pablo de Napeanos. In the late 19th century, the city became the center of export of rubber production from the Amazon Basin and was the headquarters of the Peruvian Amazon Company.
The rubber boom attracted thousands of European traders and workers, some of whom amassed wealth with the high-volume production and trade in rubber. The city's economy was dependent on the PAC, controlled in the nation by Peruvian businessman Julio César Arana; the operations of PAC's forces in the Basin, who kept indigenous workers in near slavery conditions through use of force and harsh treatment, was investigated by Roger Casement, the British consul-general in Peru. He had investigated labor conditions for natives in the Congo Free State when it was under King Leopold's control, reporting on the abuse of thousands of workers, his 1913 exposure of abuses of Peruvian workers caused a reaction against the company among the several British members of its board and many stockholders. The company struggled financially and lost backing in the UK. In addition, rubber seedlings had been smuggled out of the country and cultivated on plantations in Southeast Asia; as the plants matured, the competition undercut prices of the Peruvian product.
With the decline of the rubber industry, many workers and merchants left Iquitos. As one of the leading cities, along with Manaus, in the huge Amazon rubber boom, Iquitos was influenced by the numerous Europeans who flocked to it. Architecture and cultural institutions established during this period expressed their own traditions. An opera house and Jewish cemetery were among the institutions established. In the 20th century, the city and region diversified its economy; the region exported timber and their products, oil and agricultural crops. It derives considerable revenue from tourism and related crafts, as well as bakery, carbonated drinks and beer. By 1999, the city had consolidated its four municipalities; the architecture and historical treasures reflect the colonial and early 20th-century European period, attracting an increased tourist trade in the 21st century. In addition it is a center of ecological tourism, it has become a major cosmopolitan city with strong roots in the Amazon, featuring a complex history and cuisine, Amazonian landscapes, a growing cultural movement.
In 2012, 250,000 visitors were recorded. Many have been attracted since the Amazon rainforest was ranked as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Iquitos inaugurated international flights to the main hub of Panama City in 2012, with shared destinations with Miami and Cancún, its international airport is expected to become one of six international air centers of Peru. The city was ranked as sixth on the list of "10 leading cities in 2011" of the Lonely Planet guidebook; the Historic Center of Iquitos has several structures that have been designated as part of the Cultural Heritage of the Nation: the Cathedral of Iquitos, the Iron House, the Old Hotel Palace, Cohen House, more than 70 other buildings. Other landmarks are the Plaza de Armas; the city is home to the Amazon Library, one of the two most important in Latin America. The city can be reached only by airplane or boat, with the exception of a road to Nauta, a small town 100 km south. Ocean vessels of 3,000 to 9,000 tons and 5.5 metres draft can reach Iquitos via the Amazon River from the Atlantic Ocean, 3,600 kilometres away.
Most people travel within the city via motorcycle, or the ubiquitous auto rickshaw. This is a modified motorcycle with a cabin behind supported by two wheels, seating up to three persons. Transportation to nearby towns requires a river trip via pequepeque, a small public motorized boat; the area was inhabited for thousands of years by Amerindians. At the time of European encounter, the Napeano and Iquito peoples occupied the area, they had small seasonal settlements and were nomadic hunter-gatherers, living in close association with the rivers. The city name of Iquitos is derived from a group of native people called Iquitos by the Spaniards, they had inhabited areas along the rivers Pastaza, Tigre and Curaray. The native Iquitos migrated to the area around the rivers Nanay, Amazonas and the Lake Moronacocha. Between 1638 to 1769, the Iquitos and other native tribes of the Marañon rivers were obliged to settle down in various Missions founded and run by Jesuit missionaries from the Audiencia of Quito.
The Jesuits s