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List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign

The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, the Kingdom of Ireland, the Principality of Wales. Queen Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch on 9 September 2015 when she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother Victoria. On 6 February 2017 she became the first British monarch to celebrate a Sapphire Jubilee, commemorating 65 years on the throne, she has reigned for 68 years as of February 2020. These are the ten longest reigning monarchs in the British Isles for whom there is reliable recorded evidence; the longest claim by a pretender was that of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England and Ireland for 64 years, 3 months, 16 days. On 9 September 2015, Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning female monarch in world history.

On 23 May 2016, her reign surpassed the claimed reign of James Francis Edward Stuart. On 13 October 2016, she became the world's longest-reigning current monarch after the death of Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand. If she is still reigning on: 18 July 2020, she will have been queen for 25,000 days. 6 February 2022, she will celebrate her platinum jubilee. 27 May 2024, she will be the longest-reigning monarch of a sovereign state, surpassing Louis XIV of France, who reigned for 72 years, 110 days. On 1 January 1801 the Kingdom of Great Britain united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by Act of Parliament in 1927 following the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England united with the Kingdom of Scotland as the Kingdom of Great Britain. Includes English monarchs from the installation of Alfred the Great as King of Wessex in 871 to Anne and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Includes Scottish monarchs from the installation of Kenneth I in 848 to Anne and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain. The High King of Ireland was a titular title; the Kingdom of Ireland came into being under the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, the long title of, "An Act that the King of England, his Heirs and Successors, be Kings of Ireland". In 1801 the Irish crown became part of the United Kingdom of Great Ireland; the Principality of Gwynedd was based in northwest Wales, its rulers were acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or Saxon and Norman invasions. In 1216 it was superseded by the title Principality of Wales, although the new title was not first used until the 1240s; the Principality of Wales was a client state of England for much of its history, except for brief periods when it was de facto independent under a Welsh Prince of Wales. From 1301 it was first used as a title of the English heir apparent.

The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 formally incorporated all of Wales within the Kingdom of England. Charles, Prince of Wales, is the longest-serving Prince of Wales, with a tenure of 61 years, 218 days since his proclamation as such in 1958. List of current reigning monarchs by length of reign List of British monarchs by longevity List of British monarchy records List of longest-reigning monarchs Line of succession to the British throne Monarchy of the United Kingdom

Glass Houses (novel)

Glass Houses by Rachel Caine is a young adult urban fantasy/vampire, on the New York Times best selling list. The first in the award winning series, Glass Houses is about college freshman, Claire Danvers who has had enough of her nightmarish dorm situation; when Claire heads off-campus, the imposing old house where she finds a room may not be much better. Her new roommates don't show many signs of life, but they will have Claire's back when the town's deepest secrets come crawling out, hungry for fresh blood. Will she be able to face the town's terror or will she drown like everyone else? The whole Morganville Vampires series was turned into an online web series in 2013; that has won the Comicpalooza official selection in 2015 along with Raindance webfest official selection of 2015. Official website Web series website

Olympia Regional Airport

Olympia Regional Airport is a public use airport located four nautical miles south of the central business district of Olympia, a city in Thurston County and the capital of the U. S. state of Washington. It is owned by the Port of Olympia, it is about one mile east of Interstate 5 within the boundaries of the city of Tumwater, south of and adjacent to Olympia. The airport was identified in the Washington State Department of Transportation Long Term Aviation Study as a field that could serve to relieve Seattle-Tacoma International Airport of increasing congestion. Olympic Flight Museum is located at the Olympia Airport, Airlift Northwest, the region's air medical transport service uses the airport as one of its medical helicopter bases; the flight museum and the airport play host to a moderate sized air show each June. The airport's industrial park, 300 acres in extent, includes a U. S. Department of Commerce designated Free Trade Zone; the airport served as a satellite of nearby McChord Field during World War II, commercial aviation history at the Olympia Airport extends to the 1920s.

The airport now supports large business jets, cargo aircraft, military helicopters and has a backup runway lighting system for uninterrupted operations. Olympia Airport has an Instrument Landing System and backup power system for operations during bad weather or low visibility; the FAA funded a $15 million improvement project, completed in September, 2008. The work focused on enhanced taxiway and runway signage. In the late 1990s, the airport's runway protection zone was extended with the purchase of $5.5 million worth of land on each end of the primary runway, an above ground fuel facility was constructed. Olympia Regional Airport covers an area of 1,632 acres at an elevation of 209 feet above mean sea level, it has two asphalt paved runways: 17/35 is 5,500 by 150 feet with precision markings and runway 8/26 is 4,157 by 150 feet with basic markings. The airport has a passenger terminal, an air traffic control tower and a full-instrument landing approach system; the field is home to fixed wing and helicopter flight instruction, major aircraft and oxygen maintenance facilities, the Washington State Patrol aviation division, a key navigational aid, used by commercial flights inbound to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and general aviation aircraft in the region.

Washington World War II Army Airfields This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website Olympia Regional Airport at Port of Olympia web site FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 FAA Terminal Procedures for OLM, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for OLM AirNav airport information for KOLM ASN accident history for OLM FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures

Polycomb recruitment in X chromosome inactivation

X chromosome inactivation is the phenomenon, selected during the evolution to balance X-linked gene dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI is divided in two phases, the establishment phase when gene silencing is reversible, maintenance phase when gene silencing becomes irreversible. During the establishment phase of X Chromosome Inactivation, Xist RNA, the master regulator of this process, spreads in cis along the future inactive X and recruits repressive chromatin-remodelling complexes. Among these, Xist recruits proteins of the Polycomb repressive complexes. Whether Xist directly recruits Polycomb repressive complex 2 to the chromatin or this recruitment is the consequence of Xist-mediated changes on the chromatin has been object of intense debate; some studies showed that PRC2 components are not associated with Xist RNA or do not interact functionally. However another study has shown by means of mass spectrometry analysis, that two subunits of PRC2 may interact with Xist, although these proteins are found in other complexes and are not unique components of the PRC2 complex.

Biochemical studies have shown that in vitro PRC2 binds the A-repeat of Xist RNA directly and with high affinity, supporting Xist-mediated recruitment of PRC2 to the X chromosome. However it is not clear. Failure to turn up PRC2 proteins in function screens may be due to cells not being able to survive or compete without PRC2 or incomplete screens. Two super resolution microscopy analyses have presented different views from each other. One showed that Xist and PRC2 are spatially separated, while another showed that Xist and PRC2 are linked, it is possible that several mechanisms recruit PRC2 in parallel, including direct Xist-mediated recruitment, adaptor proteins, chromatin changes, RNA pol II exclusion, or PRC1 recruitment. For instance, PRC2 recruitment is linked to PRC1-mediated H2A119 ubiquitination in differentiating embryonic stem cells. Where PRC1 recruitment is mediated by hnrnpK and Xist repB. In differentiated cells, PRC2 recruitment seems to be dependent on Xist RepA, it is possible that alternative and complementary pathways such as phase separation work to establish PRC2 recruitment on the X in different experimental systems and during different stages of development

Hanoverian horse

A Hanoverian is a warmblood horse breed originating in Germany, seen in the Olympic Games and other competitive English riding styles, has won gold medals in all three equestrian Olympic competitions. It is one of the oldest, most numerous, most successful of the warmbloods. A carriage horse, infusions of Thoroughbred blood lightened it to make it more agile and useful for competition; the Hanoverian is known for a good temperament, athleticism and grace. In 1735, George II, the King of England and Elector of Hanover, founded the State Stud at Celle, he purchased stallions suitable for all-purpose work in agriculture and in harness, as well as for breeding cavalry mounts. The local mares were refined with Holsteiner and Cleveland Bay, Andalusian and Mecklenburg stock. By the end of the 18th century, the Hanoverian had become a high-class coach horse. In 1844, a law was passed that allowed only stallions approved by a commission to be used for the purpose of breeding. In 1867, breeders started a society aimed at producing a coach and military horse, with the first stud book being published in 1888.

The Hanoverian became one of the most popular breeds in Europe for army work. When the demand for Hanoverians declined following World War I, the aim for breeding became a horse that could be used for farm work, but still had the blood and gaits to be used as a riding and carriage horse. After World War II, there was a growing demand for sport horses, as well as general riding horses, the breeding yet again was adapted. Thoroughbreds were used to refine the breed; the key to the success of the Hanoverian has been the rigorous selection of breeding stock, a large breed population, breeders' willingness to adapt to changes in demand. Today, the Hanoverian breeders' association offers many incentives to breed the best, including the famous auctions at Verden, extensive grading opportunities for stallions and young horses. In addition, few breeds have such well-kept records, allowing breeders to trace bloodlines over many generations, improving their chances to find the best stallion–mare match.

The current aim of breeders today is to create a noble, versatile warmblood with light and ground-covering gaits. Whenever necessary, outside blood is brought in to improve the horse; the strict selection ensures that Hanoverians are athletic and good jumpers, for show jumping and eventing, have the gaits for dressage. Hanoverians are elegant and robust, they are bred to be willing and trainable, have a strong back, powerful body, athletic movement, strong limbs. Chestnut, bay and gray are found the most often. Regulations prohibit horses with too much white, buckskin and cremello horses from being registered; the horses can be 15.3 -- 17.2 hands high. The World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses uses results from International Federation for Equestrian Sports-recognized competitions to rank individual horses and breed registries within each Olympic discipline: dressage, show jumping, eventing; the WBFSH publishes these rankings each year. The FEI is the International Olympic Committee-recognized international governing body for equestrian sport.

In North America, the hunt seat style of riding features the show hunter, a competitive discipline. While infrastructure does not allow the accuracy and completeness of WBFSH/FEI standings, the United States Equestrian Federation publishes yearly rankings of the top hunter horses, the top sires of hunter horses; the Hanoverian Society has been the most successful studbook in international dressage competition as ranked by the WBFSH and FEI since these standings began to be published in 2001. The top Hanoverian-branded international dressage horses include Salinero, Satchmo 78, Bonaparte 67, Wansuela Suerte. Since the 1956 Olympic Games, Hanoverians have earned 3 individual gold medals, 4 individual silver medals, 4 individual bronze medals. Hanoverians have been members of no fewer than 7 gold medal dressage teams; the World Equestrian Games, which are held every four years to split the non-Olympic years evenly, have been won by many Hanoverians. Dressage champions at the World Equestrian Games that bore the Hanoverian brand include Mehmed, Gigolo and Salinero.

Hanoverians have been members of 8 gold-medal winning WEG teams since 1966. At the age of 25, the Hanoverian stallion Weltmeyer is the world's #3 sire of international-caliber dressage horses, behind #2 Donnerhall, sired by the Hanoverian Donnerwetter; the Hanoverian Society has been ranked in the top five most successful studbooks in international show jumping competition as ranked by the WBFSH and FEI since 2001. The best Hanoverian jumpers of the new millennium are Shutterfly, by Silvio, For Pleasure, by Furioso II. Shutterfly won the Show Jumping World Cup in 2005, 2008, 2009. For Pleasure was second place at the 1995 World Cup, was a member of two gold medal-winning Olympic show jumping teams. Warwick Rex won the individual gold medal in show jumping at the 1976 Montreal Olympics, Fidelitas took silver at the 1964 Tokyo Games. Hanoverians have been members of 6 Olympic gold medal teams in show jumping. Other top-notch Hanoverian show jumpers include winner of

Haddam, Kansas

Haddam is a city in Washington County, United States. It is named after Connecticut; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 104. Haddam was founded in 1869, it was named after Connecticut. In 1874, the rival town of West Haddam merged with Haddam. Haddam is located at 39°51′23″N 97°18′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 104 people, 52 households, 29 families residing in the city; the population density was 297.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 88 housing units at an average density of 251.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.1% White, 1.0% Native American, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 52 households of which 17.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.2% were non-families.

40.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 30.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age in the city was 52.8 years. 17.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 55.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 169 people, 73 households, 48 families residing in the city; the population density was 487.7 people per square mile. There were 96 housing units at an average density of 277.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.04% White, 1.18% Native American, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. There were 73 households out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.6% were married couples living together, 4.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 20.1% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 27.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 128.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,000, the median income for a family was $30,000. Males had a median income of $20,341 versus $14,375 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,555. About 9.1% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under the age of eighteen and 3.4% of those sixty five or over. Haddam is served by USD 108 Washington County Schools; the Washington County High School mascot is Tigers. School unification consolidated Mahaska and Haddam schools into Haddam-Mahaska schools in 1967; the high school was with grade schools in both communities.

In 1968, Haddam-Mahaska combined with Morrowville to form North Central Schools. The grade school and junior high were in Haddam and the high school was in Morrowville; the Haddam High School mascot was Haddam Hounds. The North Central Junior high mascot was the Wildcats and the high school mascot was the Cougars. Living in the Depot: The Two-Story Railroad Station. Contains historic images of Kansas stations at Alta Vista, Comiskey, Haddam and Wakarusa. CityCity of Haddam Haddam - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 108, local school districtMapsHaddam City Map, KDOT