Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. During the early 300 years of Brazilian colonial history, the economic exploitation of the territory was based first on brazilwood extraction, which gave the territory its name. Slaves those brought from Africa, provided most of the work force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery to cut brazilwood. In contrast to the neighboring Spanish possessions, which had several viceroyalties with jurisdiction over New Spain and Peru, in the eighteenth century expanded to viceroyalties of Rio de la Plata and New Granada, the Portuguese colony of Brazil was settled in the coastal area by the Portuguese and a large black slave population working sugar plantations and mines; the boom and bust economic cycles were linked to export products. Brazil's sugar age, with the development of plantation slavery, merchants serving as middle men between production sites, Brazilian ports, Europe was undermined by the growth of the sugar industry in the Caribbean on islands that European powers seized from Spain.
Gold and diamonds were mined in southern Brazil through the end of the colonial era. Brazilian cities were port cities and the colonial administrative capital was moved several times in response to the rise and fall of export products' importance. Unlike Spanish America, which fragmented into many republics upon independence, Brazil remained a single administrative unit under a monarch, giving rise to the largest country in Latin America. Just as European Spanish and Roman Catholicism were a core source of cohesion among Spain's vast and multi-ethnic territories, Brazilian society was united by the Portuguese language and Roman Catholic faith; as the only Lusophone polity in the Western Hemisphere, the Portuguese language was important to Brazilian identity. Portugal and Spain pioneered the European charting of sea routes that were the first and only channels of interaction between all of the world's continents, thus beginning the process of globalization. In addition to the imperial and economic undertaking of discovery and colonization of lands distant from Europe, these years were filled with pronounced advancements in cartography and navigational instruments, of which the Portuguese and Spanish explorers took advantage.
In 1494, the two kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula divided the New World between them, in 1500 navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in what is now Brazil and laid claim to it in the name of King Manuel I of Portugal. The Portuguese identified brazilwood as a valuable red dye and an exploitable product, attempted to force indigenous groups in Brazil to cut the trees. Portuguese seafarers in the early fifteenth century began to expand from a small area of the Iberian Peninsula, to seizing the Muslim fortress of Ceuta in North Africa, its maritime exploration proceeded down the coast of West Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the south Asian subcontinent, as well as the Atlantic islands off the coast of Africa on the way. They sought sources of gold and African slaves, high value goods in the African trade; the Portuguese set up fortified trading "factories", whereby permanent small commercial settlements anchored trade in a region. The initial costs of setting up these commercial posts was borne by private investors, who in turn received hereditary titles and commercial advantages.
From the Portuguese Crown's point of view, its realm was expanded with little cost to itself. On the Atlantic islands of the Azores, Sāo Tomé, the Portuguese began plantation production of sugarcane using forced labor, a precedent for Brazil's sugar production in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the Portuguese "discovery" of Brazil was preceded by a series of treaties between the kings of Portugal and Castile, following Portuguese sailings down the coast of Africa to India and the voyages to the Caribbean of the Genoese mariner sailing for Castile, Christopher Columbus. The most decisive of these treaties was the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, which created the Tordesillas Meridian, dividing the world between the two kingdoms. All land discovered or to be discovered east of that meridian was to be the property of Portugal, everything to the west of it went to Spain; the Tordesillas Meridian divided South America into two parts, leaving a large chunk of land to be exploited by the Spaniards.
The Treaty of Tordesillas was arguably the most decisive event in all Brazilian history, since it determined that part of South America would be settled by Portugal instead of Spain. The present extent of Brazil's coastline is exactly that defined by the Treaty of Madrid, approved in 1750. On April 22, 1500, during the reign of King Manuel I, a fleet led by navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in Brazil and took possession of the land in the name of the king. Although it is debated whether previous Portuguese explorers had been in Brazil, this date is and politically accepted as the day of the discovery of Brazil by Europeans. Álvares Cabral was leading a large fleet of 13 ships and more than 1000 men following Vasco da Gama's way to India, around Africa. The place where Álvares Cabral arrived is now known in Northeastern Brazil. After the voyage of Álvares Cabral, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts on the lucrative possessions in Africa and India
Kingdom of Brazil
Not to be confused with Empire of Brazil The Kingdom of Brazil was a constituent kingdom of United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. The legal entity of the Kingdom of Brazil was created by a law issued by Prince Regent John of Portugal, Prince of Brazil, Duke of Braganza, in name of his mother, Queen Maria I of Portugal, on 16 December 1815, which elevated the State of Brazil to the rank of a Kingdom within the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. By a decree issued on 22 April 1821 ahead of his departure from Brazil to Portugal, King John VI appointed his firstborn son and heir, The Prince Pedro of Braganza, the Prince Royal of the United Kingdom, as Prince Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil, with delegated powers to discharge the "general government and entire administration of the Kingdom of Brazil" as the King's placeholder, thus granting the Kingdom of Brazil a devolved administration within the United Kingdom. On 7 September 1822, Prince Pedro, Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, Regent of Brazil, declared the Brazilian Independence.
On 12 October 1822, Prince Pedro became the first Emperor of the newly independent country, thus founding the Empire of Brazil. Brazil's independence was only recognized with the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, in 1825, by which the Kingdom of Brazil, within the larger United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, was formally dissolved and Brazil's independence was recognized and granted by the Kingdom of Portugal. On 8 September 1822, in the first day after the Proclamation of Independence, Prince Pedro issued a decree to adopt for the Kingdom of Brazil a new flag and coat of arms, replacing the Portuguese colours white and blue, with new colours and yellow; the new, post independence symbols, replaced the original flag of the Kingdom of Brazil and its original coat of arms, designed in 1815. Of course, after independence, upon the adoption of the new flag and coat of arms on 8 September 1822, the coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, adopted in 1815 ceased to be used.
As per one of the clauses of the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, King John VI of Portugal and the Algarves King John VI of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, was granted the personal title of titular Emperor of Brazil, thus having stayed monarch of Brazil, in title, until his death in 1826. United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of the Algarves
John III of Portugal
John III nicknamed The Colonizer was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. John succeeded his father at the age of nineteen. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire had a global dimension and spanned 1 billion acres. During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty, Japan, during the Muromachi period, he abandoned Muslim territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India and investment in Brazil.
In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region and the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade. John, the eldest son of King Manuel I to his second wife Maria of Aragon, was born in Lisbon on 7 June 1502; the event was marked by the presentation of Gil Vicente's Visitation Play or the Monologue of the Cowherd in the queen's chamber. The young prince was sworn heir to the throne in 1503, the year his youngest sister, Isabella of Portugal, Empress Consort of the Holy Roman Empire between 1527 and 1538, was born. John was educated by notable scholars of the time, including the astrologer Tomás de Torres, Diogo de Ortiz, Bishop of Viseu, Luís Teixeira Lobo, one of the first Portuguese Renaissance humanists, rector of the University of Siena and Professor of Law at Ferrara. John's chronicler António de Castilho said that, "Dom João III faced problems complementing his lack of culture with a practice formation that he always showed during his reign". In 1514, he was given his own house, a few years began to help his father in administrative duties.
At the age of sixteen, John was chosen to marry his first cousin, the 20-year-old Eleanor of Austria, eldest daughter of Philip the Handsome of Austria-Burgundy and Queen Joanna of Castile, but instead she married his widowed father Manuel. John took deep offence at this: his chroniclers say he became melancholic and was never quite the same; some historians claim this was one of the main reasons that John became fervently religious, giving him name the Pious. On 19 December 1521, John was crowned king in the Church of São Domingos in Lisbon, beginning a thirty-six-year reign characterized by intense activity in internal and overseas politics in relations with other major European states. John III continued to centralize the absolutist politics of his ancestors, he called the Portuguese Cortes only three times and at great intervals: 1525 in Torres Novas, 1535 in Évora and 1544 in Almeirim. He tried to restructure administrative and judicial life in his realm; the marriage of John's sister Isabella of Portugal to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, enabled the Portuguese king to forge a stronger alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
To strengthen his ties with Austria, he married his maternal first cousin Catherine of Austria, younger sister of Charles V and his erstwhile fiancée Eleanor, in the town of Crato. John III had nine children from that marriage. By the time of John's death, only his grandson Sebastian was alive to inherit the crown; the large and far-flung Portuguese Empire was difficult and expensive to administer and was burdened with huge external debt and trade deficits. Portugal's Indian and Far Eastern interests grew chaotic under the poor administration of ambitious governors. John III responded with new appointments that proved troubled and short-lived: in some cases, the new governors had to fight their predecessors to take up their appointments; the resulting failures in administration brought on a gradual decline of the Portuguese trade monopoly. In consideration of the challenging military situation faced by Portuguese forces worldwide, John III declared every male subject between 20 and 65 years old recruitable for military service on 7 August 1549.
Among John III's many colonial governors in Asia were Vasco da Gama, Pedro Mascarenhas, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Nuno da Cunha, Estêvão da Gama, Martim Afonso de Sousa, João de Castro and Henrique de Meneses. Overseas, the Empire was threatened by the Ottoman Empire in both the Indian Ocean and North Africa, causing Portugal to increase spending on defense and fortifications. Meanwhile, in the Atlantic, where Portuguese ships had to withstand constant attacks of Privateers, an initial settlement of French colonists in Brazil created yet another "front"; the French made alliances with native South Americans against the Portuguese and military and political interventions were used. They were forced out, but not until 1565. In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the Far East continued, the Portuguese reached China and Japan; the expense of defending Indian interests was huge. To pay for it, John III abandoned a number of strongholds in North Africa: Safim, Alcácer Ceguer and Arzila.
John III achieved an important political vic
John VI of Portugal
John VI, nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825. Although the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist de facto beginning in 1822, he remained its monarch de jure between 1822 and 1825. After the recognition of the independence of Brazil under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825, he continued as King of Portugal until his death in 1826. Under the same treaty, he became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son, Pedro I of Brazil, was both de facto and de jure the monarch of the newly-independent country. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Maria I and Peter III of Portugal, he was an infante of Portugal, he only became heir to the throne when his older brother José, Prince of Brazil, died of smallpox in 1788 at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles Duke of Braganza and Duke of Beja, as well as Prince of Brazil. From 1799, he served as prince regent of Portugal, due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I.
In 1816, he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire, with no real change in his authority, since he possessed absolute powers as regent. One of the last representatives of absolute monarchy in Europe, he lived during a turbulent period. Throughout his period of rule, major powers, such as Spain and Great Britain, continually intervened in Portuguese affairs. Forced to flee to South America across the Atlantic Ocean into Brazil when troops of the Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, he found himself faced there with liberal revolts, his marriage was no less conflictual, as his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain conspired against her husband in favor of personal interests or those of her native Spain. He lost Brazil when his son Pedro declared independence, his other son Miguel led a rebellion that sought to depose him. According to recent scholarly research, his death may well have been caused by arsenic poisoning. Notwithstanding these tribulations he left a lasting mark in Brazil, where he helped to create numerous institutions and services that laid a foundation for national autonomy, he is considered by many historians to be a true mastermind of the modern Brazilian state.
Still, he has been viewed as a cartoonish figure in Portuguese-Brazilian history, accused of laziness, lack of political acumen and constant indecision, is portrayed as physically grotesque. João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael was born 13 May 1767, during the reign of his maternal grandfather and paternal uncle Joseph I of Portugal, he was the second son, paternal cousin, nephew by marriage of the future Queen Maria I, Joseph's daughter, her husband, the future King Peter III. At the time of John's birth they were Princess of Brazil and Infante of Portugal, he was ten years old when his grandfather died and his mother ascended to the throne. His childhood and youth were lived as he was a mere infante in the shadow of his elder brother José, Prince of Brazil and 14th Duke of Braganza, the heir-apparent to the throne. Folklore has John as a rather uncultured youth, but according to Jorge Pedreira e Costa, he received as rigorous an education as José did. Still, a French ambassador of the time painted him in unfavorable colors, seeing him as hesitant and dim.
The record of this period of his life is too vague for historians to form any definitive picture. Little is known of the substance of his education, he received instruction in religion, law and etiquette, would have learned history through reading the works of Duarte Nunes de Leão and João de Barros. In 1785, Henrique de Meneses, 3rd Marquis of Louriçal, arranged a marriage between John and the Infanta Carlota Joaquina of Spain, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and Queen Maria Luisa of Parma. Like her betrothed, Carlota was a junior member of a royal family. Fearing a new Iberian Union, some in the Portuguese court viewed the marriage to a Spanish infanta unfavorably, she endured four days of testing by the Portuguese ambassadors before the marriage pact was confirmed. Because John and Carlota were related, because of the bride's youth, the marriage required a papal dispensation. After being confirmed, the marriage capitulation was signed in the throne room of the Spanish court with great pomp and with the participation of both kingdoms.
It was followed by a proxy marriage. The marriage was consummated five years later; the infanta was received at the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa at the beginning of May 1785, on 9 June 1785, the couple received a nuptial benediction at the palace chapel. At the same time, John's sister, the Infanta Mariana Victoria, was married to the Infante Gabriel of the Spanish royal family. An assiduous correspondence between John and Mariana at that time reveals that the absence of his sister weighed upon him and, comparing her to his young wife, he wrote, "She is smart and has a lot of judgment, whereas you have rather little, I like her a lot, but for all that I cannot love her equally." John's young bride was little given to docility, requiring at times the correction of Queen Maria herself. Furthermore, the difference in their ages made him anxious; because Carlota was so young, the marriage had not been consumm
Pedro II of Brazil
Dom Pedro II, nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last monarch of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. He was born in Rio de Janeiro, the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza, his father's abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left the five year-old as Emperor and led to a grim and lonely childhood and adolescence, obliged to spend his time studying in preparation for rule. He encountered few friends of his age, his experiences with court intrigues and political disputes during this period affected his character. Pedro II inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, but he turned Brazil into an emerging power in the international arena; the nation grew to be distinguished from its Hispanic neighbors on account of its political stability, zealously guarded freedom of speech, respect for civil rights, vibrant economic growth, form of government—a functional representative parliamentary monarchy.
Brazil was victorious in the Platine War, the Uruguayan War, the Paraguayan War, as well as prevailing in several other international disputes and domestic tensions. Pedro II steadfastly pushed through the abolition of slavery despite opposition from powerful political and economic interests. A savant in his own right, the Emperor established a reputation as a vigorous sponsor of learning and the sciences, he won the respect and admiration of people such as Charles Darwin, Victor Hugo, Friedrich Nietzsche, was a friend to Richard Wagner, Louis Pasteur, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, among others. There was no desire for a change in the form of government among most Brazilians, but the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état that had no support outside a clique of military leaders who desired a form of republic headed by a dictator. Pedro II had become weary of emperorship and despaired over the monarchy's future prospects, despite its overwhelming popular support, he did not support any attempt to restore the monarchy.
He spent the last two years of his life in exile in Europe, living alone on little money. The reign of Pedro II thus came to an unusual end—he was overthrown while regarded by the people and at the pinnacle of his popularity, some of his accomplishments were soon brought to naught as Brazil slipped into a long period of weak governments and constitutional and economic crises; the men who had exiled him soon began to see in him a model for the Brazilian republic. A few decades after his death, his reputation was restored and his remains were returned to Brazil with celebrations nationwide. Historians have regarded the Emperor in an positive light and several have ranked him as the greatest Brazilian. Pedro was born at 02:30 on 2 December 1825 in the Palace of São Cristóvão, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his name in full was Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga. Through his father, Emperor Dom Pedro I, he was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza and was referred to using the honorific "Dom" from birth.
He was the grandson of Portuguese King Dom João VI and nephew of Dom Miguel I. His mother was the Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, daughter of Franz II, the last Holy Roman Emperor. Through his mother, Pedro was a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon II of France, Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary and Don Maximiliano I of Mexico; the only legitimate male child of Pedro I to survive infancy, he was recognized as heir apparent to the Brazilian throne with the title Prince Imperial on 6 August 1826. Empress Maria Leopoldina died on 11 December 1826, a few days after a stillbirth, when Pedro was a year old. Two and a half years his father married Amélie of Leuchtenberg. Prince Pedro developed an affectionate relationship with her. Pedro I's desire to restore his daughter Maria II to her Portuguese throne, usurped by his brother Miguel I, as well as his declining political position at home led to his abrupt abdication on 7 April 1831, he and Amélie departed for Europe, leaving behind the Prince Imperial, who became Emperor Dom Pedro II.
Upon leaving the country, Emperor Pedro I selected three people to take charge of his son and remaining daughters. The first was José Bonifácio de Andrada, his friend and an influential leader during Brazilian independence, named guardian; the second was Mariana de Verna, who had held the post of aia since the birth of Pedro II. As a child, the then-Prince Imperial called her "Dadama", as he could not pronounce the word dama correctly, he regarded her as his surrogate mother, would continue to call her by her nickname well into adulthood out of affection. The third person was an Afro-Brazilian veteran of the Cisplatine War, he was an employee in the Palace of São Cristóvão whom Pedro I trusted and asked to look after his son—a charge that he carried out for the rest of his life. Bonifácio was replaced by another guardian. Pedro II spent his days studying, with only two hours set aside for amusements. Intelligent, he was able to acquire knowledge with great ease. However, the hours of study were strenuous and the preparation for his role as monarch w
John V of Portugal
Dom John V, known as the Magnanimous and the Portuguese Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Braganza who ruled as King of Portugal during the first half of the 18th century. John V's reign saw the rise of the prestige of Portugal and its monarchy, in decline among European courts, to a new level of prosperity and wealth. John V's reign saw an enormous influx of gold into the coffers of the royal treasury, supplied by the royal fifth, received from the Portuguese colonies of Brazil and Maranhão. John nearly depleted his country's tax revenues on ambitious architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace, on commissions and additions for his sizable art and literary collections. Owing to his craving for international diplomatic recognition, John spent large sums on the embassies he sent to the courts of Europe, the most famous being those he sent to Paris in 1715 and Rome in 1716. Disregarding traditional Portuguese institutions of governance, John V ruled as an absolute monarch; as a continuation of a Braganza dynasty policy that stressed the importance of relations with Europe, John's reign was marked by numerous interventions into the affairs of other European states, most notably as part of the War of the Spanish Succession.
On the imperial front, John V pursued an expansionist policy, with significant territorial gains in Portuguese India and Portuguese America. John V was a pious man who devoted large parts of his day to prayer and religious study, he rewarded his long-awaited recognition as a lawful monarch by Pope Benedict XIV with a fervent devotion to the Catholic Church and some large donations to the Holy See. The Pope granted John V the style "Most Faithful Majesty,". However, John's relationship with the papacy varied at different periods in his reign. John was born on 22 October 1689 at Ribeira Palace in Lisbon to King Peter II and Queen Maria Sophia of Neuburg, he was baptized on November 19 at the Royal Palace Chapel and given the full name John Francis Anthony Joseph Benedict Bernard. John was not his father's first son. Upon his baptism, John was not given the traditional titles of the heir apparent to the Portuguese throne, Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza, but the default title Infante of Portugal.
This was intended as a sign of respect for his elder brother's death, which had happened only months before. John had a stimulating upbringing surrounded by some of the most brilliant minds of Europe at the time, it was agreed by the court that John's care as a child was to be run by women only, a custom of the Portuguese court, the Portuguese nobility as a whole. John's governess was Maria de Lencastre, the Marquise of Unhão, given that position more for her beauty and status than for her suitability as a child care giver; the political policies of John's father had made the Portuguese court wealthy, the national economy stable, the imperial military strong. This made a interesting childhood possible for John; as a child, he was under the tutelage and heavy influence of the Jesuit Fathers Francisco da Cruz, John Seco, Luís Gonzaga. Father Luís Gonzaga was in charge of the education of all of King Pedro's children; as the prince grew up, he was mentored in political affairs by Luís da Cunha, a prominent Portuguese diplomat.
When John reached age seven, his father determined that his eldest sons were sufficiently educated in basic subjects and decided to take over supervision of their instruction himself, though his interest in mentoring them faded. This was formalised when he and his brother Francisco, Duke of Beja, were admitted into the Order of Christ on 7 April 1696; that year, the king decided to confer on John the titles of the heir apparent, namely Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza. On 1 December 1696, on the anniversary of the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640, a grand ceremony was held in which John was invested with his titles; the ceremony involved the placing of a large ermine and red velvet mantle on his shoulders, as well as the adornment of his person with various jewels and royal regalia. Just over a month before John's tenth birthday in 1699, his mother Queen Maria Sofia died at the age of 33; this caused John to become depressed for many months. Catherine of Braganza, his aunt and the former Queen consort of England and Ireland, returned to Portugal to help John revitalise himself and take control of his education.
She resided in the palace she had built, Bemposta Palace, remained John's main tutor and female role model until her death in 1705. In April 1700, John fell ill. Fearing his imminent demise, he confessed his sins. To everyone's surprise, he rallied and soon returned to his normal activities, his complete recovery being considered a miracle by the court; the death of John's sister Teresa Maria in February 1704 saddened him. It caused him to avoid appearing at court for some months and to estrange himself from his father, who favoured John's younger brother, Count of Ourém. During this time, much gossip was spread and worries arose about whether John would recover
History of Portugal
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis. The oldest human fossil is the skull discovered in the Cave of Aroeira in Almonda. Neanderthals roamed the northern Iberian peninsula. Homo sapiens arrived in Portugal around 35,000 years ago. Pre-Celtic tribes such as the Cynetes lived in the Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions before the 6th century BC, developed the city of Tartessos and the written Tartessian language, left many stelae in the south of the country. Early in the first millennium BC, waves of Celts from Central Europe invaded and intermarried with the local populations to form several ethnic groups and many tribes, their presence is traceable, through archaeological and linguistic evidence. Although they dominated much of the northern and central area, they were unable to establish in the south, which retained its non-Indo-European character until the Roman conquest; some small, semi-permanent coastal settlements were founded by Phoenician-Carthaginians on the southern coast.
The Roman invasion in the 3rd century BC lasted several centuries, developed the Roman provinces of Lusitania in the south and Gallaecia in the north. Numerous Roman sites include works of engineering, temples, roads, theatres, layman's homes, coins and ceramics; as elsewhere in Western Europe, there was a sharp decline in urban life during the Dark Ages following the fall of Rome. Germanic tribes controlled the territory between the 7th centuries; these included the Kingdom of the Suebi centred at the Visigothic Kingdom in the south. Under the Visigoths a new class emerged, a nobility, which played a tremendous social and political role during the Middle Ages; the Church began to play a important part within the state, but since the Visigoths did not know Latin the Catholic bishops continued the Roman system of governance. The clergy started to emerge as a high-ranking class. In 711 an invasion by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, comprising Berbers from North Africa and Arabs from the Middle East plus other Muslims from all around the Islamic world, conquered the Visigoth Kingdom and founded the Islamic state of Al Andalus.
The Umayyads reigned supreme and advanced through Iberia and France until the Battle of Tours but endured across Iberia until the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in 1492. But Lisbon, Gharb Al-Andalus, the rest of what would become Portugal, was reconquered by the early 12th century. At the end of the 9th century, a small minor county based in the area of Portus Cale was established under King Alfonso III of Asturias, by the 10th century the Counts were known as the Magnus Dux Portucalensium; the Kingdom of Asturias was divided so that northern "Portugal" became part of the Kingdom of León. As a vassal of the Kingdom of León, Portugal grew in power and territory and gained de facto independence during weak Leonese reigns. In 1071 Garcia II of Galicia was declared King of Portugal and in 1095, Portugal broke away from the Kingdom of Galicia. At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended its independence by merging the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra.
Henry's son Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal on 24 June 1128 and King of Portugal in 1139. In 1179 a papal bull recognised Afonso I as king; the Algarve was conquered from the Moors in 1249, in 1255 Lisbon became the capital. Portugal's land boundaries have remained unchanged since the 13th century; the Treaty of Windsor created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day. From the late Middle Ages, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal ascended to the status of a world power during Europe's "Age of Discovery" as it built up a vast empire, including possessions in South America, Africa and Oceania. Over the following two centuries, Portugal kept most of its colonies, but lost much of its wealth and status as the Dutch and French took an increasing share of the spice and slave trades by surrounding or conquering the scattered Portuguese trading posts and territories. Signs of military decline began with two disastrous battles: the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578 and Spain's abortive attempt to conquer England in 1588 by means of the Spanish Armada – Portugal was in a dynastic union with Spain and contributed ships to the Spanish invasion fleet.
The country was further weakened by the destruction of much of its capital city in an earthquake in 1755, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the loss of its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Portugal to live in Brazil and the United States. In 1910, there was a revolution. Amid corruption, repression of the church, the near bankruptcy of the state, a military coup in 1926 installed a dictatorship that remained until another coup in 1974; the new government instituted sweeping democratic reforms and granted independence to all of Portugal's African colonies in 1975. Portugal is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the European Free Trade Association, it entered the European Economic Community in 1986. The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Cale or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic deity and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day