Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex
The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex encompasses 13 counties within the U. S. state of Texas. Residents of the area refer to it as DFW, or the Metroplex, it is the economic and cultural hub of the region of North Texas, it is the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States. The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex's population is 7,399,662 according to the 2017 U. S. Census estimate, making it the largest metropolitan area in both Texas and the South, the fourth-largest in the U. S. and the seventh-largest in the Americas. In 2016, DFW ascended to the number one spot in the nation in year-over-year population growth. In 2016, the metropolitan economy surpassed Houston to become the fourth-largest in the nation the region boasts a GDP of just over $613.4 billion in 2019. As such, the metropolitan area's economy is ranked 10th largest in the world; the region's economy is based on banking, telecommunications, energy and medical research, transportation and logistics. In 2017, Dallas–Fort Worth is home to 24 Fortune 500 companies, the third-largest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the nation, behind New York City and Chicago.
The metroplex encompasses 9,286 square miles of total area: 8,991 sq mi is land, while 295 sq mi is water, making it larger in area than the states of Rhode Island and Connecticut combined. A portmanteau of metropolis and complex, the term metroplex is credited to Harve Chapman, an executive vice president with Dallas-based Tracy-Locke, one of three advertising agencies that worked with the North Texas Commission on strategies to market the region; the NTC copyrighted the term "Southwest Metroplex" in 1972 as a replacement for the previously-ubiquitous "North Texas", which studies had shown lacked identifiability outside the state. In fact, only 38 percent of a survey group identified Dallas and Fort Worth as part of "North Texas", with the Texas Panhandle a perceived correct answer, being the northernmost region of Texas. Collin County Dallas County Denton County Ellis County Hood County Hunt County Johnson County Kaufman County Parker County Rockwall County Somervell County Tarrant County Wise County Note: Cities and towns are categorized based on the latest population estimates from the North Central Texas Council of Governments.
No population estimates are released for census-designated places, which are marked with an asterisk. These places are categorized based on their 2010 census population. Places designated "principal cities" by the Office of Management and Budget are italicized.1,000,000+ Dallas 500,000–999,999 Fort Worth 200,000–499,999 Arlington Plano Irving Garland 100,000–199,999 Grand Prairie McKinney Frisco Mesquite Carrollton Denton Richardson Lewisville As of the 2010 United States census, there were 6,371,773 people. The racial makeup of the MSA was 50.2% White, 15.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 5.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.0% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.5% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $48,062, the median income for a family was $55,263. Males had a median income of $39,581 versus $27,446 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $21,839. The Dallas–Fort Worth, TX–OK Combined Statistical Area is made up of 20 counties in north central Texas and one county in southern Oklahoma.
The statistical area includes seven micropolitan areas. As of the 2010 Census, the CSA had a population of 6,817,483; the CSA definition encompasses 14,628 sq mi of area, of which 14,126 sq mi is land and 502 sq mi is water. Metropolitan Statistical Areas Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Sherman-Denison Micropolitan Statistical Areas Athens Bonham Corsicana Durant, OK Gainesville Mineral Wells Sulphur Springs Note: The Granbury micropolitan statistical area was made part of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area effective 2013; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,487,956 people, 2,006,665 households, 1,392,540 families residing within the CSA. The racial makeup of the CSA was 70.41% White, 13.34% African American, 0.59% Native American, 3.58% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.62% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.83% of the population. It is home to the fourth-largest Muslim population in the country; the median income for a household in the CSA was $43,836, the median income for a family was $50,898.
Males had a median income of $37,002 versus $25,553 for females. The per capita income for the CSA was $20,460; the metroplex overlooks prairie land with a few rolling hills dotted by man-made lakes cut by streams and rivers surrounded by forest land. The metroplex is situated in the Texas blackland prairies region, so named for its fertile black soil found in the rural areas of Collin, Ellis, Hunt and Rockwall counties. Many areas of Denton, Parker and Wise counties are locat
Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land is the fifth-most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States, encompassing nine counties along the Gulf Coast in southeastern Texas. With a population of 6,490,180 people as of the 2010 United States Census, the MSA is the second-most populous in Texas after the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Colloquially referred to as Greater Houston, the 10,000-square-mile region centers on Harris County, the third-most populous county in the nation, which contains the city of Houston—the largest economic and cultural center of the South—with a population of 2.3 million. Greater Houston is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion along with the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Greater Austin, Greater San Antonio. Houston has been among the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States; the area grew 25.2% between 1990 and 2000—adding more than 950,000 people—while the nation's population increased only 13.2% over the same period, from 2000 to 2007 alone, the area added over 910,000 people.
The Greater Houston Partnership projects the metropolitan area will add between 4.1 and 8.3 million new residents between 2010 and 2050. Greater Houston has the sixth-highest metropolitan-area gross domestic product in the United States, valued at $526 billion in 2016. A major trade center anchored by the Port of Houston, Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land has the second-highest trade export value of all MSAs, at over $84 billion in 2016, accounting for 42% of the total exports of Texas. Metropolitan Houston is home to the headquarters of 21 Fortune 500 companies, ranking fourth among all MSAs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan statistical area has a total area of 10,062 square miles, of which 8,929 sq mi is land and 1,133 sq mi is water; the region is smaller than the state of Massachusetts and larger than New Jersey. The Office of Management and Budget combines the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugarland MSA with four micropolitan statistical areas to form the Houston–The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area.
The metropolitan area is located in the Gulf Coastal Plains biome, its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland. Much of the urbanized area was built on forested land, swamp, or prairie, remnants of which can still be seen in surrounding areas. Of particular note is the Katy Prairie to the west, the Big Thicket to the northeast, the Galveston Bay ecosystem to the south. Additionally, the metropolitan region is crossed by a number of creeks and bayous which provide essential drainage during rainfall events; the upper drainage basin of Buffalo Bayou is impounded by two large flood control reservoirs, Barker Reservoir and Addicks Reservoir, which provide a combined 400,000 acre-feet of storage during large rainfall events and cover a total land area of 26,100 acres. Greater Houston's flat topography, susceptibility to high-intensity rainfall events, high level of impervious surface, inadequately-sized natural drainage channels make it susceptible to catastrophic flooding events. Underpinning Houston's land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, poorly cemented sands up to several miles deep.
The region's geology developed from stream deposits formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic matter that, over time, transformed into oil and natural gas. Beneath these tiers is a water-deposited layer of a rock salt; the porous layers were forced upward. As it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into dome shapes trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands; this thick, rich soil provides a good environment for rice farming in suburban outskirts into which the city continues to grow near Katy. Evidence of past rice farming is still evident in developed areas as an abundance of rich, loamy top soil exists; the Houston region is earthquake-free. While the city of Houston contains over 150 to 300 active surface faults with an aggregate length of up to 310 miles, the clay below the surface precludes the buildup of friction that produces ground-shaking in earthquakes; these faults move at a smooth rate in what is termed "fault creep".
A number of tropical storms and hurricanes have hit the area, including: 1900 Galveston Hurricane, which devastated Galveston and was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, killing between 8,000 and 12,000. Hurricane Carla, the most recent Category 4 hurricane to strike Texas until Harvey in 2017. Hurricane Alicia, which struck the area as a Category 3, was at the time, the costliest Atlantic hurricane. Tropical Storm Allison, until Harvey, brought the worst flooding in Houston history and was the first tropical storm to be retired. Hurricane Rita, which triggered one of the largest evacuations in United States history in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Tropical Storm Erin, a minor tropical storm that struck Texas, but brought severe impacts to Oklahoma. Hurricane Ike, which brought devastating storm surge to the coast and wind damage into the city. Hurricane Harvey, which brought devastating flooding that resulted in excess of $100 billion in damages to the region; as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, the m
Washington metropolitan area
The Washington metropolitan area is the metropolitan area centered on Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. The area includes all of the federal district and parts of the U. S. states of Virginia, along with a small portion of West Virginia. While not a part of the Washington metropolitan area, St. Mary's County is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area; the Washington metropolitan area is one of the most educated and most affluent metropolitan areas in the US. The metro area anchors the southern end of the densely populated Northeast megalopolis with an estimated total population of 6,216,589 as of the 2017 U. S. Census Bureau estimate, making it the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the nation and the largest metropolitan area in the Census Bureau's South Atlantic division; the U. S. Office of Management and Budget defines the area as the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV metropolitan statistical area, a metropolitan statistical area used for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau and other agencies.
The region's three largest cities are the federal territory of Washington, D. C. the county of Arlington, the independent city of Alexandria. The Office of Management and Budget includes the metropolitan statistical area as part of the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, which has a population of 9,546,579 as of the 2014 Census Estimate; the area is sometimes referred to as the National Capital Region by federal agencies such as the military and Department of Homeland Security. Another term used to describe the region is the D. C. Area; the area in the region, surrounded by Interstate 495 is referred to as being "inside the Beltway". The city of Washington, at the center of the area, is referred to as "the District" because it is the federal District of Columbia, is not part of any state; the Virginian portion of the region is known as Northern Virginia. The U. S. Census Bureau divides the Washington statistical metropolitan area into two metropolitan divisions: Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Division, comprising the majority of the metropolitan area Silver Spring–Frederick–Rockville, MD Metropolitan Division, consisting of Montgomery and Frederick counties The area includes the following counties and independent cities: Washington Calvert County Charles County Frederick County Montgomery County Prince George's County Alexandria Arlington County Clarke County Culpeper County Fairfax County Fairfax Falls Church Fauquier County Fredericksburg Loudoun County Manassas Manassas Park Prince William County Rappahannock County Spotsylvania County Stafford County Warren County Jefferson County Founded in 1957, the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments is a regional organization of 21 Washington-area local governments, as well as area members of the Maryland and Virginia state legislatures, the U.
S. Senate, the U. S. House of Representatives. MWCOG provides a forum for discussion and the development of regional responses to issues regarding the environment, public safety, homeland security, affordable housing, community planning, economic development; the National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, a component of MWCOG, is the federally designated metropolitan planning organization for the metropolitan Washington area. The metropolitan area includes the following principal cities Washington, D. C. Arlington, Virginia Alexandria, Virginia Bethesda, Maryland Fairfax, Virginia Frederick, Maryland Gaithersburg, Maryland Reston, Virginia Rockville, Maryland Silver Spring, Maryland The relative strength of the major political parties within the region is shown by the presidential election results since 1960, as presented in the adjacent table; the area has been a magnet for international immigration since the late 1960s. It is a magnet for internal migration. Racial composition of the Washington, D.
C. area: Non-Hispanic White: 45.8% Black or African American: 24.9% Hispanic or Latino: 15.5% Asian: 10.0% Mixed and Other: 3.8% White: 54.8% Black: 25.8% Asian: 9.3% Hispanic: 13.8% Mixed and Other: 3.7% White: 51.7% Black: 26.3% Asian: 8.4% Hispanic: 11.6% Mixed and Other: 2.0% White: 67.8% Black: 26.0% Asian: 2.5% Hispanic: 2.8% Mixed and Other: 0.9% The Washington metropolitan area has ranked as the highest-educated metropolitan area in the nation for four decades. As of the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the three most educated places with 200,000 people or more in Washington–Arlington–Alexandria by bachelor's degree attainment are Arlington, Fairfax County and Montgomery County, Maryland. Forbes magazine stated in its 2008 "America's Best- And Worst-Educated Cities" report: "The D. C. area is less than half the size of L. A. but both cities have around 100,000 Ph. D.'s."The Washington, D. C. metro area has held the top spot in the American College of Sports Medicine's annual American Fitness Index ranking of the United States' 50 most populous metropolitan areas for two years running.
The report cites, among other things, the high average fitness level and healthy eating habits of residents, the widespread availability of health care and facilities such as swimming pools, tennis courts, parks, low rates of obesity and tobacco use relative to the national average, the high median household income as contributors to the city's community health. In the 21st century, the Washington metropolitan area has overtaken the San Francisco Bay Area as the highest-income me
Greater Los Angeles
Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast. It consists of three metropolitan areas in Southern California. Throughout the 20th century, it was one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, although growth has slowed since 2000; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of nearly 13 million residents. Meanwhile, the larger metropolitan region's population at the 2010 census was estimated to be over 17.8 million residents, a 2015 estimate reported a population of about 18.7 million. Either definition makes it the second largest metropolitan region in the country, behind the New York metropolitan area, as well as one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world; the agglomeration of the urbanized Greater Los Angeles area surrounds the urban core of Los Angeles County.
The regional term is defined to refer to the more-or-less continuously urbanized area stretching from Ventura County to the southern border of Orange County and from the Pacific Ocean to the Coachella Valley in the Inland Empire. The US Census Bureau defines the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area as including the entire Los Angeles County, Ventura County, Orange County and the two counties of the Inland Empire. However, this Census definition includes large, sparsely populated and desert swaths of Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Riverside counties that are not part of the urbanized region; the term "Greater Los Angeles" does not include San Diego County, whose urbanized area is separated from San Clemente, the southernmost contiguous urbanized area south of Los Angeles, by a 16.4-mile stretch of the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a total area of 4,850 square miles, while the wider combined statistical area covers 33,954 square miles, making it the largest metropolitan region in the United States by land area.
However, more than half of this area lies in the sparsely populated eastern areas of Riverside and San Bernardino counties. In addition to being the nexus of the world's largest entertainment industry, Greater Los Angeles is a global center of business, international trade, media, tourism and technology, transportation. Los Angeles has a long-standing reputation for sprawl; the area is in fact sprawling, but according to the 2000 census, the "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim" Urbanized Area had a population density of 7,068 inhabitants per square mile, covering 1,668 square miles of land area, making it the most densely populated Urbanized Area in the United States. For comparison, the "New York–Newark" Urbanized Area as a whole had a population density of 5,309 per square mile, covering 3,353 square miles of land area. Los Angeles' sprawl may originate in the region's decentralized structure, its major commercial and cultural institutions are geographically dispersed rather than being concentrated in a single downtown or central area.
The population density of Los Angeles proper is low when compared to some other large American cities such as New York, San Francisco and Chicago. Densities are high within a 5-mile radius of downtown, where some neighborhoods exceed 20,000 people per square mile. What gives the entire Los Angeles metro region a high density is the fact that many of the city's suburbs and satellites cities have high density rates. Within its urbanized areas, Los Angeles is noted for having small lot sizes and low-rise buildings. Buildings in the area are low when compared to other large cities due to zoning regulations. Los Angeles became a major city just as the Pacific Electric Railway spread population to smaller cities much as interurbans did in East Coast cities. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the area was marked by a network of dense but separate cities linked by rail; the ascendance of the automobile helped fill in the gaps between these commuter towns with lower-density settlements. Starting in the early twentieth century, there was a large growth in population on the western edges of the city moving to the San Fernando Valley and out into the Conejo Valley in eastern Ventura County.
Many working class whites migrated to this area during the 1960s and 1970s out of East and Central Los Angeles. As a result, there was a large growth in population into the Conejo Valley and into Ventura County through the US 101 corridor. Making the US 101 a full freeway in the 1960s and expansions that followed helped make commuting to Los Angeles easier and opened the way for development westward. Development in Ventura County and along the US 101 corridor remains controversial, with open-space advocates battling those who feel business development is necessary to economic growth. Although the area still has abundant amount of open space and land all of it was put aside and mandated never to be developed as part of the master plan of each city; because of this, the area, once a inexpensive area to buy real estate, saw rising real estate prices well into the 2000s. Median home prices in the Conejo Valley for instance, ranged from $700,000 to
Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U. S. state of Massachusetts, the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described either as a metropolitan statistical area, or as a broader combined statistical area; the MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod. While the small footprint of the city of Boston itself only contains an estimated 685,094, the urbanization has extended well into surrounding areas; some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American industry; the region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region.
Greater Boston is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,732,161 people as of the 2014 US Census estimate, sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,099,575. The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history American literature and the American Revolution. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the Greater Boston region has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.
S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States Supreme Court Justices. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world; the most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council.
The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 towns that are grouped into eight subregions; these include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, 48% of the total population of Massachusetts, in an area of 1,422 square miles, of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space. The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core, MetroWest, North Shore, North Suburban, South Shore, SouthWest, Three Rivers. Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, all of Bristol County. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.
The urbanized area surrounding Boston serves as the core of a definition used by the US Census Bureau known as the New England city and town area. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area plus surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA; the Boston NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions. The Boston and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond to the MAPC area; the total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941. Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division Framingham, MA NECTA Division Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack V
The Detroit metropolitan area referred to as Metro Detroit, is a major metropolitan area in the U. S. State of Michigan, consisting of the city of its surrounding area. There are varied definitions of the area, including the official statistical areas designated by the Office of Management and Budget, a federal agency of the United States. Metro Detroit is known for its automotive heritage, entertainment, popular music, sports; the area includes a variety of natural landscapes and beaches, with a recreational coastline linking the Great Lakes. Metro Detroit has one of the largest metropolitan economies in the U. S. with seventeen Fortune 500 companies. The Detroit Urban Area, which serves as the metropolitan area's core, ranks as the 11th most populous in the United States, with a population of 3,734,090 as of the 2010 census and an area of 1,337.16 square miles. This urbanized area covers parts of the counties of Macomb and Wayne; these counties are sometimes referred to as the Detroit Tri-County Area and had a population of 3,862,888 as of the 2010 census with an area of 1,967.1 square miles.
The Office of Management and Budget, a federal agency of the United States, defines the Detroit–Warren–Dearborn Metropolitan Statistical Area as the six counties of Lapeer, Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, Wayne; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 4,296,250 with an area of 3,913 square miles. The nine county area designated by the OMB as the Detroit–Warren–Ann Arbor Combined Statistical Area includes the Detroit–Warren–Dearborn MSA and the three additional counties of Genesee and Washtenaw, it covers an area of 5,814 square miles. Lenawee County was removed from the CSA in 2000, but added back in 2013. With the adjacent city of Windsor and its suburbs, the combined Detroit–Windsor area has a population of about 5.7 million. When the nearby Toledo metropolitan area and its commuters are taken into account, the region constitutes a much larger population center. An estimated 46 million people live within a 300-mile radius of Detroit proper. Metro Detroit is at the center of an emerging Great Lakes Megalopolis.
Conan Smith, a businessperson quoted in a 2012 article by The Ann Arbor News, stated the most significant reason Washtenaw County, including Ann Arbor, is not included in definitions of Metro Detroit is that there is a "lack of affinity that Washtenaw County as a whole has with Wayne County and Detroit or Oakland County and Macomb". Ann Arbor is nearly 43 miles by car from downtown Detroit, developed separately as a university city, with its own character. Smith said that county residents "just don't yet see ourselves as a natural part of that region, so I think it feels a little forced to a lot of people, they're scared about it". Detroit and the surrounding region constitute a major center of commerce and global trade, most notably as home to America's'Big Three' automobile companies: General Motors and Chrysler. Detroit's six-county Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of about 4.3 million and a workforce of about 2.1 million. In December 2017, the Department of Labor reported metropolitan Detroit's unemployment rate at 4.2%.
The Detroit MSA had a Gross Metropolitan Product of $252.7 billion as of September 2017. Firms in the region pursue emerging technologies including biotechnology, information technology, hydrogen fuel cell development. Metro Detroit is one of the leading health care economies in the U. S. according to a 2003 study measuring health care industry components, with the region's hospital sector ranked fourth in the nation. Casino gaming plays an important economic role, with Detroit the largest US city to offer casino resort hotels. Caesars Windsor, Canada's largest, complements the MGM Grand Detroit, MotorCity Casino, Greektown Casino in the city; the casino hotels contribute significant tax revenue along with thousands of jobs for residents. Gaming revenues have grown with Detroit ranked as the fifth-largest gambling market in the United States for 2007; when Casino Windsor is included, Detroit's gambling market ranks either fourth. There are about four thousand factories in the area; the domestic auto industry is headquartered in Metro Detroit.
The area is an important source of engineering job opportunities. A rise in automated manufacturing using robotic technology has created related industries in the area. A 2004 Border Transportation Partnership study showed that 150,000 jobs in the Detroit–Windsor region and $13 billion in annual production depend on the city's international border crossing. In addition to property taxes, residents of the City of Detroit pay an income tax rate of 2.50%. Detroit automakers and local manufacturers have made significant restructurings in response to market competition. GM made its initial public offering of stock in 2010, after bankruptcy and restructuring by the federal government. Domestic automakers reported significant profits in 2010, interpreted by some analysts as the beginning of an industry rebound and an economic recovery for the Detroit area; the region's nine-county area, with its population of 5.3 million, has a workforce of about 2.6 million and about 247,000 businesses. Fourteen Fortune 500 companies are based in metropolitan Detroit.
In April 2015, the metropolitan Detroit unemployment rate was 5.1 percent, a rate lower than the New York, Los Angeles and Atlanta metropolitan areas. Metro Detroit has made Michigan's economy a leader in information technology and advanced
Atlanta metropolitan area
Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Georgia and the ninth-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Its economic and demographic center is Atlanta, has an estimated 2017 population of 5,884,736 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metro area forms the core of a broader trading area, the Atlanta–Athens-Clarke–Sandy Springs Combined Statistical Area. The Combined Statistical Area spans up to 39 counties in north Georgia and has an estimated 2017 population of 6,555,956. Atlanta is considered a "beta world city." It is the third largest metropolitan region in the Census Bureau's Southeast region behind Greater Washington and Greater Miami. By U. S. Census Bureau standards, the population of the Atlanta region spreads across a metropolitan area of 8,376 square miles – a land area comparable to that of Massachusetts.
Because Georgia contains more counties than any other state except Texas, area residents live under a decentralized collection of governments. As of the 2000 census, fewer than one in ten residents of the metropolitan area lived inside Atlanta city limits. A 2006 survey by the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce counted 140 cities and towns in the 28‑county Metropolitan Statistical Area in mid-2005. Nine cities – Johns Creek, Chattahoochee Hills, Peachtree Corners, Tucker and South Fulton – have incorporated since following the lead of Sandy Springs in 2005; the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950 as Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton counties. Walton, Douglas, Forsyth, Cherokee and Butts counties were added after the 1970 census, with Barrow and Coweta counties joining in 1980 and Bartow, Paulding and Spalding counties in 1990. Atlanta's larger combined statistical area adds the Gainesville, Georgia MSA, Athens-Clarke County, Georgia MSA and the LaGrange, Jefferson and Cedartown micropolitan areas, for a total 2012 population of 6,162,195.
The CSA abuts the Macon and Columbus MSAs. The region is one of the metropolises of the Southeastern United States, is part of the emerging megalopolis known as Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion along the I-85 Corridor; the counties listed below are included in the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Gainesville CSA. However, most other entities define a much smaller metropolitan area by including only the counties which have the densest suburban development. Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton were the five original counties when the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950, continue to be the core of the metro area; these five counties along with five more are members of the Atlanta Regional Commission, a weak metropolitan government agency, a regional planning agency. The ten ARC counties and five more form part of the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District, created in 2001; the 12 counties listed above with under 75,000 residents are not included in any other metropolitan definition except the OMB/Census Bureau's MSA and CSA.
Hall County forms the Gainesville, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, but with astronomical growth to over 190,000 residents, is now part of the Atlanta CSA. The official tourism website of the State of Georgia features a "Metro Atlanta" tourism region that includes only nine counties: Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, Coweta, Douglas and Henry. Cumberland Perimeter Center Hartsfield-Jackson areaMore than one half of metro Atlanta's population is in unincorporated areas or areas considered a census-designated-place by the census bureau. Metro Atlanta includes the following incorporated and unincorporated suburbs and surrounding cities, sorted by population as of 2010: Principal city Atlanta pop. 472,522 Places with 75,000 to 99,999 inhabitants. 95,158 Sandy Springs pop. 93,853 Roswell pop. 88,346 Johns Creek pop. 76,728Places with 50,000 to 74,999 inhabitants Alpharetta pop. 57,551 Marietta pop. 56,579 Stonecrest pop. 53,490 Smyrna pop. 51,271Places with 25,000 to 49,999 inhabitants Places with 24,999 or fewer inhabitants The area sprawls across the low foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the north and the Piedmont to the south.
The northern and some western suburbs tend to be higher and more hilly than the southern and eastern suburbs. The average elevation is around 1,000 feet; the highest point in the immediate area is Kennesaw Mountain at 1,808 ft, followed by Stone Mountain at 1,686 ft, Sweat Mountain at 1,640 ft, Little Kennesaw Mountain at 1,600 ft. Others include Blackjack Mountain, Lost Mountain, Brushy Mountain, Pine Mountain, Mount Wilkinson. Many of these play prominently in the various battles of the Atlanta Campaign during the American Civil War. If the further-north counties are included, Bear Mountain is highest, followed by Pine Log Mountain, Sawnee Mountain, Hanging Mountain, followed by the others listed above. Stone, Sweat and Sawnee are all home to some of the area's broadcast stations; the area's subsoil is colored rusty by the iron oxide present in it. It becomes muddy and sticky when wet, hard when dry, stains light-colored carpets and c