Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India; the city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists, it was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists; as such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.
Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index, was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values. National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list. Chennai was named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network list for its rich musical tradition; the Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.
The name Chennai is of Telugu origin. It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639; the first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company before the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 while some scholars argue for the contrary. The name Madras is of native origin, has been shown to be in use before the British presence in India. A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram. According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George. However, it is uncertain.
The British military mapmakers believed Madras was Mundir-raj or Mundiraj,which was the name of a telugu community of rulers of nayakasThere are suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase Mãe de Deus or Madre de Dios, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city referring to a Church of St. Mary. In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name. However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city, as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras, IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, Madras Christian College. Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India, Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, pre-historic communities resided in the settlement; the region around Chennai has served as an important administrative and economic centre for many centuries.
During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named. From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas; the Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period; the Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai. On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.
Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful i
Meerut, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an ancient city, with settlements dating back to the Indus Valley civilisation having been found in and around the area; the city lies 70 km northeast of the national capital New Delhi, 430 km northwest of the state capital Lucknow. As of 2011, Meerut is the 33rd most populous urban agglomeration and the 26th most populous city in India, it ranked 292 in 2006 and is projected to rank 242 in 2020 in the list of largest cities and urban areas in the world. The municipal area is 141.89 km2 with the cantonment covering 35.68 km2. The city is one of the largest producers of sports goods, the largest producer of musical instruments in India; the city is an education hub in western Uttar Pradesh, known as the "Sports City Of India". The city is famous for being the starting point of the 1857 rebellion against British colonial rule; the city may have derived its name from'Mayarashtra', the capital of the kingdom of Mayasura, Mandodari's father and Ravana's father-in-law.
This name may have mutated to Mairashtra, Mai-dant-ka-khera and Meerut. According to another version, being a distinguished architect, received from King Yudhishthira the land on which the city of Meerut now stands and he called this place Mayarashtra, a name which in the course of time became shortened to Meerut. Tradition has it that the city formed a part of the dominions of Mahipala, the king of Indraprastha, the word Meerut is associated with his name. After the archaeological excavations at ‘Vidura-ka-tila’, a collection of several mounds named after Vidura, in 1950–52, a site 37 km north-east of Meerut, it was concluded to be remains of the ancient city of Hastinapur, the capital of Kauravas and Pandavas of Mahabharata, washed away by Ganges floods. Meerut contained a Harappan settlement known as Alamgirpur, it was the eastern-most settlement of the Indus valley civilisation. Meerut had been a centre of Buddhism in the period of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, remains of Buddhist structures were found near the Jama Masjid in the present day city.
The Ashoka Pillar, at Delhi ridge, next to the ‘Bara Hindu Rao Hospital’, near Delhi University, was carried to Delhi from Meerut, by Firuz Shah Tughluq. In the eleventh century AD, the region to the south-west of the city was ruled by Har Dat, the Dor Rajput Raja of Bulandshahr who built a fort, long known for its strength and finds mention in Ain-i-Akbari, he was defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018, surrendering along with his forces to Mahmud. The prominent local landmark known as the Jama Masjid, dates from this period and is said to have been built by Mahmud's vizir. Shortly after its capture the city was regained by the local Hindu Raja and part of his fortifications, built for the city’s defence, survived until recent times. Muhammad of Ghor's mamluk general Qutb-ud-din Aybak who went on to establish the Delhi Sultanate in 1206, attacked and captured Meerut in 1193. After capturing and sacking Delhi where thousands of inhabitants were killed after a general massacre was ordered after a civilian uprising, Timur in 1399 attacked and sacked Meerut.
It was held by Ilyas Afghan and his son Maula Muhammad Thaneswari who were assisted by non-Muslims led by Safi. Timur tried to negotiate a surrender, to which the inhabitants of the fort replied by stating that Tarmashirin had tried to capture it in the past but failed. Incensed, he set forth with 10,000 cavalry; the forces scaled Safi was killed in the battle. The inhabitants were killed and their wives and children enslaved; the fortifications and houses were razed to the ground with prisoners ordered to be flayed alive. The city came under the rule of the Mughal Empire and saw a period of relative tranquility. During the rule of Mughal Emperor, Akbar the Great, there was a mint for copper coins here. During the decline of the Mughal Empire, after the death of Aurangzeb, the city came under the control of local chieftains, the Saiyids of Muzaffarnagar in the north, the Jats in the south-east, the Gujars along the Ganges and in the south-west; the city saw Sikh and Maratha invasions in the 18th century, with interruptions by Jats and Rohillas.
Walter Reinhardt, an English soldier, established himself at Sardhana and some parts of the district came under his rule. Upon his death, they came into the hands of Begum Samru. During this time, the southern part of the district had remained under Maratha rule. In 1803, with the fall of Delhi, Daulat Rao Scindia of the Marathas ceded the territory to the British; the city was made headquarters of the eponymous district in 1818. Meerut is famously associated with the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British East India Company; the famous slogan "Dilli Chalo" was first raised here. Meerut cantonment is the place where the rebellion started when Hindu and Muslim soldiers were given rifle cartridges rumoured to have a coating made of animal fat; the revolt, which catapulted Meerut into international prominence, started in March 1857 at Barrackpore, Bengal. Sepoy Mangal Pandey shot and missed two Europeans, failed to kill himself, was hanged. By April, the fire of Pandey’s Uprising scorched north India and reached Meerut, the second-largest East India Company garrison.
Here and native sepoys were evenly balanced, with a little more than 2,000 on each side. The European cantonment was separated from the ‘native lines.’ Close by were Sadar Bazar and Lal Kurti Bazar, the latter named after the red uniforms worn by Company soldier
Dhanbad is a city in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It is the second most populated city in Jharkhand. Dhanbad along with its adjacent urban areas ranks 42nd in population amongst other cities in India, it has been ranked 94th as per Ease of Living Index rankings. Dhanbad shares its land borders with West Bengal. Dhanbad is called Coal Capital of India. Tata Steel, Bharat Coking Coal Limited, Eastern Coalfields Limited and Indian Iron And Steel Company are some of the companies who operate coal mines in the district; the engineering institute IIT, Dhanbad is located in Dhanbad. Among the rail divisions of Indian Railway, Dhanbad Rail Division is the second-largest in revenue generation after the Mumbai division; the city has one parliamentary seat and six seats in the Legislative Assembly. The present district used to be a part of Manbhum region and was occupied by Mundari or Kolarian races in the wilderness of South undivided Bihar. In the seventh century A. D. some information is available from the account of the travels of Hieun Tsang.
These accounts narrate existence of a powerful kingdom which comprised the district and adjoining areas, ruled by Sasanka. Manbhum was one of the districts of the East India during the British Raj; the region has thick forests, with rich mineral resources, had a mixed demographic profile with people from different religious and social groups, including adivasis the Santals and the Mundas before the city was established. After India’s independence, the district became a part of Bihar state, upon re-organization of the Indian states in the mid-1950s, the district became a part of the West Bengal. Present Purulia district was carved out of the district of Manbhum. In the Settlement Report for Manbhum it was stated that no rock inscriptions, copper plates or old coins were discovered and not a single document of copper plate or palm leaf was found, during the Survey and Settlement operations; the oldest authentic documents produced were all on paper and even a hundred years old. Dhanbad city was in Manbhum district from 1928 up to 1956.
However, on 24 October 1956, Dhanbad was declared a District on the Recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission vide notification 1911. This was done under the strong commitment and leadership from a renowned journalist Mr. Satish Chandra. In the year 2006, Dhanbad celebrated 50 years of being an independent city. From 1956 to 14 November 2000 it was under Bihar. At present it is in Jharkhand, after the creation of state on 15 November 2000. In 21st Century discovery of rich deposits of coal in the region caused the city to flourish with wealth but bought notorious coal-mafia and gang wars which continues to this day with areas of city like Wasseypur being most affected by the conflict. Dhanbad has an average elevation of 227 m, its geographical length is 15 miles and the breadth is 10 miles. It shares its boundaries with West Bengal in the eastern and southern part and Giridih in the North and Bokaro in the west. Dhanbad comes under the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Dhanbad features climate, transitional between a humid subtropical climate and a tropical wet and dry climate.
Summer ends in mid-June. Peak temperature in summer can reach 48 °C. Dhanbad receives heavy rainfall. In winter, the minimum temperature remains around 10 °C with a maximum of 22 °C. Damodar River is the main river flowing through the district. Katri, Gobai and Irji are the other rivers flowing through the district; as of 2011 census, Dhanbad city had a population of 1,162,472. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%, it has a sex ratio of 891. Dhanbad has an average literacy rate of 79.47%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 86.14% and female literacy is 71.96%. In Dhanbad, 10.57% of the population is under 5 years of age. Hinduism is the dominant religion with over 81% adherents; the minority religions are Islam and Christianity. Dhanbad is the largest city by population and second largest urban agglomeration in Jharkhand after Jamshedpur. Dhanbad is famous for industrial establishments. There are a number of coal washeries present there. Though managed by a municipal corporation, Dhanbad was listed the least clean of all according to the latest Swachh Sarvekshan of 73 Indian cities in 2016.
Indian institute of technology, IIT launched Total Waste Solution, or ToWaSo, a waste management start-up. Taking note of the rising pollution in the coal city, the Municipal Corporation of Dhanbad is planning to plant trees which can absorb toxic gases from the atmosphere. Indian Institute of Technology, was started by the British in 1926. Birsa Institute of Technology, Sindri is a government engineering college in Jharkhand. SSLNT Women's College is one of the oldest women's science and art college in east India established in 1956. Patliputra Medical College and Hospital is located in the city. Law College Dhanbad was established in 1976. Guru Nanak College Raja Shiva Prasad College Carmel School Digwadih DAV Public School, Koyla Nagar DAV Public School, Mahuda Delhi Public School, Dhanbad De Nobili School, CMRI De Nobili School, Bhuli De Nobili School, FRI Kendriya Vidyalaya Tata D. A. V School, JamadobaJharkhand chief minister Raghubar Das announced the setting up of a university in Dhanbad named after Binod Bihari Mahto.
The new u
Jabalpur is a tier 2 city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is one of the major cities of Madhya Pradesh. According to the 2011 census, it is the third-largest urban agglomeration in Madhya Pradesh, the country's 37th-largest urban agglomeration, it is known for the white marble rocks at Bhedaghat. Jabalpur is an important administrative and business center of Madhya Pradesh, it is a major education hub in India. The High Court of Madhya Pradesh and several departmental headquarters of the State Government are located in Jabalpur; the city has a major military base and is a major centre for the production of arms and ammunition in India, the city's primary source of employment. It has several other smaller industries; the city is a major trading center and producer of forest products, experiencing fast growth in all sectors. Jabalpur is the administrative headquarters of the Jabalpur division. A center of the Kalachuri and Rajgond dynasties, the city developed a syncretic culture influenced by intermittent Mughal and Maratha reigns.
During the early nineteenth century, it was annexed by British India and renamed as Jubbulpore and incorporated as a cantonment town. Since Indian independence there have been demands for a separate state of Mahakoshal, with Jabalpur its capital; the headquarters of the West Central Railway, Madhya Pradesh Electricity Board, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Army headquarters of five states, viz. Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand, are in Jabalpur. Jabalpur is the Army Headquarters for The Grenadiers and Jammu and Kashmir Rifles regiments; the city is the headquarter of 1 Signal Training Centre. The name Jabalpur combines the Sanskrit word pur. Though some mistakenly believe that it was named Jabalipuram after Saint Jabali, there is no historical, mythological or folklore evidence to support this; the city was known as Vansh's Garha-Mandla or Garha-Katanga during Gond dynasty rule. It was named Jubbulgarh, renamed Jubbulpore during British rule. In 2006, the Jabalpur Municipal Corporation renamed the city to Jabalpur.
Mythology describes three asuras in the Jabalpur region, who were defeated by the Hindu god Shiva. Tripurasura being the main asura, gave the city its puranic name Tripur Tirth. Tripuri region corresponds to the ancient Chedi Kingdom of Mahabharata times, to which king Shishupala belongs. Ashokan relics dating to 300 BCE have been found in Rupnath, 84 kilometres north of the city, indicating the presence of the Mauryan Empire in the region; when the empire fell, Jabalpur became a city-state before coming under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty. After their reign, the region was ruled locally by the Bodhis and the Senas, following which it became a vassal state of the Gupta Empire. From 675 to 800, the region was ruled by Bamraj Dev of the Kalachuri Dynasty from Karanbel; the best known Kalachuri ruler was Yuvraj Dev I. One of the Kalachuri ministers, Golok Simha Kayastha, was instrumental in founding the Chausath Yogini Temple near Bhedaghat, his descendants include Bhoj Simha, the Dewan to Sangramsahi.
The Gondwana king, Raje Madan Shah Madawi of Mandla, built a watchtower and a small hilltop fort at Madan Mahal, an area in Jabalpur. In the 1500s, the Gond king, Sangram held Singaurgarh fort in Sangrampur. Rani Durgawati was a warrior of the Gond Dynasty, famous for her prosperous kingdom, she was well aware of the importance of water conservation and hence she built more than 85 ponds in Jabalpur Ranital, Haathital and Hanumantal. In 1564, during the reign of Veer Narayan, Abdul Majeed Harawi conquered Jabalpur and its surrounding areas. However, the Mughal supremacy in Jabalpur was more nominal than real. In 1698, the Gondwana king, Raje Hriday Shah moved his court to the Mandla fort, he built irrigation structures. Gondwana was seized by Nizam. After Nizam, the Gondwana Kingdom was conquered by the Marathas; the Maratha rulers of Sagar, came to power in about 1781. Around 1798, the Maratha Peshwa gave the Nerbuddah valley to the Bhonsle kings of Nagpur, who ruled the area until 1818, when it was seized by the British East India Company after the Battle of Sitabuldi.
Under the British Raj, the name Jabbalgarh became Jubbulpore and the town was made the capital of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. Jabalpur was known for Thuggee murders. 16 June 1857 saw the kindling of a rebellion in the cantonment of Jubbulpore. The 1857 movement was started by the Gondwana king, Raje Shankar Shah Madawi and the prince Kunwar Raghunath Shah Madawi. Both were arrested and imprisoned, executed on 18 September 1857. In 1861, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories became part of the new Central Provinces and in 1903, the Central Provinces and Berar. In the early 1900s, Jubbulpore became the headquarters of a brigade of the Fifth Division of the South
Ahmedabad ( is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the administrative headquarter of the Ahmadabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. Ahmedabad's population of 5,633,927 makes it the fifth most populous city in India, the encompassing urban agglomeration population estimated at 6,357,693 is the seventh most populous in India. Ahmadabad is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River, 30 km from the state capital Gandhinagar, its twin city. Ahmedabad has emerged as an important industrial hub in India, it is the second largest producer of cotton in India, its stock exchange is the country's second oldest. Cricket is a popular sport in Ahmedabad; the effects of liberalisation of the Indian economy have energised the city's economy towards tertiary sector activities such as commerce and construction. Ahmedabad's increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction and housing industries resulting in recent development of skyscrapers.
In 2010 Ahmedabad was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the decade. In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as India's best city to live in; as of 2014, Ahmedabad's estimated. Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Government of India's flagship Smart Cities Mission. In July 2017, the Historic City of Ahmedabad or Old Ahmedabad, was declared as India's first UNESCO World Heritage City; the area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century. At that time, the Chaulukya ruler of Anhilwara, waged a successful war against the Bhil king of Ashaval, established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati. Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka. Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. However, by the earlier 15th century, the local governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar established his independence from the Delhi Sultanate and crowned himself Sultan of Gujarat as Muzaffar Shah I, thereby founding the Muzaffarid dynasty.
This area came under the control of his grandson Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1411 A. D. who while at the banks of Sabarmati liked the forested area for a new capital city and laid the foundation of a new walled city near Karnavati and named it Ahmedabad after the four saints in the area by the name Ahmed. According to other sources, he named it after himself. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411 at Manek Burj, he chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411. In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements. In 1535 Humayun occupied Ahmedabad after capturing Champaner when the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, fled to Diu. Ahmedabad was reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the Empire's thriving centres of trade in textiles, which were exported as far as Europe.
The Mughal ruler Shahjahan spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the Moti Shahi Mahal in Shahibaug. The Deccan Famine of 1630–32 affected the city, as did famines in 1650 and 1686. Ahmedabad remained the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to the Marathas. During the period of Maratha Empire governance, the city became the centre of a conflict between the Peshwa of Poona and the Gaekwad of Baroda. In 1780, during the First Anglo-Maratha War, a British force under James Hartley stormed and captured Ahmedabad, but it was handed back to the Marathas at the end of the war; the British East India Company took over the city in 1818 during the Third Anglo-Maratha War. A military cantonment was established in 1824 and a municipal government in 1858. Incorporated into the Bombay Presidency during British rule, Ahmedabad became one of the most important cities in the Gujarat region. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and Mumbai was established by the Bombay and Central India Railway, enabling traffic and trade between northern and southern India via the city.
Over time, the city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it the nickname "Manchester of the East". The Indian independence movement developed roots in the city when Mahatma Gandhi established two ashrams – the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 – which would become centres of nationalist activities. During the mass protests against the Rowlatt Act in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the First World War. In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the Salt Satyagraha from Ahmedabad by embarking from his ashram on the Dandi Salt March; the city's administration and economic institutions were rendered inoperative in the early 1930s by the large numbers of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests, again in 1942 during the Quit India Movement.
Following independence and the partition of India in 1947, the city was scarred by the intense communal violence that broke out between Hindus and Muslims in 1
Kozhikode known as Calicut, is a city in Kerala and the headquarters of the Kozhikode district. The Kozhikode metropolitan area is the second largest urban agglomeration in Kerala with a population of 2 million as of 2011; the city lies about 360 km south west of Bangalore, 235 km south of Mangalore and 525 km south west of Chennai. During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the City of Spices for its role as the major trading point of Indian spices, it was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris in the Middle Ages and of the erstwhile Malabar District under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar. A Portuguese factory and the fort was intact in Kozhikode for short period; the English landed followed by the French and the Dutch. In 1765, Mysore captured Kozhikode as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast.
Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving centre, gave its name to the Calico cloth. According to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics on residences and investments, Kozhikode ranked as the second best city in India to reside in, it was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007. The exact origin of the name Kozhikode is uncertain. According to many sources, the name Kozhikode is derived from Koyil-kota; the name got corrupted into Kolikod, or its anglicized version Calicut. Arab merchants called it Qāliqūṭ. Tamils called. In Kannada it was known as Kallikote. Although the city's official name is Kozhikode, in English it is sometimes known by its anglicised version, Calicut; the word calico, a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth, exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from Calicut. It is the historical capital of Kerala as the history dates back to 1498 AD when Vasco da Gama landed in Kappad, near Calicut.
Kozhikode is a town with a long recorded history. From time immemorial, the city has attracted travellers with its prosperity, it has traded in spices like black pepper and cardamom with Arabs, Jews and Chinese for more than 500 years. As Kozhikode offered full freedom and security, the Arab and the Chinese merchants preferred it to all other ports; the globe-trotter Ibn Battuta said, "We came next to Kalikut, one of the great ports of the district of Malabar, in which merchants of all parts are found."Kozhikode was the capital of Malabar during the time of Sri Samoothiri Maharajas, who ruled the region before the British took over. The city's first recorded contact with Europe was when Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad in May 1498, among the leaders of a trade mission from Portugal, he was received by his highness Sri Samoothiri Maharaja. Feroke is a prominent commercial town located adjacent to the city of Kozhikode; the remnants of Tipu Sultan’s Fort area telltale of the Mysore Emperor’s dream to make Farookabad, now Ferok, his new capital, but that dream was never realized.
Known as Farookabad during the reign of Tipu Sultan, he wanted to make Farookabad his capital when he conquered Malabar in 1788. But it came under the jurisdiction of the British. Accounts of the city and the conditions prevailing can be gleaned from the chronicles of travellers who visited the port city. Ibn Battuta, who visited six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city, he describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit out others like them". Ma Huan, the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho lauds the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world, he makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes and the matrilineal system of succession.
Abdur Razzak the ambassador of Persian Emperor Sha-Rohk finds the city harbour secured and notices precious articles from several maritime countries from Abyssinia and Zanzibar. The Italian Niccolò de' Conti the first Christian traveller who noticed Kozhikode, describes the city as abounding in pepper, ginger, a larger kind of cinnamon and zedary, he calls it a noble emporium for all India, with a circumference of eight miles. The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin or Afanasy Nikitin calls'Calecut' a port for the whole Indian sea and describes it as having a "big bazaar." Other travellers who visited Kozhikode include Duarte Barbosa. Kozhikode and its suburbs formed; the Eradis of Nediyirippu in Eranad wanted an outlet to the sea, to initiate trade and commerce with the distant lands. And after fighting with the king Polatthiri for 48 years conquered the area around Panniankara. After this, Menokki came to terms with the troops and people. After this, the town
Kannur known as Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Kannur District and situated 518 km north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. During British rule in India, Kannur was known as Cannanore, a name, still in use by the Indian Railways. Kannur is the largest city of North Malabar region; as of 2011 census population of Kannur was 2,32,486. Kannur is one of the million-plus urban agglomerations in India with a population of 1,642,892 in 2011. Kannur was an important trading centre in the 12th century, with active business connections with Persia and Arabia, it served as the British military headquarters on India's west coast until 1887. In conjunction with its sister city, Tellicherry, it was the third largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi; the modern town is referred to as Kannur Town. Kannur, as a district and surrounding areas, were ruled by the famous Kolathiri Rajas.
When the state of Kerala was formed the district took the name Kannur since the administrative offices were established here. Before that, Kannur was under the Chirakkal taluk of Madras state under British rule; when the British dominated this part of the world, they preferred Madras and Cochin as their major stations and Kannur started to lose its old glory. The people of Kannur are still waiting for their old glory to get back and they feel they are being sidelined because the state administration is located opposite side of the state. Part of the original city of Kannur was under Kerala's only Muslim Royalty called the Arakkal and this area is still known as City. St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India; the Dutch captured the fort from the Portuguese in 1663. They modernised the fort and built the bastions Hollandia and Frieslandia that are the major features of the present structure; the original Portuguese fort was pulled down later.
A painting of this fort and the fishing ferry behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. The Dutch sold the fort to king Ali Raja of Arakkal in 1772. During the 17th century, Kannur was the capital city of the only Muslim Sultanate in Kerala, known as Arakkal; the British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. During the British Raj, Kannur was part of the Madras province in the North Malabar District; the guerrilla war by Pazhassi Raja, the ruler of Kottayam province, against the British had a huge impact in the history of Kannur. Changes in the socio-economic and political sectors in Kerala during the initial decades of 20th century created conditions congenial for the growth of the Communist Party. Extension of English education initiated by Christian missionaries in 1906 and carried forward by government, rebellion for wearing a cloth to cover upper parts of body, installing an idol at Aruvippuram in 1888, Malayali Memorial in 1891, establishment of SNDP Yogam in 1903, struggles etc. became factors helpful to accelerate changes in Kerala society during a short time.
Movements for liberation from the colonial rule of British imperialism and struggles launched by these movements grew with them. Soon, ideas about socialism and Soviet Revolution reached Kerala; such ideas got propagated in Kerala through the works of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai, Sahodaran Ayyappan, P. Kesavadev and others. By the beginning of the 1930s some other useful developments were taking place. Important among them was Nivarthana Agitation in Travancore; that was the demand of people suppressed so far as untouchables and weaker sections for participation in government. This brought to the forefront struggles like proportional representation in government and reservation of jobs; this imparted a new enthusiasm among oppressed masses. District: Kannur Governing Body: Kannur corporation Taluk/Tehsil: Kannur Block: Kannur Assembly Constituency: Kannur Parliament Constituency: Kannur Police Station: Kannur Post Office: Kannur 670001 Telephone Exchange: Kannur 0497 Railway Station: kannur Railway Station Airport: Kannur International Airport Kannur the rural areas, has been referred to as a stranglehold of the left parties – locally known as'party gramam'.
Gramam means'village' and denote local allegiance to only one party. Kannur has a strong presence of trade unions as well as left-leaning organizations. However, other parties have strong influence. According to the 2011 census of India, Kannur city has a population of 56,823. Males constitute 46.2% of the population and females 53.8%. Kannur has an average literacy rate of 96.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 98% and female literacy is 94%. In Kannur, 12% of the population is under six years of age. Hindus form the majority of the population with 32,026 members forming 56.3% of the population. There are 21,557 Muslims forming 37.9% of the population. Christians form 5% of the population with 2,892 members; the Anglo-Indian community in Kannur live in the Kannur Cantonment of Burnacherry and its surrounding areas of Thillery, No.3 Bazaar and Camp Bazaar. Malayalam is the local language. Kannur Taluk has 27 villages. Anjarakandi, Azhikode North, Azhikode South and Chelora Chembilode and Chirakkal Edakkad, Iriveri, Kadambur and Kolacherry Kanhirod, Kannapuram Makrery, Mattool and Munderi Muzhappilangad, Narath and Pappinisseri Puzhathi and Valiyannur V-Pra Kaayal Floating park / V-Pra Park is a project from District Tourism Promotional Council DTPC.
It is a Park, constructed on top of Vayalapra kaayal