Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land is a nine-county metropolitan area defined by the Office of Management and Budget. It is located along the Gulf Coast region in the U. S. state of Texas, the metropolitan area is colloquially referred to as Greater Houston and is situated in Southeast Texas. The population of the area is centered in the city of Houston—the largest economic. Houston is among the metropolitan areas in the United States. From 2000 to 2007, the area grew by 912,994 people, from 2000 to 2030, the metropolitan area is projected by Woods & Poole Economics to rank fifth in the nation in population growth—adding 2.66 million people. It is a part of the Texas Triangle megapolitan area, the OMB lumps the Houston-The Woodlands-Sugarland MSA with four micropolitan statistical areas to form the Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area. Bay City, Brenham, El Campo, and Huntsville, the metropolitan area is located in the Gulf Coastal Plains biome, and its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland.
Much of the area was built on forested land, swamp. The Houston area land mass is very diverse, there is forested land and hills to the north and grasslands to the south and marshlands to the east, rice fields and praires to the west. Much of the Houston metropolitan area is flat, making flooding a recurring problem for some areas. Underpinning Houstons land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, the regions geology developed from stream deposits formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic matter that, over time, transformed into oil, beneath these tiers is a water-deposited layer of halite, a rock salt. The porous layers were compressed over time and forced upward, as it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into dome shapes, often trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands. This thick, rich soil provides a good environment for rice farming in suburban outskirts into which the city continues to grow near Katy.
Evidence of past rice farming is still evident in developed areas as an abundance of rich, dark. The Houston region is generally earthquake-free and these faults generally move at a smooth rate in what is termed fault creep. As defined by the Office of Management and Budget, the area of Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land encompasses nine counties in Texas. They are listed below with figures as of the 2010 U. S. Census
Washington metropolitan area
The Washington metropolitan area is the metropolitan area centered on Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. The area includes all of the district and parts of the U. S. states of Maryland and Virginia. The Washington metropolitan area is one of the most educated and most affluent metropolitan areas in the United States, the regions three largest cities are the federal territory of Washington, D. C. the county of Arlington, and the independent city of Alexandria. The area is sometimes referred to as the National Capital Region. Another term used to describe the region is the D. C, the area is increasingly referred to as the DMV, a shorthand for the District of Columbia and Virginia. The area in the region that is surrounded by Interstate 495 is referred to as being inside the Beltway. The city of Washington, which is at the center of the area, is referred to as the District because it is the federal District of Columbia, the Virginian portion of the region is known as Northern Virginia.
Senate, and the U. S. House of Representatives, the National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, a component of MWCOG, is the federally designated metropolitan planning organization for the metropolitan Washington area. The area has been a magnet for international immigration since the late 1960s and it is a magnet for internal migration. Census estimates show that persons of post-1965 immigrant stock will likely represent 25% of the population by 2010. Forbes magazine stated in its 2008 Americas Best- And Worst-Educated Cities report, The D. C. area is less than half the size of L. A. but both cities have around 100,000 Ph. D. s. In the 21st century, the Washington metropolitan area has overtaken the San Francisco Bay Area as the metropolitan area in the nation. The median household income of the region is US$72,800, census Bureau, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Claritas Inc. and other sources. A Dice. com report showed that the Washington–Baltimore area had the second-highest number of tech jobs listed,8,289, changes in house prices for the D. C. S. residential real estate market.
McLean ZIP code 22102 had the highest median home prices among ZIP codes within the Washington metropolitan area as of 2013, asian Americans had the highest median net worth in the Washington area. Although the median net worth for white D. C. -area households was 81 times that of black D. C. -area households, defense contracting Many defense contractors are based in the region to be close to the Pentagon in Arlington. Tourism Tourism is a significant industry in the Washington metropolitan region, the convention industry is significant, in 2016, D. C. hosted fifteen city-wide conventions with an estimated total economic impact of $277.9 million. Fort Lee gained 7,344 mostly military employees, fort Meade gained 5,361 employees, primarily as a result of the expansion of the National Security Agency
The Inland Empire is a metropolitan area and region in Southern California. The term may be used to refer to the cities of western Riverside County, most of the areas population is located in southwestern San Bernardino County and northwestern Riverside County. At the end of the century, the Inland Empire was a major center of agriculture, including citrus, dairy. The term Inland Empire is documented to have used by the Riverside Enterprise newspaper as early as April 1914. Developers in the area likely introduced the term to promote the region, the Inland part of the name is derived from the regions location, about 60 miles inland from Los Angeles and the Pacific Ocean. Originally, this area was called the Orange Empire due to the acres of citrus groves that once extended from Pasadena to Redlands during the first half of the twentieth century. The Inland Empire is a region, but is defined as the cities of western Riverside County. A generally broader definition will include the community of Palm Springs and its surrounding area.
What is now known as the Inland Empire was inhabited for thousands of years, prior to the eighteenth century, by the Tongva, Serrano. With Spanish colonization and the subsequent Mexican era the area was populated at the land grant Ranchos. The first American settlers, a group of Mormon pioneers, arrived over the Cajon Pass in 1851, although the Mormons left a scant six years later, recalled to Salt Lake City by Brigham Young during the churchs Utah War with the US government, other settlers soon followed. Base Line road, a thoroughfare, today runs from Highland to San Dimas. San Bernardino County was first formed out of parts of Los Angeles County on April 26,1853, while the partition once included what is today most of Riverside County, the region is not as monolithic as it may sound. On August 14,1893, the state Senate allowed Riverside County to form out of previously in San Bernardino and San Diego counties. County and become the seat of what would have been called San Antonio County, the arrival of rail and the importation of navel and Valencia orange trees in the 1870s touched off explosive growth, with the area quickly becoming a major center for citrus production.
In 1926, Route 66 came through the parts of the area. The region experienced significant economic and population growth through most of the half of the twentieth century. In the early 1990s, the loss of the military bases
The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described as either a metropolitan statistical area, or as a broader combined statistical area. Some of Greater Bostons most well-known contributions to human civilization involve the higher education institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American history and industry, the region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region, the area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history, particularly American literature and the American Revolution. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution, the Greater Boston region has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States.
Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in 2004, Massachusetts became the first US state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. The most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council, the MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 cities and towns that are grouped into eight subregions and these include most of the area within the regions outer circumferential highway, I-495.
The eight subregions and their towns are, Inner Core, MetroWest, North Shore, North Suburban, South Shore, SouthWest. Northern Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA, the urbanized area surrounding Boston serves as the core of a definition used by the US Census Bureau known as the New England city and town area. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area plus surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the area is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua. The Boston NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions, which are listed below, the Boston and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond roughly to the MAPC area. The total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941, the metropolitan statistical area had a total population of approximately 4,732,161 as of 2014 and is the tenth-largest in the United States. The components of the area with their estimated 2012 populations are listed below. This area consists of the areas of Manchester, Providence, as well as Cape Cod.
The total population as of 2014 for the region was estimated at 8,099,575
Atlanta metropolitan area
Its economic and demographic center is Atlanta, and it had a 2015 estimated population of 5.7 million people according to the U. S. Census Bureau. The metro area forms the core of a trading area. The Combined Statistical Area spans up to 39 counties in north Georgia and had an estimated 2015 population of 6.3 million people, Atlanta is considered an alpha world city. It is the third largest metropolitan region in the Census Bureaus Southeast region behind Greater Washington and South Florida. By U. S. Census Bureau standards, the population of the Atlanta region spreads across an area of 8,376 square miles – a land area comparable to that of Massachusetts. Because Georgia contains more counties than any state except Texas. As of the 2000 census, fewer than one in ten residents of the area lived inside Atlanta city limits. A2006 survey by the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce counted 140 cities, six cities – Johns Creek, Chattahoochee Hills, Peachtree Corners, and Brookhaven – have incorporated since then, following the lead of Sandy Springs in 2005.
The Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950 as Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, the CSA abuts the Macon and Columbus MSAs. The region is one of the metropolises of the Southeastern United States, the above-listed counties are included in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville CSA. However, most other entities define a much smaller metropolitan area by including only the counties which have the densest suburban development. Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton were the five original counties when the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950, and continue to be the core of the metro area. These five counties along with five more are members of the Atlanta Regional Commission, the ten ARC counties and five more are part of the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District, created in 2001. The 14 counties listed above with under 60,000 residents are not included in any other metropolitan definition except the OMB/Census Bureaus CSA. Hall County was originally the Gainesville, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, Cumberland Perimeter Center Hartsfield-Jackson area More than one half of metro Atlantas population is in unincorporated areas or areas considered a census-designated-place by the census bureau.
Metro Atlanta includes the incorporated and unincorporated suburbs, exurbs. 420,003 Places with 75,000 to 99,999 inhabitants Sandy Springs pop,76,728 Places with 50,000 to 74,999 inhabitants Alpharetta pop. 51,271 Places with 25,000 to 49,999 inhabitants Dunwoody pop,25,636 Places with 24, 999- inhabitants The area sprawls across the low foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the north and the Piedmont to the south
The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows. By extension, this toponym is commonly used to refer to the Philadelphia metropolitan area, the Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is located at the southern part of the Northeast megalopolis extending from Boston to Washington, D. C. metropolitan areas. The MSA has a population of over 6 million, while the CSA has a population of over 7.1 million. Philadelphia, being the major commercial and industrial center. As of March 2011, the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area constitutes the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the United States, Philadelphias media market ranks fourth, behind New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago, in Nielsen Media Market size rankings. It borders the New York metropolitan area located directly to the north of this area, such educational institutions as Delaware Valley Regional High School in Alexandria Township and Delaware Valley College in Doylestown Township are named after the region.
Likewise, Frenchtowns now defunct newspaper The Delaware Valley News was another example of the usage, although much of the Trenton MSA is considered part of the Delaware Valley and often considered part of Philadelphias media market area, it is classified as part of New Yorks CSA. Within the Hispanic population, the vast majority are Puerto Ricans, there is a significant West Indian community. There is even a small Native American community known as Lenapehoking for Lenni-Lenape Indians of West Philadelphia. Philadelphias suburbs contain a concentration of malls, the two largest of which have at least 5,000,000 square feet of office space. Malls, office complexes, strip shopping plazas and tract housing are common sights, and more and more continue to replace rolling countryside, farms and wetlands. However, due to opposition by residents and political officials. Older townships and large boroughs such as Cheltenham, Jenkintown, Upper Darby, the fastest-growing counties are Chester, Montgomery and Gloucester.
Upper Darby, in Delaware County is the largest township in the United States, sometimes Reading is included in the Delaware Valley Metro Area. The Delaware Valley has four seasons with ample precipitation and is divided by the 0 °C January isotherm. The region has two ski areas, Bear Creek Ski and Recreation Area in eastern Berks County and Spring Mountain in central Montgomery County. Using the -3 °C January isotherm as a boundary, all of the Delaware Valley is humid subtropical except for portions of Berks County, the warm-summer humid continental climate only exists in higher areas of Berks where all monthly temperatures average below 22 °C. The valley was the territory of the Susquehannock and Lenape, who are recalled in place throughout the region
Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated population of 9.4 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States, Chicagoland is the area that is closely linked to the city through geographic, social and cultural ties. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world’s largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees, the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. The Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was originally designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and it comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana. As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, the Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States.
The 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,427,676 and this loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues, and other factors. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows, The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area. The Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area combines the areas of Chicago, Michigan City. This area represents the extent of the market pool for the entire region. The CSA has a population of 9,928,312, the Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000. The term “urban agglomeration” refers to the contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It usually incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area, Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area. The term Chicagoland has no definition, and the region is often considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA.
Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, mcCormicks conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states. The first usage was in the Tribunes July 27,1926 front page headline, Chicagolands Shrines, A Tour of Discoveries and he stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area. The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, the Chicago Tribunes usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, and the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage, the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. For example, many residents who live in some of the more distant satellite counties nonetheless refer to themselves as being from Chicago or Chicagoans
Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, the OMB Director reports to the President, Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War. The Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration, the first OMB included Roy Ash, Paul ONeill, Fred Malek and Frank Zarb and two dozen others. OMB prepares the Presidents budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies, OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the presidents budget, OMB oversees and coordinates the administrations procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
OMB manages other agencies financials, and IT, the Office is made up mainly of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships. These staff have dual responsibility for management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the presidents budget and they are often called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member. Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the presidents budget each February.
The Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and they are responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum to the president once a bill is presented by both bodies of Congress for the presidents signature. They issue Statements of Administration Policy that let Congress know the White Houses official position on proposed legislation. S. com, August 22,2005
Phoenix metropolitan area
The United States Census Bureau designates the area as the Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler Metropolitan Statistical Area, defining it as Maricopa and Pinal counties. As of the Census Bureaus 2015 population estimates, the Valley had 4,574,351 residents, the gross domestic product of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area was $215 billion in 2014, 15th largest amongst metro areas in the United States. It is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas, gaining nearly 400,000 residents from 2010 to 2015. The 2000 Census reported the population of the area to be 3,251,876. As for the 2010 Census, the two-county metropolitan area was reported to have a population of 4,192,887, Metro Phoenix grew by 941,011 people from April 2000 to April 2010, making it one of the fastest growing metro areas in the country. This contributed to the entire states exceptional growth, as the area is home to just over two-thirds of Arizonas population. As of the 2010 census, there were 4,192,887 people,1,537,137 households, and 1,024,971 families residing within the MSA.
The racial makeup of the MSA was 73. 0% White,5. 0% Black,3. 3% Asian,2. 4% Native American or Alaska Native and 16. 2% of other or mixed race,29. 5% were Hispanic of any race. In 2010 the median income for a household in the MSA was $50,385, the per capita income was $24,809. What follows is a list of places in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, the Office of Management and Budget defines a metropolitan area as the core city plus its county and any nearby counties that are economically dependent on the core city. However, Arizona has relatively large counties and a harsh, rugged desert landscape, for these reasons, much of the land that is part of the Metropolitan Statistical Area is rural or completely uninhabited. The core part of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area is the Phoenix–Mesa, Arizona Urban Area, Places that fall completely or partially within the boundaries of the Phoenix-Mesa, AZ UA are in bold below. 1,537,058 Places with 250, 000+ inhabitants Mesa pop,254,276 Places with 150, 000–249,999 inhabitants Gilbert pop.
166,934 Places with 75,000 to 149,999 inhabitants Surprise pop,75,664 Places with 30,000 to 74,999 inhabitants Buckeye pop. 32,236 Places with 10, 000–29,999 inhabitants Coolidge pop, the average elevation is about 2,000 feet, with the highest point being 2,704 feet. The Phoenix Metropolitan area is notable for its warm, desert climate, on average, the area receives about 9 inches of rain annually, with less than 1 inch of snow every decade. In total, the region will see about 32 days of precipitation each year. The MSA is one of the sunniest major metropolitan areas, receiving 295 days of sunshine, the average July high is about 104 °F, with the average January low being about 37 °F, still above freezing