List of missions to Mars
|Spacecraft||Launch Date||Operator||Mission||Outcome||Remarks||Carrier rocket|
|1M No.1||10 October 1960||OKB-1
|Flyby||Launch failure||Failed to orbit||Molniya|
|1M No.2||14 October 1960||OKB-1
|Flyby||Launch failure||Failed to orbit||Molniya|
|2MV-4 No.1||24 October 1962||Soviet Union||Flyby||Launch failure||Booster stage ("Block L") disintegrated in LEO||Molniya|
|1 November 1962||Soviet Union||Flyby||Spacecraft failure||Communications lost before flyby||Molniya|
|2MV-3 No.1||4 November 1962||Soviet Union||Lander||Launch failure||Never left LEO||Molniya|
|Mariner 3||5 November 1964||NASA
|Flyby||Launch failure||Payload fairing failed to separate||Atlas LV-3 Agena-D|
|Mariner 4||28 November 1964||NASA
|Flyby||Successful||Closest approach at 01:00:57 UTC on 15 July 1965||Atlas LV-3 Agena-D|
|30 November 1964||Soviet Union||Flyby||Spacecraft failure||Communications lost before flyby||Molniya|
|Mariner 6||25 February 1969||NASA
|Flyby||Successful||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|27 March 1969||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Launch failure||Failed to orbit||Proton-K/D|
|Mariner 7||27 March 1969||NASA
|Flyby||Successful||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|2 April 1969||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Launch failure||Failed to orbit||Proton-K/D|
|Mariner 8||9 May 1971||NASA
|Orbiter||Launch failure||Failed to orbit||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|10 May 1971||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Launch failure||Never left LEO; booster stage burn timer set incorrectly||Proton-K/D|
|19 May 1971||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Mostly successful||Entered orbit on 27 November 1971, operated for 362 orbits. Mapping operations unsuccessful due to dust storms on the surface||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 2 lander
(SA 4M No.171)
|19 May 1971||Soviet Union||Lander||Spacecraft failure||Deployed from Mars 2, failed to land during attempt on 27 November 1971||Proton-K/D|
|28 May 1971||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Mostly successful||Entered orbit on 2 December 1971, operated for 20 orbits. Mapping operations unsuccessful due to dust storms on the surface||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 3 lander
(SA 4M No.172)
|28 May 1971||Soviet Union||Lander||Partial failure||Deployed from Mars 3; landed at 13:52 UTC on 2 December 1971; contact lost 14.5 seconds after transmission start||Proton-K/D|
|Prop-M Rover rover
(SA 4M No.172)
|28 May 1971||Soviet Union||Rover||Spacecraft failure||Failed to deploy||Proton-K/D|
|Mariner 9||30 May 1971||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||Entered orbit on 14 November 1971, deactivated 516 days after entering orbit||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|21 July 1973||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Failed to perform orbital insertion burn||Proton-K/D|
|25 July 1973||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Partial failure||Failed after 9 days in Mars orbit; returned 180 frames||Proton-K/D|
|5 August 1973||Soviet Union||Lander
|Spacecraft failure||Contact lost upon landing, atmospheric data mostly unreadable. Flyby bus collected data.||Proton-K/D|
|9 August 1973||Soviet Union||Lander
|Spacecraft failure||Separated from coast stage prematurely, failed to enter Martian atmosphere||Proton-K/D|
|Viking 1 orbiter||20 August 1975||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||Operated for 1385 orbits||Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T|
|Viking 1 lander||20 August 1975||NASA
|Lander||Mostly successful||Deployed from Viking 1 orbiter, operated for 2245 sols (11 Nov 1982). The seismometer failed to deploy properly||Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T|
|Viking 2 orbiter||9 September 1975||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||Operated for 700 orbits||Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T|
|Viking 2 lander||9 September 1975||NASA
|Lander||Successful||Deployed from Viking 2 orbiter, operated for 1281 sols (11 Apr 1980)||Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T|
|7 July 1988||Soviet Union||Orbiter
|Spacecraft failure||Communications lost before reaching Mars; failed to enter orbit||Proton-K/D-2|
|12 July 1988||Soviet Union||Orbiter
|Partial failure||Orbital observations successful, communications lost before landing||Proton-K/D-2|
|Mars Observer||25 September 1992||NASA
|Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Lost communications before orbital insertion||Commercial Titan III|
|Mars Global Surveyor||7 November 1996||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||Operated for seven years||Delta II 7925|
|16 November 1996||Rosaviakosmos
|Launch failure||Never left LEO||Proton-K/D-2|
|Mars Pathfinder||4 December 1996||NASA
|Lander||Successful||Landed at 19.13°N 33.22°W on 4 July 1997||Delta II 7925|
|Sojourner||4 December 1996||NASA
|Rover||Successful||Operated for 84 days||Delta II 7925|
|3 July 1998||ISAS
|Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Ran out of fuel before reaching Mars||M-V|
|Mars Climate Orbiter||11 December 1998||NASA
|Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Approached Mars too closely during orbit insertion attempt due to unit conversion error and burned up in the atmosphere||Delta II 7425|
|Mars Polar Lander||3 January 1999||NASA
|Lander||Spacecraft failure||Failed to land||Delta II 7425|
|Deep Space 2||3 January 1999||NASA
|Penetrator||Spacecraft failure||Deployed from MPL, no data returned||Delta II 7425|
|Mars Odyssey||7 April 2001||NASA
|Orbiter||Operational||Expected to remain operational until 2025.||Delta II 7925|
|Mars Express||2 June 2003||ESA
|Orbiter||Operational||Enough fuel to remain operational until 2026.||Soyuz-FG/Fregat|
|Beagle 2||2 June 2003||ESA
|Lander||Lander failure||No communications received after release from Mars Express. Orbital images of landing site suggest a successful landing, but two solar panels failed to deploy, obstructing its communications.||Soyuz-FG/Fregat|
|10 June 2003||NASA
|Rover||Successful||Landed on January 4, 2004.
Operated for 2208 sols
|Delta II 7925|
|8 July 2003||NASA
|Rover||Successful||Landed on January 25, 2004.
Silent since June 10, 2018
|Delta II 7925H|
|Rosetta||2 March 2004||ESA
|Gravity assist||Successful||Flyby in February 2007 en route to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko||Ariane 5G+|
|Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter||12 August 2005||NASA
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on March 10, 2006||Atlas V 401|
|Phoenix||4 August 2007||NASA
|Lander||Successful||Landed on May 25, 2008.
End of mission November 2, 2008
|Delta II 7925|
|Dawn||27 September 2007||NASA
|Gravity assist||Successful||Flyby in February 2009 en route to 4 Vesta and Ceres||Delta II 7925H|
|Fobos-Grunt||8 November 2011||Roskosmos
|Spacecraft failure||Never left LEO (intended to depart under own power)||Zenit-2M|
|Yinghuo-1||8 November 2011||CNSA
Lost with Fobos-Grunt
|To have been deployed by Fobos-Grunt||Zenit-2M|
(Mars Science Laboratory)
|26 November 2011||NASA
|Rover||Operational||Landed on August 6, 2012||Atlas V 541|
|Mars Orbiter Mission
|5 November 2013||ISRO
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on 24 September 2014. Mission extended till 2020.||PSLV-XL|
|MAVEN||18 November 2013||NASA
|Orbiter||Operational||Orbit insertion on September 22, 2014||Atlas V 401|
|ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter||14 March 2016||ESA/Roscosmos
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on October 19, 2016||Proton-M/Briz-M|
|Schiaparelli EDM lander||14 March 2016||ESA
|Lander||Spacecraft failure||Carried by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Although the lander crashed, engineering data on the first five minutes of entry was successfully retrieved.||Proton-M/Briz-M|
|InSight & MarCO||5 May 2018||NASA
|Lander & two CubeSats flyby||Operational||Landed on November 26, 2018.||Atlas V 401|
Locations of selected Mars landers and rovers
There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.  There should be 8 derelict Mars orbiters barring unforeseen events if they have not decayed as of 2016. One example is Mariner 9, which entered Mars orbit in 1971 and is expected to remain in orbit until approximately 2022, when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian atmosphere and either burn up or crash into the planet's surface. The Viking 1 orbiter is predicted not to decay until at least 2019. One orbiter that is confirmed to have undergone Mars atmospheric entry is Mars Climate Orbiter.
(see also List of Mars orbiters)
|Hope Mars Mission||MBRSC, UAE||July 2020 ||Orbiter|
|Mars 2020||NASA, USA||July 2020||Rover, helicopter|
|ExoMars 2020||ESA, EU
SRI RAS, Russia
|July 2020||Lander, rover|
|2020 Chinese Mars Mission||CNSA, China||July/August 2020||Orbiter, rover|
|Mars Terahertz Microsatellite||NICT, ISSL, Japan||July 2020||Orbiter, lander|
|Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (Mangalyaan 2)||ISRO, India||2022||Orbiter|
|Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)||JAXA, Japan||2024||Orbiter, Phobos lander|
|Demo mission||SpaceX, USA||2022||Lander, cargo|
|Crewed mission||SpaceX, USA||2024||Lander, cargo, crew|
|Next Mars Orbiter (NeMO)||NASA, USA||Late 2020s||Telecomm orbiter (originally proposed for 2022)|
Missions to the moons of Mars
Missions dedicated to explore the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Many missions to Mars have also included dedicated observations of the Moons, while this section is about missions focused solely on them. There have been three unsuccessful dedicated missions and many proposals. Because of the proximity of the Mars moons to Mars, any mission to them may also be considered a mission to Mars from some perspectives.
There have been at least three proposals in the United States Discovery Program, including PADME, PANDORA, and MERLIN. The ESA has also considered a sample return mission, one of the latest known as Martian Moon Sample Return or MMSR, and it may use heritage from an asteroid sample return mission.
|Aladdin||Phobos and Deimos|||
|DePhine||Phobos and Deimos|||
|Hall||Phobos and Deimos|||
|M-PADS||Phobos and Deimos|||
|Merlin||Phobos and Deimos|||
|MMSR (2011 ver.)||Phobos or Deimos|||
|OSRIS-REx 2||Phobos or Deimos|||
|Pandora||Phobos and Deimos|||
|PADME||Phobos and Deimos|||
In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is developing a sample return mission to Phobos, due to launch in 2024. This mission is called Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) and is proposed as a flagship Strategic Large Mission. MMX will build on the expertise the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) would gain through the Hayabusa2 and SLIM missions. As of January 2018, MMX is set for launch in September 2024.
|Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)||Phobos and Deimos|||
Three missions to land on Phobos have been launched; the Phobos program in the late 1980s saw the launch of Fobos 1 and Fobos 2, while the Fobos-Grunt sample return mission was launched in 2011. None of these missions were successful: Fobos 1 failed en route to Mars, Fobos 2 failed shortly before landing, and Fobos-Grunt never left low Earth orbit.
Missions sent to the Martian system have returned data on Phobos and Deimos and missions specifically dedicated to the moons are a subset of missions Mars that often include dedicated goals to acquire data about these moons. An example of this is the imaging campaigns by Mars Express of the Mars moons.
Osiris-Rex 2 was a proposal to make OR a double mission, with the other one collecting samples from the two Mars moons. In 2012, it was stated that this mission would be the both quickest and least expensive way to get samples from the Moons.
- Mars 4NM and Mars 5NM – projects intended by the Soviet Union for heavy Marsokhod (in 1973 according to initial plan of 1970) and Mars sample return (planned for 1975). The missions were to be launched on the failed N1 rocket.
- Mars 5M (Mars-79) – double-launching Soviet sample return mission planned to 1979 but cancelled due to complexity and technical problems
- Voyager-Mars – USA, 1970s – Two orbiters and two landers, launched by a single Saturn V rocket.
- Vesta – the multiaimed Soviet mission, developed in cooperation with European countries for realisation in 1991–1994 but canceled due to the Soviet Union disbanding, included the flyby of Mars with delivering the aerostat and small landers or penetrators followed by flybys of 1 Ceres or 4 Vesta and some other asteroids with impact of penetrator on the one of them.
- Mars Aerostat – Russian/French balloon part for cancelled Vesta mission and then for failed Mars 96 mission, originally planned for the 1992 launch window, postponed to 1994 and then to 1996 before being cancelled.
- Mars Together, combined U.S. and Russian mission study in the 1990s. To be launched by a Molinya with possible U.S. orbiter or lander.
- Mars Environmental Survey – set of 16 landers planned for 1999–2009
- Mars-98 – Russian mission including an orbiter, lander, and rover, planned for 1998 launch opportunity as repeat of failured Mars 96 mission and cancelled due to lack of funding
- Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander – October 2001 – Mars lander (refurbished, became Phoenix lander)
- Kitty Hawk – Mars airplane micromission, proposed for December 17, 2003, the centennial of the Wright brothers' first flight. Its funding was eventually given to the 2003 Mars Network project.
- NetLander – 2007 or 2009 – Mars netlanders
- Beagle 3 – 2009 British lander mission meant to search for life, past or present.
- Mars Telecommunications Orbiter – September 2009 – Mars orbiter for telecommunications
- Sky-Sailor – 2014 – Plane developed by Switzerland to take detailed pictures of Mars surface
- Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher – 2018 rover concept, cancelled due to budget cuts in 2011. Sample cache goal later moved to Mars 2020 rover.
- Red Dragon – Derivative of a Dragon 2 capsule by SpaceX, designed to land by aerobraking and retropropulsion. Planned for 2018, then 2020. Cancelled in favor of the BFR Starship system.
- Tumbleweed rover.
- Mars One, orbiters, lander, rover.
- Chronology of Mars Exploration. NASA. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
- "Pathfinder Rover Gets Its Name".
- Russian Space Web - Mars Missions
- "(PDF) Chronology of Mars Missions". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
- "Missions to Mars". The Planetary Society.
- Perminov, V.G. (July 1999). The Difficult Road to Mars - A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union (PDF). NASA Headquarters History Division. pp. 34–60. ISBN 0-16-058859-6.
- Webster, Guy (April 11, 2013). "NASA Mars Orbiter Images May Show 1971 Soviet Lander". NASA. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
Pyle, Rod (2012). Destination Mars. Prometheus Books. pp. 73–78. ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7.
It was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around another world.
- NSSDC - Mars 6
- "Mars Pathfinder Science Results". NASA.
- Mars Pathfinder - Welcome to Mars - Sol 86
- "ESA - Beautiful new images from Rosetta's approach to Mars: OSIRIS UPDATE". Esa.int. 2007-02-24. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Brown, Dwayne; Neal-Jones, Nancy; Zubritsky, Elizabeth (September 21, 2014). "NASA's Newest Mars Mission Spacecraft Enters Orbit around Red Planet". NASA. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- Clark, Stephen (24 May 2017). "Probe into crash of ESA lander recommends more checks on ExoMars descent craft". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- "Weak Simulations, Inadequate Software & Mismanagement caused Schiaparelli Crash Landing". Spaceflight101. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- Chan, Sewell (20 October 2016). "No Signal From Mars Lander, but European Officials Declare Mission a Success". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Wall, Mike (21 October 2016). "ExoMars '96 Percent' Successful Despite Lander Crash: ESA". Space.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
- Clark, Stephen (9 March 2016). "InSight Mars lander escapes cancellation, aims for 2018 launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
- Chang, Kenneth (9 March 2016). "NASA Reschedules Mars InSight Mission for May 2018". New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- M. Adler, et al. – Use of MRO Optical Navigation Camera .. (2012)
- NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011 – Vol. 4, Issue 9 Archived May 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Clark, Stephen (8 May 2015). "UAE details ambitious plan for Martian weather satellite". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- "Emirates Mars Mission". iCresRise Magazine. January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- Emirates Mars Mission. Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC). 5 May 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020" (Press release). ESA. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "China shows first images of Mars rover, aims for 2020 mission". Reuter. 24 Aug 2016. Retrieved 10 Dec 2016.
- "惑星資源探査 ⼩型テラヘルツ探査機" (PDF) (in Japanese). National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
- Yamazaki, Keisuke (March 27, 2017). "Japan planning 2020 mission to put satellite in Martian orbit". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
- "India eyes a return to Mars and a first run at Venus". Science. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- "India plans second Mars mission in 2018". CNN IBN. 30 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-30.
- NASA confirms contribution to Japanese-led Mars mission. Stephen Clark, Space Flight Now. 20 November 2017.
- Back to the Red Planet. Johns Hopkins APL. 17 November 2017.
- Elon Musk: we can launch a manned mission to Mars by 2024 – video. The Guardian. 29 September 2017.
- Clark, Stephen (April 9, 2018). "NASA is counting on long-lived Mars orbiter lasting another decade". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- Stephen, Clark (March 3, 2015). "NASA eyes ion engines for Mars orbiter launching in 2022". Space Flight Now. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- MERLIN: The Creative Choices Behind a Proposal to Explore the Martian Moons (Merlin and PADME info also)
- MMSR - a study for a Martian Moon Sample Return mission
- C. Pieters, et al. - Aladdin: Phobos-Deimos Sample Return
- DePhine: The Deimos and Phobos Interior Explorer. (PDF) Jurgen Oberst, Kai Wickhusen, Konrad Willner, Klaus Gwinner, Sofya Spiridonova, Ralph Kahle, Andrew Coates, Alain Herique, Dirk Plettemeier, Marina Dıaz-Michelena, Alexander Zakharo, Yoshifumi Futaana, Martin Patzold, Pascal Rosenblatt, David J. Lawrence, Valery Lainey, Alison Gibbings, Ingo Gerth. Advances in Space Research. Volume 62, Issue 8. pp: 2220-2238. 15 October 2018. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2017.12.028
- Small Body Sample Return to Deimos
- Dr. Britt - The Gulliver Mission: Sample Return from Deimos
- P. Lee, et al. - Hall: A Phobos and Deimos Sample Return Mission Archived 2012-07-29 at the Wayback Machine
- Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander (Ball, Andrew J.; Price, Michael E.; Walker, Roger J.; Dando, Glyn C.; Wells, Nigel S. and Zarnecki, John C. (2009). Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander. Advances in Space Research, 43(1), pp. 120–127.)
- Murchie, S.; Eng, D.; Chabot, N.; Guo, Y.; Arvidson, R.; Yen, A.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Seelos, F.; Adams, E.; Fountain, G. (2014). "MERLIN: Mars-Moon Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation". Acta Astronautica. 93: 475–482. Bibcode:2014AcAau..93..475M. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.10.014.
- Elifritz, T. L. - OSIRIS-REx II to Mars
- Colaprete, A, et al. - PCROSS — Phobos Close Rendevous(sic) Observation Sensing Satellite
- Phobos Surveyor - Space Safety Magazine
- PRIME Archived 2008-05-10 at the Wayback Machine
- SSM - Phobos-Grunt 2 Bound for Launch in 2020, Russians Confirmed While Celebrating Sputnik
- Barraclough, Simon; Ratcliffe, Andrew; Buchwald, Robert; Scheer, Heloise; Chapuy, Marc; Garland, Martin (June 16, 2014). Phootprint: A European Phobos Sample Return Mission (PDF). 11th International Planetary Probe Workshop. Airbus Defense and Space.
- Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis (August 2, 2014). "Phootprint - A Phobos sample return mission study". ESA. Bibcode:2014cosp...40E1592K. Missing or empty
- Lee, Pascal; Bicay, Michael; Colapre, Anthony; Elphic, Richard (March 17–21, 2014). Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME): A LADEE-Derived Mission to Explore Mars's Moons and the Martian Orbital Environment (PDF). 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2014).
- Reyes, Tim (1 October 2014). "Making the Case for a Mission to the Martian Moon Phobos". Universe Today. Retrieved 2014-10-05.
- "Introduction to JAXA's Exploration of the Two Moons of Mars, with Sample Return from Phobos" (PDF). Phobos/Deimos Sample Return Mission Study Team. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
- "JAXA、火星衛星「フォボス」探査…２２年に". The Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). January 4, 2016. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
- "ISASニュース 2016.1 No.418" (PDF) (in Japanese). Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
- "宇宙科学・探査分野 工程表取り組み状況について その3" (PDF) (in Japanese). Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
- Torishima, Shinya (June 19, 2015). "JAXAの「火星の衛星からのサンプル・リターン」計画とは". Mynavi News (in Japanese). Retrieved 2015-10-06.
- MMX Homepage. JAXA, 2017
- OSIRIS-REx II to Mars - Mars Sample Return from Phobos and Deimos
- Elifritz, T. L. - OSIRIS-REx II to Mars — Mars Sample Return from Phobos and Deimos (2012)
- Larry Page Deep Space Exploration - Stepping Stones builds up to "Red Rocks : Explore Mars from Deimos"
- One Possible Small Step Toward Mars Landing: A Martian Moon
- Советский грунт с Марса (in Russian). www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru Archived November 26, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
- C. Tarrieu, "Status of the Mars 96 Aerostat Development", Paper IAF-93-Q.3.399, 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, 1993.
- P.B. de Selding, "Planned French Balloon May Be Dropped", Space News, 17–23 April 1995, pp. 1, 20
- "Mars Together Update". nasa.gov. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Mars Together: An Update". nasa.gov. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Oliver Morton in To Mars, En Masse, pp. 1103–04, Science (Magazine) vol. 283, 19 February 1999, ISSN 0036-8075
- MIT Mars Airplane Project. Marsnews.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-14.
- Exploring Mars: Blowing in the Wind? Jpl.nasa.gov (2001-08-10). Retrieved on 2012-08-14.