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List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS

This list of the military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States includes experimental and operational types regardless of era. It includes both native Soviet designs, Soviet-produced copies of foreign designs, foreign-produced aircraft that served in the military of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and its successor states of the CIS; the service time frame begins with the year. Stated production quantities, which are very approximate, include all variants of the aircraft type produced for the USSR, unless otherwise noted. Wikipedia convention is to use the Soviet or Russian names and designations for these aircraft, not the post-World War II NATO reporting names, although these will be used as redirects to guide the reader to the desired article; the reporting names assigned by Western intelligence agencies listed here are provided for ease of reference. Further details on the NATO Air Standardization Coordinating Committee reporting names can be found here.

USSR military aircraft designation systems List of aircraft List of Russian aerospace engineers List of active Russian military aircraft – online Russian Aviation Museum website + search-engine – images + descriptions for over 1,300 Soviet−Russian aircraft. – website + database

Peter Langdon Ward

Peter Langdon Ward is a geophysicist specializing in seismology and volcanology. Ward is an American earth scientist and geophysicist who has studied microearthquakes associated with active fault systems and volcanic eruptions throughout the western United States, Hawaii, Central America, the East African Rift System, he developed a prototype global volcano surveillance system that relayed data through the ERTS satellite. He was born August 10, 1943, in Washington, D. C. and was educated at the Noble and Greenough School, Dartmouth College, Columbia University. In January, 1975, he was appointed chief of the Branch of Seismology, a group of 140 scientists and staff at the United States Geological Survey in Menlo Park, playing a lead role in the development of, initial management of, the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program; this Branch became the Branch of Earthquake Mechanics and Prediction, conducting scientific research aimed at predicting the time of occurrence of damaging earthquakes at a time when such research appeared promising worldwide.

Ward contributed to an understanding of how geologic records of volcanism in western North America relate in detail to motions of tectonic plates under the eastern Pacific Ocean. In a 2009 paper, Ward suggested that "large volumes of SO2 erupted appear to overdrive the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere resulting in rapid warming." In addition, he noted. He proposed that the rapid increase in global warming during the 20th century was caused by these mechanisms as a result of the rapid increase in sulfur dioxide emitted by the burning fossil fuels. Since 2009 Ward has been arguing that Climate Change is caused by ozone depletion and not human-derived CO2 emissions, a hypothesis, not supported by referred literature. Ward, Peter. "On plate tectonics and the geologic evolution of southwestern North America". J. Geophys. Res. 96: 12479–12496. Bibcode:1991JGR....9612479W. CiteSeerX Doi:10.1029/91jb00606

Early 1980s recession in the United States

The United States entered recession in January 1980 and returned to growth six months in July 1980. Although recovery took hold, the unemployment rate remained unchanged through the start of a second recession in July 1981; the downturn ended 16 months in November 1982. The economy entered a strong recovery and experienced a lengthy expansion through 1990. Principal causes of the 1980 recession included contractionary monetary policy undertaken by the Federal Reserve to combat double digit inflation and residual effects of the energy crisis. Manufacturing and construction failed to recover before more aggressive inflation reducing policy was adopted by the Federal Reserve in 1981, causing a second downturn. Due to their proximity and compounded effects, they are referred to as the early 1980s recession, an example of a W-shaped or "double dip" recession; the recession marked a shift in policy from more traditional Keynesian economics to the adoption of neoliberal economic policies. This change was achieved through tax reform and stronger monetary policy on the part of the Federal Reserve, with the strong recovery and long, stable period of growth that followed increasing the popularity of both concepts in political and academic circles.

Beginning in 1978, inflation began to intensify, reaching double digit levels in 1979. The consumer price index rose between 1978 and 1980; these increases were attributed to the oil price shocks of 1979 and 1980, although the core consumer price index which excludes energy and food posted large increases. Productivity, real gross national product, personal income remained unchanged during this period, while inflation continued to rise, a phenomenon known as stagflation. In order to combat rising inflation appointed chairman of the Federal Reserve, Paul Volcker, elected to increase the federal funds rate. Following the October 6, 1979 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee, the federal funds rate increased from 11.5% to an eventual peak of 17.6% in April 1980. This caused an economic recession beginning in January 1980, in March 1980, president Jimmy Carter created his own plan for credit controls and budget cuts to beat inflation. In order to cooperate with these new priorities, the federal funds rate was lowered from its April peak.

A recession occurred beginning in January 1980. As a result of the increasing federal funds rate, credit became more difficult to obtain for car and home loans; this caused severe contractions in manufacturing and housing, which were dependent on the availability of consumer credit. Most of the jobs lost during the recession centered around goods producing industries, while the service sector remained intact. Over the course of the recession, manufacturing shed 1.1 million jobs, with the recession posting a total loss of 1.3 million jobs, representing 1.2% of payrolls. The automotive industry in a poor position due to weak sales in 1979, shed 310,000 jobs, representing 33% of that sector. Construction declined by a similar 300,000. Unemployment rose to a recession peak of 7.8% in June 1980, however it changed little through the end of the year, averaging 7.5% through the first quarter of 1981. Official end of the recession was established as July 1980; as interest rates dropped beginning in May, payrolls turned positive.

Unemployment among auto workers rose from a low of 4.8% in 1979 to a record high of 24.7% fell to 17.4% by the end of the year. Construction unemployment rose to 16.3%, moderated near the end of the year. During the final quarter of 1980, there were doubts that the economy was in recovery, instead was experiencing a temporary respite; these concerns were fueled by poor performance in housing and auto sales in the final months of 1980, as well as a second wave of rising interest rates and stagnant unemployment rate. As 1981 began, the Federal Reserve reported that there would be little or no economic growth in 1981, as interest rates were to continue rising in an attempt to reduce inflation. After failing to gain traction during the weak and brief recovery from the 1980 downturn, weakness in manufacturing and housing caused by rising interest rates began to have an expanded effect on related sectors beginning in mid-1981. Job losses resumed, this time expanding to nearly all employment sectors through the end of 1982.

Goods-producing sectors were hardest hit: 90% of all job losses in 1982 came from manufacturing, despite this sector making up only 30% of total non-farm employment. The machinery industry shed 400,000 jobs. Transportation equipment manufacturing fell by 180,000 jobs. Layoffs in electrical and electronics manufacturing exceeded 100,000; the mining sector shed 150,000 jobs a result of high commodity prices and cratering demand from the recession. Construction shed a total of 385,000 jobs from July 1981 through December 1982. Non-durable goods manufacturing under pressure since the mid-1970s, suffered some 365,000 job cuts; the unemployment rate for auto workers rose from just 3.8% in early-1978 to 24% by the end of 1982. The services sector, while not hit nearly as hard as manufacturing, shed 400,000 jobs during the recession, with sharp declines in transportation, state & local governments, wholesale and retail trade. However, the finance and real estate sector gained 35,000 jobs over the duration of the recession.

The heavy losses in manufacturing and construction, contrasted with more minor losses in services affected the unemployment rates for men and women differently. While the increase

Plaine des Chicots – Plaine d'Affouches Important Bird Area

Plaine des Chicots – Plaine d'Affouches Important Bird Area is a 3688 ha tract of land on the island of Réunion, a French territory in the western Indian Ocean. The IBA comprises a sloping plain extending northwards and downwards from the northern rim of the Mafate caldera, at an elevation of 2277 m on the summit of Roche Ecrite, towards Saint-Denis, the coastal capital of the island territory; the plain is divided by the gorge of the Saint-Denis River into the Plaine d’Affouches in the west and the Plaine des Chicots in the east. The higher part of the site is dominated by native alpine shrubland communities, from 1600 m to 1500 m by endemic Acacia heterophylla forest, native mixed mountain forest down to about 1000 m above sea level. Although the site is now a nature reserve, in the past it was stocked with Javan rusa deer for hunting. There is a popular walking track from Saint-Denis to Roche Ecrite across the Plaine des Chicots; the lowest part of the site abuts Cryptomeria plantations. The site has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports a breeding colony of Audubon's shearwaters as well as populations of Mascarene swiftlets, Réunion cuckooshrikes, Mascarene paradise flycatchers, Réunion bulbuls, Mascarene white-eyes, Réunion olive white-eyes and Réunion stonechats


Ganamela is a 1991 Indian Malayalam film and produced by Ambili. The film stars Geetha Vijayan, Jagathy Sreekumar and Innocent in the lead roles; the film has musical score by A. T. Ummer and Jerry Amaldev. Venugopal is the lead singer of music band "Hits Orchestra"; the troop consists of keyboard player Tony Fernandez, Tabalist Shakkeer Bhai, guitarist Kannan and violinist Babu. Despite performing well, the troop struggle financially. Venugopal falls in love with the daughter of rich entrepreneur Sreedhara Panikkar; the movie is about the clash between Sreedhara Venugopal. Mukesh as Venugopal/Krishna Kumar Geetha Vijayan as Lakshmi Jagathy Sreekumar as Ganapathi Innocent as Sreedhara Panikkar Siddique as Tony Fernandez Idavela Babu as Babu Jagadish as Mukundan Mala Aravindan as Appukuttan Maniyanpilla Raju as Kannan Meena as Karthyayani Kunchan as Shakkeer bhai Jagannatha Varma as Venu's uncle Thrissur Elsy as Venu's mother C. I. Paul as Sahadevan Muthalali Paravoor Bharathan as Adv K. S. Pilla Soumini as Mini Mini omanakuttan The music was composed by Raveendran, A. T. Ummer and Jerry Amaldev and the lyrics were written by Sasi Chittanjoor and Kaithapram.

Ganamela on IMDb

Julio Irazusta

Julio Alberto Gustavo Irazusta was an Argentine writer and politician, one of the leading lights of the nationalist movement of the 1920s and 1930s. He collaborated with his older brother Rodolfo Irazusta throughout his career. Irazusta was born close to the Rincon del Cura area of Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos into a family noted for its support of radical politics, he attended the University of Buenos Aires - graduating in 1922 with a law degree - and around this time he was noted as a supporter of the Radical Civic Union. As a student he edited the literary journal Revista Nacional from 1981 to 1920, collaborating with Ernesto Palacio, who at the time held leftist views. Both men came under the influence of the Spanish rightist Ramiro de Maeztu although Irazusta balanced this by following the writings of Italian liberal Benedetto Croce. From 1923 to 1927 Irazusta travelled extensively in western Europe. During his time in the United Kingdom he studied philosophy at Balliol College, Oxford, he spent time in France where his move towards right-wing politics grew rapidly.

Whilst here he met Action Française leader Charles Maurras and became attracted to the brand of integral nationalism that Maurras endorsed. His last major port of call in Europe was Italy where he observed fascism first hand and was attracted by the ideology. On his return to Argentina he resumed his association with Palacio, himself on the far right by that point, with the pair collaborating on the Catholic journal Criterio along with Jorge Luis Borges, who only contributed some apolitical poems and did not share their politics, withdrawing from the journal once their support for fascism and Uriburu's coup became more evident. Irazusta criticised democracy and was opposed to freedom of religion, arguing that it was part of an anti-Catholic conspiracy designed to promote Protestantism; such was his opposition to socialism that he argued a civil war would be preferable to a left-wing government in Argentina. In 1929 he joined his brother and Juan Carulla in establishing the Liga Republicana, a group that sought the establishment of an authoritarian conservative regime under the leadership of military strongman General José Félix Uriburu.

For his part however Irazusta was less enthusiastic about Uriburu than his fellow leaders and he left Argentina in 1930 to return to Europe, missing Uriburu's coup that same year. Upon his return to Argentina in 1931 Julio Irazusta worked with his brother Rodolfo as the two sought to develop an Argentine native form of fascism, they worked together on the journal Accion Republicana and in this developed a strong nativist line in which they argued against foreign economic involvement in Argentina and the liberalism that they believed this engendered. They came to endorse etatism and a strong governmental role in economic and cultural life, advocating some nationalisation, economic modernisation and in increasing emphasis on militarism in the education system, they contributed to LNR was well as the journal Voz del Pueblo, pro-Nazi in outlook. He was an admirer of Adolf Hitler, describing him as "an eminently sensible man, the complete opposite of the intolerant and presumptuous megalomaniac that his detractors paint him as".

The brothers best known work was their 1934 book Argentina y el imperialismo británico: Los eslabones de una cadena 1806-1833 which accused the United Kingdom, which had supported Argentina in its attempts to gain independence from Spain, of doing so for ulterior motives i.e. opening up new trade markets and ensuring that the newly independent state would have to rely on them for loans. The book was central to their nationalist, corporatist vision, although it has subsequently become a standard for both left and right, it played a pivotal role in the development of Argentine claims to the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands by suggesting that taking the Falkland Islands was one of the ways in which the UK had exploited Argentina. Becoming more involved in academic scholarship after 1935, Julio Irazusta wrote and lectured extensively on Juan Manuel de Rosas, the subject of revisionism from the far right from 1930, when a hagiographical biography by Carlos Ibarguren appeared, resulting in Rosas being characterised as a model of leadership.

Irazusta believed that Rosas was the last great Argentine statesman and he became noted as an expert on Rosas, editing four volumes of his political papers between 1941 and 1950. Irazusta wrote biographies of Tomás de Anchorena and other historical figures whilst in 1940 he established a new journal, Nuevo Orden, with his brother. Irazusta became involved in the Partido de Unión Republicana and served this party as a deputy from 1939 to 1945. Following the emergence of Juan Peron as President the brothers became involved in the Partido Libertador; the group was cautiously pro-Peron but shifted their opinion to one of opposition, accusing Peronism of embracing socialism at the expense of nationalism. Irazusta's 1956 work, Peron y la Crisis Argentine, was a diatribe against Peron, accusing him of breaking with Argentine political traditions by following a pro-British policy. With Rodolfo he established another political party, the Republican Union, in 1955 but by this time he had lost interest in the political arena and concentrated on writing instead.

He published his Memorias in 1975 and retired to his home town of Gualeguaychú, where he died in 1982