House of Kalākaua
The House of Kalākaua, or Kalākaua Dynasty known as the Keawe-a-Heulu line, was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi between the assumption of King David Kalākaua to the throne in 1874 and the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani in 1893. Liliʻuokalani died in 1917; the House of Kalākaua was descended from chiefs on the islands of Hawaiʻi and Kauaʻi, ascended to the royal throne by election when the males of the House of Kamehameha died out. The torch that burns at midday symbolizes the dynasty, based on the sacred kapu Kalākaua's ancestor High Chief Iwikauikaua; the dynasty was founded by Kalākaua but included his brothers and sisters who were children of High Chiefess Analea Keohokālole and High Chief Caesar Kaluaiku Kapaʻakea. Through Kapaʻakea's paternal grandmother Alapa'iwahine he was great-great-grandson of Chief Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku the great-grandfather of Kamehameha I. Through Kapaʻakea's paternal grandfather Kepoʻokalani he was descended from one of the nīʻaupiʻo royal twins Kameʻeiamoku.
Analea was great-great-granddaughter of Chief Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku on her mother Kamaʻeokalani's side and on her father ʻAikanaka's father and mother's side she was descended from High Chief Haʻae-a-Mahi, the father of Kekuʻiʻapowa. On her father's side she was descended from Keawe-a-Heulu. Many of their ancestors were collateral cousins of King Kamehameha I. With the deposition of queen Liliʻuokalani in 1893 the House of Kalākaua ceased to reign, the death of the Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani in 1899 meant the loss of the last direct heir of the siblings of the reigning monarchs of House of Kalākaua; the main line of the dynasty thus ended when the deposed Queen Liliʻuokalani died in 1917. Their cousins came to be known as the House of Kawānanakoa, a branch of the House of Kalākaua, since they are relatives of King Kalākaua, descended from Prince David Kawānanakoa, eldest son of the princess Kūhiō Kinoike Kekaulike, who had died in 1908; the House of Kawānanakoa survives to modern times and at least two of its members have claims to the throne should the Hawaiian monarchy be revived.
King Kalākaua Queen Liliʻuokalani Crown Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani Crown Prince William Pitt Leleiohoku Princess Miriam Likelike Princess Kaʻiminaʻauao Prince James Kaliokalani High Chief Caesar Kapaʻakea High Chiefess Analea Keohokālole KALAKAUA AND LILIUOKALANI'S GENEALOGY The Royal Family of Hawaii Official Site Kalakaua Chart
The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, Hāna. Native Hawaiian tradition gives the origin of the island's name in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. According to it, Hawaiʻiloa named the island after his son, who in turn was named for the demigod Māui; the earlier name of Maui was ʻIhikapalaumaewa.
The Island of Maui is called the "Valley Isle" for the large isthmus separating its northwestern and southeastern volcanic masses. Maui's diverse landscapes are the result of a unique combination of geology and climate; each volcanic cone in the chain of the Hawaiian Islands is built of dark, iron-rich/quartz-poor rocks, which poured out of thousands of vents as fluid lava over a period of millions of years. Several of the volcanoes were close enough to each other that lava flows on their flanks overlapped one another, merging into a single island. Maui is such a "volcanic doublet," formed from two shield volcanoes that overlapped one another to form an isthmus between them; the older, western volcano has been eroded and is cut by numerous drainages, forming the peaks of the West Maui Mountains. Puʻu Kukui is the highest of the peaks at 5,788 feet; the larger, younger volcano to the east, Haleakalā, rises to more than 10,000 feet above sea level, measures 5 miles from seafloor to summit. The eastern flanks of both volcanoes are cut by incised valleys and steep-sided ravines that run downslope to the rocky, windswept shoreline.
The valley-like Isthmus of Maui that separates the two volcanic masses was formed by sandy erosional deposits. Maui's last eruption occurred around 1790. Although considered to be dormant by volcanologists, Haleakalā is capable of further eruptions. Maui is part of a much larger unit, Maui Nui, that includes the islands of Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi, the now submerged Penguin Bank. During periods of reduced sea level, including as as 20,000 years ago, they are joined together as a single island due to the shallowness of the channels between them; the climate of the Hawaiian Islands is characterized by a two-season year and uniform temperatures everywhere, marked geographic differences in rainfall, high relative humidity, extensive cloud formations, dominant trade-wind flow. Maui itself has a wide range of climatic conditions and weather patterns that are influenced by several different factors in the physical environment: Half of Maui is situated within 5 miles of the island's coastline. This, the extreme insularity of the Hawaiian Islands account for the strong marine influence on Maui's climate.
Gross weather patterns are determined by elevation and orientation towards the Trade winds. Maui's rugged, irregular topography produces marked variations in conditions. Air swept inland on the Trade winds is shunted one way or another by the mountains and vast open slopes; this complex three-dimensional flow of air results in striking variations in wind speed, cloud formation, rainfall. Maui displays a unique and diverse set of climatic conditions, each of, specific to a loosely defined sub-region of the island; these sub-regions are defined by major physiographic features and by location on the windward or leeward side of the island. Windward lowlands – Below 2,000 feet on north-to-northeast sides of an island. Perpendicular to direction of prevailing trade winds. Moderately rainy. Skies are cloudy to cloudy. Air temperatures are more uniform than those of other regions. Leeward lowlands – Daytime temperatures are a little higher and nighttime temperatures are lower than in windward locations. Dry weather is prevalent, with the exception of sporadic showers that drift over the mountains to windward and during short-duration storms.
Interior lowlands – Intermediate conditions sharing characteristics of other lowland sub-regions. Experience intense local afternoon showers from well-developed clouds that formed due to local daytime heating. Leeward side high-altitude mountain slopes with high rainfall – Extensive cloud cover and rainfall all year long. Mild temperatures are prevalent. Leeward side lower mountain slopes – Rainfall is higher than on the adjacent leeward lowlands, but much less than at similar altitudes on the windward side.
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Seal of Hawaii
The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii was designated by Act 272 of the 1959 Territorial Legislature and is based on the territorial seal. Modifications to the territorial seal included the use of the words "State of Hawaii" at the top and "1959" within the circle. Provisions for a seal for the state of Hawaii were enacted by the Territorial Legislature and approved by Governor William F. Quinn on June 8, 1959; the passage of the Admission Act in 1959, admitted Hawaii as the 50th State of the United States of America on August 21, 1959. The seal of the Territory of Hawaii was the same as the seal of the republic, except that it had "Territory of Hawaii" placed at the top and "1900" within the circle; the 1901 Territorial Legislature authorized the modified republic seal as the Seal of the Territory of Hawaii. The seal of the Republic of Hawaii had the words "Republic of Hawaii" at the top and "MDCCCXCIV" within the circle; the year 1894 signified the date. The republic seal was designed by Viggo Jacobsen, a Honolulu resident, itself was derived from the Kingdom of Hawaii coat of arms used during the reign of King Kamehameha III, King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani, designed by the College of Arms in London in 1842 and adopted in 1845.
The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii is circular in shape and three-quarters inches in diameter, of the design being described, with the tinctures added as the basis for the coat of arms. The Hawaii state seal represents Hawaii's nation. In the center of the seal is a heraldic shield, quartered; the first and fourth quarters display the white and blue stripes of Ka Hae Hawaiʻi or the flag of Hawaiʻi. The second and third quarters are on a yellow field with a white Puloʻuloʻu, or kapu sticks with tapa-covered balls on the end. In the center of the heraldic shield is a green escutcheon with a five-pointed yellow star in the center. On the left side is Kamehameha I, standing in the attitude as represented by the bronze statue in front of Ali'iolani Hale, Honolulu, his cloak and helmet are in yellow. Kamehameha I's figure is in proper. Kamehameha I unified the Hawaiian Islands into a single united kingdom. On the right side is goddess Liberty wearing a Phrygian cap and laurel wreath, she is holding Ka Hae Hawaiʻi in her right hand, unfurled.
A rising sun irradiated in gold surrounded by the legend "State of Hawaii, 1959" on a scroll in black lettering. The state motto: Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono is on the scroll on the seal's bottom in gold lettering. Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono is translated into English as "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness." The motto was adopted by the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1843 and was used in an address by King Kamehameha III at ceremonies following the return of his kingdom from the British. British captain Lord George Paulet of HMS Carysfort demanded that Hawaiʻi was ceded to Great Britain in response to claims of political abuses against British residents made by British Consul Richard Charlton. After Kamehameha III notified London of the captain's actions, Admiral Richard Darton Thomas returned sovereignty back to the King; the motto is featured in Israel Kamakawiwo'ole's song "Hawaii'78" and is used on the Hawaii state quarter. Below the heraldic shield, the bird phoenix has it wings outstretched arising from flames.
The phoenix's body is half dark red. Below the heraldic shield are eight taro leaves having on either side banana foliage and sprays of maidenhair fern trailed upwardly. 1959 represents the year of admission into the Union as a state. The rising sun replaced the royal crown from the original coat of arms; this represents the birth of a new state. King Kamehameha the Great and the Goddess of Liberty holding the Hawaiian flag replace the two warriors on the royal coat of arms; this may represent the new government leader. The quartered design of the heraldic shield is retained from the original coat of arms; the eight stripes in two of the quarters of the shield represent the eight main islands. The Puloʻuloʻu, or tabu ball and stick, in the second and third quarters was carried before the king and placed before the door of his home, signifying his authority and power. In the seal it is a symbol of the power of the government; the star in the middle of the shield signifies. The phoenix, symbol of death and resurrection, symbolizes the change from an absolute monarchy to a free, democratic form of government.
The eight taro leaves, flanked by banana foliage and maidenhair fern are typical Hawaiian flora and represent the eight main islands. Taro has great spiritual significance. Taro is still cultivated and is the ingredient of the popular dish called poi; the state motto, "Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono", "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness," is retained from the royal coat of arms. List of Hawaii state symbols Flag of Hawaii Flower of Hawaii The Great Seal of the State of Hawai'i
1895 Wilcox rebellion
The 1895 Wilcox rebellion was a brief war from January 6 to January 9, 1895, that consisted of three battles on the island of Oʻahu, Republic of Hawaii. It was the last major military operation by royalists who opposed the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii; because of its brevity and lack of casualties, this conflict is forgotten. The war has been called the second Wilcox rebellion of 1895, the revolution of 1895, the Hawaiian counter-revolution of 1895, the 1895 uprising in Hawaii, the Hawaiian civil war, the 1895 uprising against the provisional government, or the uprising of 1895. Following the 1887 Hawaiian Constitution and the 1893 coup d'état, a temporary government was formed by the Committee of Safety until an assumed annexation by the United States, they were successful with President Benjamin Harrison in negotiating an annexation treaty. The new President, Grover Cleveland, opposed the idea of annexation, being an anti-imperialist himself, withdrew the annexation treaty upon taking office.
After commissioning the secret Blount Report, he stated that the U. S. had inappropriately called for the reinstatement of Queen Liliʻuokalani. The matter was referred by Cleveland to Congress after Sanford Dole refused Cleveland's demands, the U. S. Senate held a further investigation, culminating in the Morgan Report, which rejected that there had been any U. S. involvement in the overthrow. The Provisional Government feared that President Cleveland might continue to support the queen by restoring the monarchy; the Provisional Government realized there would be no annexation until Cleveland's term of office ended. Therefore, the Provisional Government called to order a Constitutional Convention on May 30, 1894; the Constitutional Convention drafted a constitution for a Republic of Hawaii. The Republic of Hawaii was proclaimed on 4 July 1894 at Aliiolani Hale; the Republic was a single-party oligarchy that deprived the native people of political participation. In 1895, Robert Wilcox was brought into a plot to overthrow the Republic of Hawaiʻi and return Queen Liliʻuokalani to the throne.
Among the plotters was Sam Nowlein, former Head of the Royal Guards of Hawaii. These men planned to attack government buildings in downtown Honolulu at night, they had recruited a number of poor Hawaiians, most of them day laborers from the outskirts of Honolulu, but failed to fill their quota of 700 recruits. In addition the recruits lacked weapons and discipline, were pitted against the formidable forces of the Provisional Government, which had spent the royal treasury and secured loans to arm itself against such an attack; the rebels had purportedly smuggled arms to Liliʻuokalani to resupply them once the palace was secured. A shipment of guns and ammunition from California had been smuggled on board the Schooner Wahlber to be put aboard the Steamer Waimanalo near Rabbit Island and shipped to a secret Honolulu location. Rumors were circulating on January 6, 1895, that armaments were being landed on Waikīkī beach, Oʻahu. A squad of six policemen led by Captain Parker, a veteran of the 1889 rebellion who commanded the 30 Royal Guards in the Palace, had been sent to Harry Bertleman’s house near Diamond Head to search for the weapons.
They did not know. As Deputy Marshal Brown read the warrant to Bertleman, the squad was fired upon by three Royalists returning from the beach, that took shelter in Bertleman’s canoe house; the police advanced toward the canoe house until the Royalists were driven off, but not before Charles L. Carter, an armed civilian accompanying the police, was shot three times in the chest. Bertleman shot and wounded police lieutenant Holi as the policemen returned to the house; the policemen subdued Bertleman and another rebel, John Lane, in the first clash and took shelter in Bertleman’s house. 70 royalists in the surrounding area joined the battle attacking the house. They were commanded by Colonel Robert Wilcox and Lieutenant Lot Lane, an intimidating six foot Irish-Hawaiian; the Royalists surrounded the house but three men escaped: Captain Parker, Deputy Marshal Brown, Alfred Wellington Carter. The police officers mounted their horses and sent word of the uprising, while Alfred Carter searched for a doctor.
A detachment of the National Guard of Hawaii, Company E commanded by Lt. King, drove back the Royalists towards Diamond Head by 9:00, allowing Alfred Carter to bring doctors Walter and Doyle to his cousin; the battle continued into the night. The Royalists managed to repel the soldiers from their fallback position. By dawn of January 7, the government forces withdrew to Sans Souci Beach in Waikiki near Sans Souci Hotel run by Royalist George Lycurgus at Kapiolani Park west of Diamond Head and awaited reinforcements, ending the battle. C. L. Carter, nephew of supreme court justice Albert Francis Judd and son of former Kingdom diplomat Henry A. P. Carter, died from his wounds that day. Two other police officers were wounded and sent to a hospital. Bertleman and Lane were sent to the police station. Although the royalists had triumphed in the first battle of the war, they had lost the element of surprise. Consequentl
Keahikuni Kekauʻōnohi was a Hawaiian high chiefess, a member of the House of Kamehameha. She was granddaughter to King Kamehameha I and one of the wives of Kamehameha II, her Christian name is disputed. She was born circa 1805 at Maui, her father was Kahōʻanokū Kīnaʻu. Her mother was Kahakuhaʻakoi Wahinepio, sister of Boki and Kalanimoku and granddaughter of Aliʻi Nui, Kekaulike of Maui, her father was a son of Kamehameha I and his wife Peleuli, daughter of Kamanawa, one of the royal twins. She married her uncle Kamehameha II, she was one of his five wives. Others were Kamāmalu, Pauahi, Kīnaʻu, Kekāuluohi, she was the youngest. She was at the famous meal. After Liholiho's death in London, she went to Kauaʻi to live with her half-brother Kahalaiʻa Luanuʻu, who served as governor of Kauaʻi from 1824 to 1825. Kekauʻōnohi served as a governor of the island of Kauaʻi some time around 1840–1845 and was a stanch Protestant. Kamehameha III created the House of Nobles in the Hawaiian Constitution of 1840, she was among the first members along with the King, Hoapiliwahine, Pākī, Kōnia, Kuakini, Leleiohoku I, Kealiʻiahonui, Kanaʻina, Keoni ʻĪʻī, Keoni Ana, Haʻalilio.
After the death of Kuhina Nui, Kaʻahumanu in 1832, she remarried Kealiʻiahonui, former aliʻi of Kauaʻi and the son of Al'iʻI Nui, Kaumualiʻi of Kauaʻi. They had no children. After his death in 1849 she remarried Levi Haʻalelea, a relative of Queen Kalama and had a son named William Pitt Kīnaʻu, who died young. After the Great Mahele in 1848, Kekauʻōnohi was given the second largest land allotments, seventy-seven ʻāina, making her the largest landholder after the King, she inherited most of the land of her uncle William Pitt Kalanimoku along with land given to her by her other relatives: Kamehameha III, Kaukuna Kahekili, Koahou, her aunt Maheha, her mother Kahakuhaʻakoi Wahinepio and Hao. She died in Honolulu June 2, 1851 age 46. Stephen Reynolds in his Journal noted at her death that she was "the last of the old stock of chiefs – one of the best of them – good natured, benevolent and generous." She left her land to her husband Haʻalelea. She was foster mother of Mary Ann Kiliwehi and Anna Kaiʻulani.
When the Admiral Henry Byam Martin, aboard HMS Grampus, visited the islands in 1846, he described the Princess Kikuanoki: The arrival of Kikuanoki — granddaughter of Kamehameha 1st and 1st cousin of the present King — was a treat. She sailed into the room with all the pomp and majesty of Q. Elizabeth, her dress — evidently got up for the occasion — was a transparent muslin shirt — through which those parts of her person which in most countries are covered were visible. A green crape shawl — and a band of red & yellow round her head completed her costume. Bingham, Hiram. A Residence of Twenty-one Years in the Sandwich Islands. Canandaigua, NY: H. D. Goodwin. Biographical Sketch of His Majesty King Kalakaua. Honolulu Almanac and Directory. Honolulu: P. C. Advertiser Steam Printing Office. 1884. Pp. 72–74. OCLC 12787107. Forbes, David W. ed.. Hawaiian National Bibliography, 1780-1900. 3. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 11, 390. ISBN 0-8248-2503-9. Freycinet, Louis de. Kelly, Marion, ed. Hawaií in 1819: A Narrative Account.
Honolulu: Department of Anthropology, Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Hawaii Supreme Court. "L Keelikolani v. James Robinson". Reports of a Portion of the Decisions Rendered by the Supreme Court of the Hawaiian Islands in Law, Equity and Probate. 2. Pp. 514–552. Hill, Samuel S.. Travels in the Sandwich and Society Islands. London: Chapman & Hall. Pp. 207–208. Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1162-4. Kamakau, Samuel. Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press. ISBN 0-87336-014-1. Kameʻeleihiwa, Lilikalā. Native Land and Foreign Desires. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. ISBN 0-930897-59-5. Liliuokalani. Hawaii's Story by Liliuokalani. Boston: Lee and Shepard. ISBN 978-0-548-22265-2. Lydecker, Robert Colfax, ed.. Roster Legislatures of Hawaii, 1841-1918. Honolulu: Hawaiian Gazette Company. Martin, Henry Byam; the Polynesian Journal of Captain Henry Byam Martin, R. N. Canberra: Australian National University Press. ISBN 0708116094. Pratt, Elizabeth Kekaaniauokalani Kalaninuiohilaukapu.
Daniel Logan, ed. History of Keoua Kalanikupuapa-i-nui: Father of Hawaii Kings, His Descendants. Honolulu: republished by Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-104-76661-0. Reynolds, Stephen. Joerger, Pauline King, ed. Journal of Stephen Reynolds: 1823–1829. Honolulu: Ku Paʻa Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-914916-80-2. OCLC 20465590. Stewart, Charles Samuel. Ellis, William, ed. A Residence in the Sandwich Islands. Boston: Weeks, Jordan & Company
Kona District, Hawaii
Kona is a moku or district on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi in the State of Hawaii. In the current system of administration of Hawaiʻi County, the moku of Kona is divided into North Kona District and South Kona District; the term "Kona" is sometimes used inaccurately to refer to Kailua-Kona. Other towns in Kona include Kealakekua, Holualoa, Hōnaunau and Honalo. In the Hawaiian language, kona means leeward or dry side of the island, as opposed to ko‘olau which means windward or the wet side of the island. In the times of Ancient Hawaiʻi, Kona was the name of the leeward district on each major island. In Hawai‘i, the Pacific anticyclone provides moist prevailing northeasterly winds to the Hawaiian islands, resulting in rain when the winds contact the windward landmass of the islands – the winds subsequently lose their moisture and travel on to the leeward side of the island; when this pattern reverses, it can produce a Kona storm from the west. Kona has cognates with the same meaning in other Polynesian languages.
In Tongan, the equivalent cognate would be tonga. Kona is the home of the world-famous Ironman World Championship Triathlon, held each year in October in Kailua-Kona; the Kealakekua Bay State Historical Park marks the place where Captain James Cook was killed in 1779. Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park and Honokohau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park are in Kona; the volcanic slopes of Hualālai and Mauna Loa in the Kona district provide an ideal microclimate for growing coffee. Kona coffee is considered one of the premium specialty coffees of the world. In pop culture, the region served as the basis of the Beach Boys' song "Kona Coast" from their 1978 album M. I. U. Album. Kona is the home of one of the main bases of the international Christian mission organization YWAM, the University of the Nations, first founded here. Juvik, Sonia P. 1998, Atlas of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2125-8 Kona Historical Society, 1997, A Guide to Old Kona, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2010-7 Kona Historical Society web site Kona Kohala Chamber of Commerce web site North Kona shoreline access map at Hawaiʻi County web site South Kona shoreline access map at Hawaiʻi County web site